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【2008.01.15】科学新闻-维生素,助你拥有好身体

楼主:zhuxing 日期: 回贴:1 浏览:

SCIENCE IN THE NEWS - In the Job of Good Health, Vitamins Are Some of the Most Important Helpers

科学新闻——维生素,助你拥有好身体

By Nancy Steinbach and Lawan Davis / Broadcast date: Tuesday, January 15, 2008

Nancy Steinbach 和 Lawan Davis撰写 / 广播日期:2008年1月15日,星期二

Source: http://www.unsv.com/voanews/specialenglish/

来源:http://www.unsv.com/voanews/specialenglish/

VOICE ONE:

声音1:

This is SCIENCE IN THE NEWS, in VOA Special English. I'm Bob Doughty.

这是美国之音特别英语的科学新闻。我是Bob Doughty 。

VOICE TWO:

声音2:

And I'm Shirley Griffith. This week, we tell about vitamins.

我是Shirley Griffith 。本周,我们讲述维生素。

(MUSIC)

(音乐)

VOICE ONE:

声音1:

Many jobs must be done with two people. One person takes the lead. The other helps. It is this cooperation that brings success.

很多工作必须要由两个人来完成。一个充当领导,另一个是助手。正是这种协作带来成功。

So it is with the human body. Much of our good health depends on the cooperation between substances. When they work together, chemical reactions take place smoothly. Body systems are kept in balance.

人体也是这样。我们的健康大部分依赖于各种物质间的协作。当它们一起工作时,化学反应便能顺利进行。人体系统才能维持平衡。

Some of the most important helpers in the job of good health are the substances we call vitamins.

负责健康工作的一些最重要的助手是我们称为维生素的物质。

VOICE TWO:

声音2:

The word "vitamin" dates back to Polish scientist Casimir Funk in nineteen twelve. He was studying a substance in the hull that covers rice. This substance was believed to cure a disorder called beriberi.

维生素这个词要追溯到1912年的波兰科学家Casimir Funk。他在研究稻壳中的一种物质。人们认为这种物质可以治疗一种叫做脚气病的失调病。

Funk believed the substance belonged to a group of chemicals known as amines. He added the Latin word "vita," meaning life. So he called the substance a "vitamine" -- an amine necessary for life.

Funk 认为这种物质属于一类已知的胺类化合物。他在“amine”(胺)前加上了拉丁词“vita”(生命)。所以他把这种物质叫做“vitamine”——一种生命所需的胺类化合物。

VOICE ONE:

声音1:

Funk was not able to separate the anti-berberi substance from the rice hulls; it was later shown to be thiamine. Other studies found that not all vitamines were amines after all. So the name was shortened to vitamin. But Funk was correct in recognizing their importance.

Funk 没能从稻壳中分离这种抗脚气病的物质;后来发现它是硫胺。其它的一些研究发现毕竟不是所有的维生素都是
胺类,所以vitamine简写成了vitamin(维生素)。但是Funk正确的认识到了维生素的重要性。

Scientists have discovered fourteen kinds of vitamins. They are known as vitamins A, the B group, C, D, E and K. Scientists say vitamins help to carry out chemical changes within cells. If we do not get enough of the vitamins we need in our food, we are at risk of developing a number of diseases.

科学家发现了14种维生素。它们是维生素A, B族, C, D, E和K。科学家说维生素有助细胞内发生的化学变化。如果从食物中我们没有获得足够的维生素,我们就有患上许多种疾病的危险。

VOICE TWO:

声音2:

This brings us back to Casimir Funk. His studies of rice were part of a long search for foods that could cure disease.

这让我们回到Casimir Funk 。他关于稻谷的研究是长期以来关于食物可以治病的研究的一部分。

One of the first people involved in that search was James Lind of Scotland. In the seventeen forties, Lind was a doctor for the British navy. He was investigating a problem that had existed in the navy for many years.

