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【2008.01.08】科学新闻-当流感季节来临:你需要知道的关于流感的所有东西

楼主:zhuxing 日期: 回贴:2 浏览:

SCIENCE IN THE NEWS - When Flu Season Hits: Everything You Need to Know About Influenza

科学新闻-当流感季节来临:你需要知道的关于流感的所有东西

By Nancy Steinbach / Broadcast date: Tuesday, January 08, 2008

Nancy Steinbach 撰写 / 广播日期:2008.01.08,星期二

Source: http://www.unsv.com/voanews/specialenglish/

来源:http://www.unsv.com/voanews/specialenglish/

VOICE ONE:

声音1:

This is SCIENCE IN THE NEWS in VOA Special English. I'm Bob Doughty.

这里是美国之音特别英语的科学新闻。我是Bob Doughty 。

VOICE TWO:

声音2:

And I'm Faith Lapidus. This week, our subject is influenza, commonly called the flu. Winter officially arrived in northern areas of the world last month. Medical experts have another name for the start of winter -- the flu season.

我是Faith Lapidus 。本周我们的主题是一般叫做的流感的流行性感冒。上个月冬季在世界的北部地区正式到来。医学专家给冬季的开始取了另外一个名字——流感季节。

(MUSIC)

(音乐)

VOICE ONE:

声音1:

Influenza is a common infection of the nose and throat, and sometimes the lungs. The cause is a virus that passes from one person to another. The virus spreads through the air when an infected person expels air suddenly.

流行性感冒是鼻,喉的常见传染病,有时也传染肺。病因是一种从人传染给人的病毒。当感染者急促地排出气体时病毒通过空气传播。

Influenza develops after the virus enters a person's nose or mouth. The flu causes muscle pain, sudden high body temperature, breathing problems and weakness. Generally, most people feel better after a week or two. But the flu can kill. It is especially dangerous to the very young, the very old and those with weakened defenses against disease.

在病毒进入一个人的鼻或口之后流感发作。流感导致肌肉疼痛,体温突然升高,呼吸困难和身体虚弱。一般来说,大多数人都会在一到两周后好转。但是流感也可能致死。这对于那些婴幼儿、老年人以及疾病抵抗力下降的人来说尤其危险。

The World Health Organization says the influenza virus infects up to five million people around the world each year. Between two hundred fifty thousand and five hundred thousand people die every year from influenza.

世界卫生组织称,在全世界范围内每年有多达500万人感染流感病毒。有25万到50万人因此死亡。

(MUSIC)

(音乐)

VOICE TWO:

声音2:

Medical experts have recognized for some time that people become infected with influenza during the winter months. But they did not really know why until recently.

医学专家认识到人们是在冬季的月份里染上流感已经有一段时间了。但直到最近他们也不知道为什么。

American researchers say they now know why the influenza virus spreads in the winter and not in the summer. They say it is because the virus remains in the air longer when the air is cold and dry.

美国研究者称他们现在知道为什么流感病毒在冬天而不在夏天传播。他们说这是因为病毒在冷而干燥的空气中能够停留更长时间。

Researchers in New York carried out twenty experiments with guinea pigs to investigate how the virus spreads. First, they confirmed that the guinea pigs could develop the flu and pass it on to others. The researchers then placed the animals in areas where the virus was present in the air. Then they changed the temperature and humidity levels of their environments. Humidity is the amount of wetness in the air.

为了探索病毒是怎样传播的,纽约的研究者用豚鼠做了20个实验。首先他们确认豚鼠可以患上流感并传染给其它个
体。然后研究者将动物放置在有病毒的空气中。他们改变动物所处环境的温度和湿度。湿度就是空气中水分的含量。

VOICE ONE:

声音1:

The researchers found the virus spread the most when the temperature was about five degrees Celsius and the humidity was twenty percent. Few of the guinea pigs developed influenza as the temperature increased. The virus stopped spreading completely at thirty degrees Celsius and eighty percent humidity. The researchers also found
that the animals spread the virus among themselves nearly two days longer when the temperature was low.

