官方APP下载:英语全能特训(微信小程序版,支持苹果手机、安卓手机)

创办于2003年
UNSV记不住?那就记中文谐音“忧安思危”吧!
  Slow and Steady Wins the Race!
UNSV英语学习频道 - Slow and steady wins the race!
公众微信服务号
英语全能特训(微信公众服务号)
UNSV英语学习频道淘宝网店
客服短信:18913948480
客服邮箱:web@unsv.com
初级VIP会员
全站英语学习资料下载。
¥98元/12个月
您的位置:首页 > 英语学习论坛

【2008.01.01】科学新闻-想象一下,曾经有一个时候人们并不需要度量时间

楼主:zhuxing 日期: 回贴:2 浏览:

SCIENCE IN THE NEWS - Imagine, There Was a Time When People Had No Need to Measure Time

科学新闻-想象一下,曾经有一个时候人们并不需要度量时间

By Marilyn Christiano / Broadcast date: Tuesday, January 01, 2008

Marilyn Christiano 撰写/广播日期:2008.1.1,星期二

Source: http://www.unsv.com/voanews/specialenglish/

来源:http://www.unsv.com/voanews/specialenglish/

This is SCIENCE IN THE NEWS in VOA Special English. I'm Steve Ember. This week our program is about a mystery as old as time. Bob Doughty and Sarah Long tell about the mystery of time.

这里是美国之音特别英语的科学新闻。我是Steve Ember。本周我们的节目是关于一个像时间一样古老的谜。Bob Doughty 和Sarah Long 将讲述时间的奥秘。

(MUSIC)

(音乐)

VOICE ONE:

声音1:

If you can read a clock, you can know the time of day. But no one knows what time itself is. We cannot see it. We cannot touch it. We cannot hear it. We know it only by the way we mark its passing.

如果你会看钟,那么你可以知道一天的时间。但是没有人知道时间本身是什么。我们看不见它,摸不着它,听不见它。我们只能通过记录它的流逝来了解它。

For all our success in measuring the smallest parts of time, time remains one of the great mysteries of the universe.

虽然我们在测量极小极短的时间上取得了胜利,但是时间仍然是宇宙中一个最神秘的东西。

VOICE TWO:

声音2:

One way to think about time is to imagine a world without time. There could be no movement, because time and movement cannot be separated.

一个思考时间的方式是想象一个没有时间的世界。那将没有运动,因为时间和运动不可分离。

A world without time could exist only as long as there were no changes. For time and change are linked. We know that time has passed when something changes.

一个没有时间的世界只有当那里没有变化的时候才可以存在。因为时间和变化是联系在一起的。我们知道,当一些东西发生变化的时候,时间就流逝了。

VOICE ONE:

声音1:

In the real world -- the world with time -- changes never stop. Some changes happen only once in a while, like an eclipse of the moon. Others happen repeatedly, like the rising and setting of the sun. Humans always have noted natural events that repeat themselves. When people began to count such events, they began to measure time.

在现实的世界——一个有时间的世界——变化从未停止。一些变化只有某个时候才会发生,比如月食。其它的变化则在重复发生,比如日出日落。人类总是在记录自然事件的重复。当人们对这些事件开始计数时,他们就开始测量时间了。

In early human history, the only changes that seemed to repeat themselves evenly were the movements of objects in the sky. The most easily seen result of these movements was the difference between light and darkness.

在人类的早期历史中,似乎稳定重复发生的变化只有天体的运动。这些运动最明显的结果就是白天和黑夜的区别。

The sun rises in the eastern sky, producing light. It moves across the sky and sinks in the west, causing darkness.
The appearance and disappearance of the sun was even and unfailing. The periods of light and darkness it created were the first accepted periods of time. We have named each period of light and darkness -- one day.

太阳从东方的天空升起,带来光明。它划过天空从西边落下,导致黑暗。太阳的出现和消失是稳定和永恒的。光明和黑暗的周期是第一个能够被接受的时间周期。我们把每一次光明和黑暗称作一天。

VOICE TWO:

声音2:

People saw the sun rise higher in the sky during the summer than in winter. They counted the days that passed from the sun's highest position until it returned to that position. They counted three hundred sixty-five days. We now know that is the time Earth takes to move once around the sun. We call this period of time a year.

人们在夏天看见太阳比冬天时更高。人们数了太阳从离开最高的位置到重新回到那个位置的天数。他们数得365天。我们现在知道那是地球绕太阳一周的时间。我们称这一段时间为一年。

VOICE ONE:

声音1:

Early humans also noted changes in the moon. As it moved across the night sky, they must have wondered. Why did it look different every night? Why did it disappear? Where did it go?

早期人们也记录了月亮的变化。当月亮划过夜空,他们肯定很好奇。为什么它每天看起来都不一样?它为什么会消失?它到哪儿去了?

Even before they learned the answers to these questions, they developed a way to use the changing faces of the moon to tell time.

甚至在他们得出这些答案之前,他们就开始了利用月相的变化来得到时间。

The moon was "full" when its face was bright and round. The early humans counted the number of times the sun appeared between full moons. They learned that this number always remained the same -- about twenty-nine suns. Twenty-nine suns equaled one moon. We now know this period of time as one month.