苏格兰的James Lind 是首先涉足该方面研究的人之一。在17世纪40年代,Lind是英国海军的医生。他在调查一个在海军军队中存在很多年的问题。

The problem was the disease scurvy. So many sailors had scurvy that the navy's fighting strength was very low. The sailors were weak from bleeding inside their bodies. Even the smallest wound would not heal. Doctor Lind thought the sailors were getting sick because they failed to eat some kinds of foods when they were at sea for many months.

这个问题是坏血病。很多水手患有坏血病以致海军的战斗力不强。水手们由于体内出血而变得虚弱。即使一个极小的伤口也很难愈合。Lind 医生认为水手们连续几个月出海不能吃到某些种食物而患病。

VOICE ONE:

声音1:

Doctor Lind separated twelve sailors who had scurvy into two groups. He gave each group different foods to eat. One group got oranges and lemons. The other did not. The men who ate the fruit began to improve within seven days. The other men got weaker. Doctor Lind was correct. Eating citrus fruits prevents scurvy.

Lind医生将患有坏血病的水手分成两组。他给各组吃不同的食物。一组有橘子和柠檬吃,而另一组没有。吃水果的
一组人在七天之内开始好转。另一组变得更虚弱。Lind医生是对的。吃柑橘类的水果可以预防坏血病。

Other doctors looked for foods to cure the diseases rickets and pellagra. They did not yet understand that they were seeing the problem from the opposite direction. That is, it is better to eat vitamin-rich foods to prevent disease instead of eating them to cure a disease after it has developed

其他的医生在寻找治疗佝偻病和糙皮病的食物。他们不明白到他们是在通过相反的方向来处理问题。因为,更好的方式是吃富含维生素是食物去预防疾病而不是在患病后通过吃它们来治疗。

(MUSIC)

(音乐)

VOICE TWO:

声音2:

Which foods should be eaten to keep us healthy? Let us look at some important vitamins for these answers.

为了保持健康我们应该吃些什么食物?让我们看看一些重要的维生素来寻找答案。

Vitamin A helps prevent skin and other tissues from becoming dry. It is also needed to make a light-sensitive substance in the eyes. People who do not get enough vitamin A cannot see well in darkness. They may develop a
condition that dries the eyes. This can result in infections and lead to blindness.

维生素A帮助皮肤和组织防止干燥。人体也需要它来制造一种眼睛内的光敏感物质。维生素A不足的人黑暗中视力不好。他们可能眼睛干燥,这会导致感染和失明。

Vitamin A is found in fish liver oil. It also is in the yellow part of eggs. Sweet potatoes, carrots and other darkly colored fruits and vegetables contain substances that the body can change into vitamin A.

维生素A发现在鱼肝油中含有。它也存在于蛋黄中。甘薯、胡萝卜和其他深色水果蔬菜含有身体能够将其转变为维生素A的物质。

VOICE ONE:

声音1:

Vitamin B-one is also called thiamine. Thiamine changes starchy foods into energy. It also helps the heart and nervous system work smoothly. Without it, we would be weak and would not grow. We also might develop beriberi.

维生素B1,也叫硫胺。硫胺将淀粉类食物转变为能量。它也有助心脏和神经系统平稳地工作。没有它我们会变得虚弱,不会生长,还可能会得脚气病。

Thiamine is found not just in whole grains like brown rice, but also in other foods. These include beans and peas, nuts, and meat and fish.

不只整谷食物如糙米中发现有硫胺,其它食物也有,包括大豆、豌豆、坚果、肉类和鱼类。

Another B-vitamin is niacin. It helps cells use food energy. It also prevents pellagra -- a disease that causes
weakness, reddish skin and stomach problems. Niacin is found in meat, fish and green vegetables.