研究者发现,当温度大概5℃湿度20%时病毒传播的最厉害。随着温度的升高很少有豚鼠得流感。病毒在温度30℃湿度80%时停止传播。研究者还发现,当温度低的时候,动物在群体中传播病毒的时间要长将近2天。

Results of the study were reported in PLoS Pathogens, a publication of the Public Library of Science.

研究的结果报道在科学公共图书馆的《PLoS病原》杂志上。

VOICE TWO:

声音2:

One of the researchers said the study shows that influenza virus is more likely to infect people during an outdoor walk on a cold day than in a warm room. He said cold air helps the virus survive in the air and low humidity helps it stay there longer. That is because particles of the virus ride on the extremely small drops of water floating in the air. When the air is very humid, water droplets fall to the ground more quickly.

一个研究者说,这项研究显示大冷天室外步行比呆在温暖的房间中更易感染流感病毒。他说冷空气有助病毒的存活,低的湿度帮助病毒停留更久。那是因为病毒颗粒停泊在空气中悬浮的极小的水滴上。当空气非常潮湿的时候,水滴会更快的落向地面。

The researchers say, however, that people should not stay in warm places all the time in cold weather to avoid the flu. They say the best way to prevent the sickness is to get yearly injections of a vaccine that prevents influenza.

研究者说,不过人们也不能为了避免流感而在天气寒冷的时候老呆在暖和的地方。他们说,预防该病的最好方式是每年打一针预防流感的疫苗。

VOICE ONE:

声音1:

Medical experts have identified three major kinds of influenza. They call them type A, B and C. Type C is the least serious. People may not even know they have it. But researchers study the other two kinds very closely. Viruses change to survive. This can make it difficult for the body to recognize and fight an infection.

医学专家已经鉴定出三种主要的流感。他们称其为A型,B型和C型。C型的严重程度最低。人们甚至不知道他们被传染。但研究者们非常仔细的研究了其它两种。病毒不断变异以生存。这使得人体很难识别和抵抗感染。

A person who has suffered one kind of flu cannot develop that same kind again. The body's defense system produces antibodies. These substances stay in the blood and destroy the virus if it appears again. But the body may not recognize a flu virus that has even a small change.

一个得过一种流感的人不会再得同一种流感。机体的防御系统产生抗体。这些物质停留在血液中,如果病毒再次出现就摧毁它们。但是在流感病毒即使只有一个很小变异的情况下机体也会不能识别。

Each year, researchers develop vaccines to prevent the spread of the flu virus. The World Health Organization holds meetings in which experts discuss what kinds of flu viruses to include in the next vaccine.

每年,研究者都在研发防止流感病毒传播的疫苗。世界卫生组织召开会议,会上专家们讨论下一种疫苗包括哪些种
类的流感病毒。

(MUSIC)

(音乐)

VOICE TWO:

声音2:

Historical records have described sicknesses believed to be influenza for more than two thousand years. The Roman historian Livy described such a disease attacking the Roman army. People in fifteenth century Italy thought sicknesses were caused by the influence of the stars. So they called it, "influenza."

史料描述了两千多年前认为是流感的疾病。罗马历史学家Livy 描述了这样一种病袭击了罗马军队。十五世纪意大利的人们认为该病是由天体的影响造成,所以他们把这种病称作“大灾难”。(详见末尾的解释1)

In seventeen eighty-one, influenza moved from Europe to North America to the West Indies and Latin America. The flu spread in Asia in eighteen twenty-nine, then again in eighteen thirty-six. It also traveled to Southeast Asia, Russia and the United States.

1781年,流感从欧洲传到了北美洲、西印度群岛和拉丁美洲。流感在亚洲传播是在1829年,在1836年它再次爆发。它也到过东南亚,俄国和美国。

VOICE ONE:

声音1:

In eighteen eighty-nine, the flu began in Central Asia, spread north into Russia, east to China and west to Europe. Later, it affected people in North America and Africa. Experts say two hundred fifty thousand people died in Europe in that flu pandemic. Around the world, the number was at least one million.