当月亮的面又亮又圆的时候是满月。早期的人类数了在满月之间日出的次数。他们了解到该数字总是保持不变——大概29次。29次日出等于1次满月。我们现在知道这样的一段时间是一月。

(MUSIC)

(音乐)

VOICE TWO:

声音2:

Early humans hunted animals and gathered wild plants. They moved in groups or tribes from place to place in search of food. Then, people learned to plant seeds and grow crops. They learned to use animals to help them work, and for food.

早期的人类捕猎动物,采集野生植物。他们为了寻找食物而以集体或种族的形式从一个地方搬到另一个地方。然后他们学习播种和耕作,学习利用动物来帮助他们工作,或者把它们当作食物。

They found they no longer needed to move from one place to another to survive.

他们发现他们不再需要为了生存而从一个地方搬到另一个地方。

As hunters, people did not need a way to measure time. As farmers, however, they had to plant crops in time to harvest them before winter. They had to know when the seasons would change. So, they developed calendars.

作为狩猎者,人们不需要计量时间的方法。不过,作为耕作者,他们只能在合适的时间种植作物以便在冬天之前收获。他们必须知道什么时候季节变化。因此,他们发明了日历。

No one knows when the first calendar was developed. But it seems possible that it was based on moons, or lunar months.

没有人知道第一份日历是什么时候被发明出来的。但似乎它是以阴历的月为基础。

When people started farming, the wise men of the tribes became very important. They studied the sky. They gathered enough information so they could know when the seasons would change. They announced when it was time to plant crops.

当人们开始农作,种族中的聪明者变得很重要。他们研究天空。他们收集足够的信息这样他们可以知道什么时候季节会变换。他们宣布该什么时候种植作物。

(MUSIC)

(音乐)

VOICE ONE:

声音1:

The divisions of time we use today were developed in ancient Babylonia four thousand years ago. Babylonian astronomers believed the sun moved around the Earth every three hundred sixty-five days. They divided the trip into twelve equal parts, or months. Each month was thirty days. Then, they divided each day into twenty-four equal parts, or hours. They divided each hour into sixty minutes, and each minute into sixty seconds.

我们今天使用的时间划分方式是由四千年前古巴比伦时期发展而来。古巴比伦的的天文学家认为太阳每365天绕地球一周。他们将整个过程等分为12分,每份是一月。每月30天。然后,他们将每天等分为24份,每份是一小时。又将每小时分为60分,每分分为60秒。

VOICE TWO:

声音2:

Humans have used many devices to measure time. The sundial was one of the earliest and simplest.

人类使用了很多的装置去计量时间。日晷是其中最早和最简单的。

A sundial measures the movement of the sun across the sky each day. It has a stick or other object that rises above a flat surface. The stick, blocking sunlight, creates a shadow. As the sun moves, so does the shadow of the stick across the flat surface. Marks on the surface show the passing of hours, and perhaps, minutes.

日晷测量每天太阳跨过天空的运动。在一个平面上有一根棒或其它物体。棒挡住了日光形成影子。随着太阳的移动,棒的影子也在平面上移动。平面上的刻度显示过去了多少小时,也可能是多少分钟。

The sundial works well only when the sun is shining. So, other ways were invented to measure the passing of time.

日晷只能在天气晴好的时候使用。因此,其他测量时间的方式被发明出来。

VOICE ONE:

声音1:

One device is the hourglass. It uses a thin stream of falling sand to measure time. The hourglass is shaped like the number eight --- wide at the top and bottom, but very thin in the middle. In a true "hour" glass, it takes exactly one hour for all the sand to drop from the top to the bottom through a very small opening in the middle. When the hourglass is turned with the upside down, it begins to mark the passing of another hour.

一种装置是沙漏。它使用一小股落下的沙子来计算时间。沙漏性状像数字8——顶部和底部宽,但是中间特别窄。在真正的沙漏中,所有的沙通过中间极小的开口从顶部落到底部消耗刚好一小时。当沙漏被翻转过来,它就开始记录另外一个小时了。

By the eighteenth century, people had developed mechanical clocks and watches. And today, many of our clocks and watches are electronic.

人们在18世纪发明了机械钟表。今天许多我们的钟表都是电子的了。

VOICE TWO:

声音2:

So, we have devices to mark the passing of time. But what time is it now? Clocks in different parts of the world do not show the same time at the same time. This is because time on Earth is set by the sun's position in the sky above.

所以,我们有许多装置来记录时间。但是现在是什么时间?在世界不同的地方钟表在同一时间的显示并不相同。这是因为地球上的时间是由上方太阳的位置来决定的。

We all have a twelve o'clock noon each day. Noon is the time the sun is highest in the sky. But when it is twelve o'clock noon where I am, it may be ten o'clock at night where you are.

我们每天都有12点的中午。中午是太阳在天空中最高的时间。但是在我的地方是12点的中午,可能在你的地方就是晚上10点。

VOICE ONE:

声音1:

As international communications and travel increased, it became clear that it would be necessary to establish a common time for all parts of the world.