另一种维生素B是烟酸。它帮助细胞利用食物能量。它也可以预防糙皮病——一种可导致无力,皮肤微红和胃病的疾病。肉类,鱼类和绿色蔬菜中发现有烟酸。

Vitamin B-twelve is needed so folic acid can do its work. Together, they help produce red blood cells. Vitamin B-twelve is found naturally in foods such as eggs, meat, fish and milk products. Folic acid has been shown to prevent physical problems in babies when taken by their mothers during pregnancy. Vitamin B-twelve is found in green leafy vegetables and other foods, like legumes and citrus fruits. In some countries, it is added to products like bread.

叶酸需要维生素B12才能工作。它们一起帮助产生红细胞。维生素B12在蛋,肉类,鱼类和奶制品中天然含有。母亲怀孕期间摄入的叶酸能预防婴儿的身体疾病。绿叶蔬菜和其它一些食物,像豆荚和柑橘类水果中,发现有维生素B12。在一些国家,它被加进其它产品中,比如面包。

VOICE TWO:

声音2:

In two thousand three, Japanese researchers identified a new member of the B-vitamin group. It is a substance known as pyrroloquinoline quinone, or PQQ.

在2003年,日本的研究人员鉴别出了一个维生素B族的新成员。它是一种叫吡咯喹啉醌或PQQ的物质。

The researchers found that PQQ is important in the reproductive and defense systems of mice. They said the substance is similarly important for people. PQQ is found in fermented soybeans and also in parsley, green tea, green peppers and kiwi fruit.

研究人员发现,PQQ在老鼠的生殖和防御防御系统中很重要。他们说这种物质对人同等重要。发酵的大豆中发现有PQQ,欧芹、绿茶、青椒和猕猴桃中也有。

VOICE ONE:

声音1:

Vitamin C is needed for strong bones and teeth, and for healthy blood passages.

坚固的骨骼和牙齿,以及健康的血液通道需要维生素C。

It also helps wounds heal quickly. The body stores little vitamin C. So we must get it every day in foods such as citrus fruits, tomatoes and uncooked cabbage.

维生素C也帮助伤口快速愈合。身体几乎不储存维生素C。因此我们必须每天从食物比如柑橘类水果、西红柿和没有煮过的卷心菜中获取。

Vitamin D increases levels of the element calcium in the blood. Calcium is needed for nerve and muscle cells to work normally. It also is needed to build strong bones.

维生素D增加血液中元素钙的水平。神经和肌肉细胞正常工作需要钙。人体也需要它来建造结实的骨骼。

Vitamin D prevents the children's bone disease rickets. Ultraviolet light from the sun changes a substance in the skin into vitamin D. Fish liver oil also contains vitamin D. In some countries, milk producers add vitamin D to milk so children will get enough.

维生素D预防儿童的骨骼疾病——佝偻病。阳光中的紫外线将皮肤中的一种物质转变成维生素D。鱼肝油也含有维生素D。在一些国家,牛奶生产中添加维生素D这样可以使儿童获得充足的维生素D。

Vitamin K is needed for healthy blood. It thickens the blood around a cut to stop bleeding. Bacteria in the intestines normally produce vitamin K. It can also be found in pork products, liver and in vegetables like cabbage, kale and spinach.

健康的血液需要维生素K。它在伤口周围使血液变浓来终止出血。肠道内的细菌通常生产维生素K。它存在于猪肉制品,肝脏和一些蔬菜像卷心菜、甘蓝和菠菜。

(MUSIC)

(音乐)

VOICE TWO:

声音2:

Some people fear they do not get enough vitamins from the foods they eat. So they take products with large amounts of vitamins. They think these products, or vitamin supplements, will improve their health and protect against disease.

一些人担心他们不能从他们吃得食物中获取足够的维生素。所以他们服用含大量维生素的产品。他们以为这些产品或者叫维生素补充剂可以增进他们的健康,帮助抵抗疾病。

In two thousand six, medical experts gathered near Washington, D.C., to discuss the latest research on vitamin supplements. The experts found little evidence that most supplements do anything to protect or improve health. But they noted that some do help to prevent disease.