在1889年,流感在中亚开始,向北传播到了俄国,东到中国,西到欧洲。后来,它又感染了北美和非洲的人。专家说欧洲在该次流感暴发中死了25万人。全世界至少100万。

The deadliest spread of influenza ever reported involved a flu that first appeared in Spain. The Spanish flu killed between twenty million and fifty million people around the world in nineteen-eighteen and nineteen-nineteen. Even young, healthy people became sick and died in just a few days.

和流感有关的报道中最致命的流感传播首先出现在西班牙。1918和1919年间在全世界范围内来自西班牙的流感杀死了2000万到5000万人。即使年轻健康的人也得了病并在数天后死亡。

VOICE TWO:

声音2:

Periods when diseases spread around the world are called pandemics. The World Health Organization says the next flu pandemic is likely to kill as many as six hundred fifty thousand people in industrial countries. But it says the greatest effect will likely be in developing countries. The W.H.O. notes that health resources in those countries are limited, and people there are weakened by poor health and diet.

疾病在全世界范围内传播时期称为大流行。(详见末尾的解释2)世界卫生组织称下次流感大流行可能在工业国家中杀死多达65万人。但它还说最大的感染可能在发展中国家。世卫组织指出这些国家医疗资源有限,人们又被差的卫生和饮食削弱了健康。

Researchers say the new kind of flu will appear unexpectedly. They will not have enough time to identify it and produce a vaccine. That is why they are developing faster ways to produce vaccines.

研究者说我们不能预期新型流感的出现。他们将没有足够的时间来鉴定新型流感和生产疫苗。这也是为什么他们一直在开发生产疫苗更快的方式。

Eighty years ago, the flu virus took months to spread around the world. Today, airplane travel means a virus can spread to far around the world in just days.

八十年前,流感病毒传播到全世界要数月。今天,飞机旅行意味着一种病毒在数天之内就可以传播到世界各地。

(MUSIC)

(音乐)

VOICE ONE:

声音1:

Last year, the World Health Organization said the world is closer to a pandemic of the influenza virus than at any time since nineteen sixty-eight. The flu virus would spread quickly to large numbers of people in many countries. The pandemic threat is the h-five n-one influenza virus, also known as the bird flu.

去年,世界卫生组织称这个世界比自1968年以来的任何时候都更接近流感病毒大流行。在许多国家流感病毒将迅速传染给很多人。具有大流行威胁的是H5N1流感病毒,也就是禽流感。

Wild and farm birds often have a flu virus. Yet they usually are able to carry the virus without getting sick. In nineteen ninety-seven, six people in Hong Kong died of the h-five n-one virus. The Hong Kong government quickly ordered the killing of all farm birds there. That stopped the spread of h-five n-one to people in Hong Kong.

野生和农场的禽类经常感染流感病毒。不过它们常常可以只携带病毒而不患病。1997年,香港有6人死于H5N1病毒。香港政府很快下令杀死那里所有农场的禽类。那阻止了H5N1病毒传染给香港的人们。

Yet the virus had already spread to other parts of Asia. It was found in sixteen countries between two thousand three and two thousand six.

然而病毒已经传染给了亚洲的其他地方。2003年到2006年之间在16个国家发现了这种病毒。

VOICE TWO:

声音2:

The WHO says the bird flu virus had infected a total of three hundred thirty-eight people by December twelfth. Two hundred eight of them died. Yet fewer people were infected with bird flu or died of it last year than in two thousand six.

世卫组织称截止12月12日禽流感病毒总共感染了338人。其中208人死亡。然而去年与2006年相比更少的人感染禽流感或因此死亡。

These numbers show that the deadly bird flu virus is not spreading among people very easily. But that could change. Researchers are worried about the virus changing so that it could spread from person to person. People would become infected with a virus their bodies have never before experienced. They would have no protection.