随着国际间交流和旅游的增加,很明显需要给全世界各地建立一种通用的时间。

In eighteen eighty-four, an international conference divided the world into twenty-four time areas, or zones. Each zone represents one hour. The astronomical observatory in Greenwich, England, was chosen as the starting point for the time zones. Twelve zones are west of Greenwich. Twelve are east.

在1884年,一次国际会议将世界划分为24个时区。每个时区代表一小时。英格兰的格林尼治天文台被选为时区的起始点。在格林尼治的西边有12个时区,东边有12个。

The time at Greenwich -- as measured by the sun -- is called Universal Time. For many years it was called Greenwich Mean Time.

格林尼治时间——用太阳测量——称作国际时间。很多年这被叫做格林尼治平均时。

VOICE TWO:

声音2:

Some scientists say time is governed by the movement of matter in our universe. They say time flows forward because the universe is expanding. Some say it will stop expanding some day and will begin to move in the opposite direction, to grow smaller. Some believe time will also begin to flow in the opposite direction -- from the future to the past. Can time move backward?

一些科学家说是由我们宇宙中的物体运动来决定的。他们说时间向前流动因为宇宙在膨胀。有的说有一天它会停止膨胀并向相反的方向运动,变小。有的相信时间同样会开始向相反的方向流动——从未来到过去。时间可以倒流吗?

Most people have no trouble agreeing that time moves forward. We see people born and then grow old. We remember the past, but we do not know the future. We know a film is moving forward if it shows a glass falling off a table and breaking into many pieces. If the film were moving backward, the pieces would re-join to form a glass and jump back up onto the table. No one has ever seen this happen. Except in a film.

大多数人承认时间向前流动都没有问题。我们看着人出生和变老。我们记得过去,但是我们不知道未来。如果一个杯子掉下桌子并摔成很多碎片,我们知道一部电影在向前运动。如果一部电影倒回去,碎片会重新组成杯子并跳上桌子。没有人看见这样的事情发生,除了在电影里面。

VOICE ONE:

声音1:

Some scientists believe there is one reason why time only moves forward. It is a well-known scientific law -- the
second law of thermodynamics. That law says disorder increases with time. In fact, there are more conditions of disorder than of order.

一些科学家认为对于为什么时间只能向前运动有一个原因。这就是公认的科学定律——热力学第二定律。定律指明,随着时间进行无序只能增加。事实上,无序的情况比有序更多。

For example, there are many ways a glass can break into pieces. That is disorder. But there is only one way the broken pieces can be organized to make a glass. That is order. If time moved backward, the broken pieces could come together in a great many ways. Only one of these many ways, however, would re-form the glass. It is almost impossible to believe this would happen.

比方说,杯子摔成碎片有很多方式。那就是无序。但是碎片要重新被组装成一个杯子却只有一种方式。这就是有序。如果时间倒流,碎片组合在一起便会有很多方式。不过这些方式中,只有一种可以重新形成杯子。但我们几乎不可能相信这会发生。

VOICE TWO:

声音2:

Not all scientists believe time is governed by the second law of thermodynamics. They do not agree that time must always move forward. The debate will continue about the nature of time. And time will remain a mystery.

不是所有的科学家都相信时间是由热力学第二定律决定的。他们不同意时间必须总是向前运动。关于时间本质的争论还将继续。时间仍然是个谜。

(MUSIC)

(音乐)

Our program was written by Marilyn Christiano and read by Sarah Long and Bob Doughty. I'm Steve Ember. Listen again next week for Science in the News, in VOA Special English.

我们的节目是由Marilyn Christiano撰写,由Sarah Long 和Bob Doughty 准备。我是Steve Ember。 下周在美国之音特别英语的科学新闻中再次收听。

插图:

A sundial at the state Capitol in Olympia, Washington, on a rare winter day when the skies were clear enough for it to work

华盛顿奥林匹亚州议会大厦前的日晷,在一个少有的天空足够晴朗的冬日它在工作

Zhu Xing,

College of Life Sciences,

Beijing Normal University,

Beijing,

China 100875
分享到:
1楼 作者:Elizer 创建: <编辑>  <引用>
译得好极了! 前面那一段是2003年二笔实务试题。 他们为了寻找食物而以集体或种族的形式从一个地方搬到另一个地方......这句后漏译两句
2楼 作者:zhuxing@mail.bnu.edu.cn 创建: <编辑>  <引用>
您过奖了呵呵,自己什么水平自己还是清楚的,很多地方不专业不过关,翻译比较随意,不过我会不断学习和提高的,使每一篇都能够让自己满意,让大家满意。 谢谢你的提醒,漏掉的地方已补全。 期待大家的意见和建议,毕竟我只是一个业余的爱好者而已呵呵
版权所有©2003-2019 南京通享科技有限公司,保留所有权利。未经书面许可,严禁转载本站内容,违者追究法律责任。 互联网经营ICP证:苏B2-20120186
网站备案:苏ICP备05000269号-1中国工业和信息化部网站备案查询
广播台