在2006年,医学专家在华盛顿特区聚集,目的是讨论最近关于维生素补充方面的研究。专家们发现几乎没有证据说明大多数维生素补充对改善抵抗力和增进健康有作用。但他们注意到确实有些维生素可以预防疾病。

The experts said women who wish to become mothers should take folic acid to prevent problems in their babies. And, they said vitamin D supplements and calcium can protect the bones of older women.

专家说想成为母亲的女性应该服用烟酸来防止她们将来的孩子出现问题。他们还说补充维生素D可以帮助老年女性保
护骨骼。

VOICE ONE:

声音1:

The medical experts agreed with doctors who say that people who know they lack a vitamin should take vitamin supplements. Some older adults, for example, may not have enough vitamin B-twelve. That is because, as people get older, the body loses its ability to take it from foods.

医学专家同意医生们说的一些知道自己缺乏维生素的人应该补充维生素。比如说一些年龄偏大的成年人可能没有足够的维生素B12。这是因为随着人们年龄的增长,身体失去了从食物中获取维生素B12的能力。

The experts also noted that taking too much of some vitamins can be harmful. They said people should be sure to discuss what vitamins they take with their doctors. This is because some vitamins can cause harmful effects when mixed with medicines.

专家们还注意到服用过多的维生素可能是有害的。他们说人们一定和他们的医生商量自己应该服用哪些维生素。这是因为有些维生素在和药物混合的时候可能产生不利的影响。

VOICE TWO:

声音2:

Researchers in Denmark reported last year that people who take antioxidant vitamin supplements may be harming themselves. Antioxidants balance the effects of free radicals by preventing them from forming. Free radicals are cell-damaging molecules. They are produced in the body when too much oxygen is present.

去年丹麦的研究人员报道说补充抗氧化的维生素可能对自身有害。抗氧化剂通过阻止自由基的形成而平衡其影响。自由基是损伤细胞的分子。他们在身体中存在过多的氧气的时候产生。

The researchers examined the results of sixty-eight studies. They found that those taking vitamin A, vitamin E or beta carotene supplements had an increased risk of dying an at early age. They also found that vitamin C supplements did little to harm or improve a person's health.

研究人员调查了68项研究的结果。他们发现那些补充维生素A,维生素E或β胡萝卜素的人较早死亡的风险更大。他们也发现补充维生素C在破坏或增进健康方面均作用不大。

VOICE ONE:

声音1:

Vitamins are important to our health. Different vitamins are found in different foods -- grains, vegetables and fruits, fish and meat, eggs and milk products. And even foods that contain the same vitamins may have them in different amounts. Experts say this is why it is important to eat a mixture of foods every day, to get enough of the vitamins our bodies need.

维生素对我们的健康很重要。不同的维生素存在于不同的食物中——谷类,蔬菜,水果,鱼类,肉类,蛋和奶制品。含有相同维生素的食物含量也可能不同。专家说这就是为什么我们每天吃各种食物很重要的原因——为了获取身体所需的足够维生素。

(MUSIC)

(音乐)

VOICE TWO:

声音2:

This SCIENCE IN THE NEWS program was written by Nancy Steinbach and Lawan Davis. I'm Shirley Griffith.

这里是Nancy Steinbach 和 Lawan Davis撰写的科学新闻节目。我是Shirley Griffith。

VOICE ONE:

声音1:

And I'm Bob Doughty. Join us again next week for more news about science in Special English on the Voice of America.

我是Bob Doughty。下周美国之音特别英语有更多的科学新闻,再次参与我们。

插图1:

Rey Salazar and his daughter, Aketzalli, 4, plant lettuce seeds at the Nutrition Education Center at the Food Bank of Corpus Christi, Texas

德克萨斯州科珀斯克里斯蒂粮食银行营养教育中心, Rey Salazar和他的女儿Aketzalli,4岁,在种莴苣

插图2:

Tangerines and other citrus fruits help prevent scurvy

橘子和其它的柑橘类水果帮助预防坏血病

Zhu Xing,

College of Life Sciences,

Beijing Normal University,

Beijing,

China, 100875
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