这些数字显示,这种致命的禽流感病毒在人群中传播并不容易。但是病毒可以变异。研究者担心病毒通过变异而能够从人传染给人。没有遇到过一种病毒的人将被这种病毒感染。他们没有保护机制。

VOICE ONE:

声音1:

Researchers are attempting to develop a vaccine to protect against bird flu. Still, they know that any vaccine would not be ready until a pandemic had already begun.

研究者努力开发一种保护人们不被禽流感感染的疫苗。不过,他们清楚在大流行开始之前没有任何疫苗可以造好。

Some British researchers say people should be told to wear physical barriers against infectious diseases, like masks on the face or gloves to protect the hands. The researchers examined fifty-one published studies on the effect of simple ways to prevent throat and lung infections. They found that hand-washing, wearing masks and using gloves each stopped the spread of viruses. The researchers also found that such physical barriers were even more effective when used together. They said these simple, low-cost measures could prove to be an easy way to prevent the spread of deadly viruses.

一些英国研究者说应当告知人们在碰到传染病时要进行物理防护,比如戴面罩和保护双手的手套。研究者调查了51项发表过的研究,这些研究是关于防止喉部和肺部感染采取的简单方式的效果。他们发现,洗手、戴面罩、使用手套都能阻止病毒的传播。研究者也发现,将这些物理防护结合使用的时候效果更好。他们说可以证明这些简单、低成本的措施能够防止致命病毒传播,并且容易实施。

(MUSIC)

(音乐)

VOICE TWO:

声音2:

This SCIENCE IN THE NEWS program was written by Nancy Steinbach. Our producer was Brianna Blake. I'm Faith Lapidus.

这里是Nancy Steinbach 撰写的科学新闻节目。制作人是Brianna Blake 。我是Faith Lapidus 。

VOICE ONE:

声音1:

And I'm Bob Doughty. Read and listen to our programs at www.unsv.com. Join us again next week for more news about science in Special English on the Voice of America.

我是Bob Doughty。在www.unsv.com阅读和收听我们的节目。下周在美国之音特别英语的科学新闻将有更多新闻,再次参与我们。

插图:

Emergency hospital during 1918 influenza epidemic, Camp Funston, Kansas

1918年流感流行时的紧急医院,堪萨斯福斯顿军营

解释1:

influenza的词源是意大利语,原字是influencia,衍生自influence的意思。中世纪的人们认为,很多灾难都和星球、天象有关,认为宇宙中的星球可以放出影响到地球的东西。这从当时许多用来表示灾难的词汇或多或少都和星象有关就能看出,比如disaster=dis(恶)+astar(星球)。人们对于占星术的信仰使当时的医生非常热衷于此,并以此来解释一些疑难杂症。人被视为宇宙的一个小模型,人体的各个部分也被相应的对照为宇宙的某个天体或者某些天体。比如“人体黄道带”据称就将人体同黄道十二宫联系了起来,根据太阳所处位置来制定治疗方案比如太阳位于金牛、双子、狮子、处女、摩羯几大星座时,就不能采取放血疗法。当1743年欧洲爆发了感冒大流行的时候,意大利人将之称作“influenza di catarro”,意即大灾难,其实是泛指,但是久而久之这个字就被用来专指流感了。

解释2:

大流行(pandemics)一词用于描述在全球范围内几乎同一时间广泛流行的一种疾病。定义大流行的其他标准与致病的病毒相关。当出现一种完全新型的病毒时,可发生疾病大流行。英国过去常在冬季出现流感,但这种流感并不是在所有国家同时出现,也不是由新型病毒所致,因此不属于大流行。

Zhu Xing

College of Life Sciences,

Beijing Normal University,

Beijing,

China, 100875
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1楼 作者:Elizer 创建: <编辑>  <引用>
对于病毒来说,也许干燥和低温有利其传播;但真菌孢子在湿度越大时感染率越高。
2楼 作者:zz柳 创建: <编辑>  <引用>
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