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2008年4月7日,农业报道:土壤荒漠化的危险

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AGRICULTURE REPORT - The Danger of Desertification
7 Apr 2008
This is the VOA Special English Agriculture Report.
农业报道:土壤荒漠化的危险
2008年4月7日
这里是VOA特别英语农业报道。
Desertification is a process. It changes productive land into useless land. One example of desertification is when a desert spreads into nearby cropland. In time, the cropland becomes an extension of the desert. 土壤荒漠化是一个过程。它可以使肥沃的土的变得贫瘠。一个简单的例子,当沙漠蔓延到附近的农田,农田就变成了沙漠。
But that is not the only way farmers lose fertile soil.但是,沙漠侵蚀农田,不是农民失去肥沃的土地的唯一方式。
Long dry periods, warmer temperatures and the removal of trees can all lead to the loss of good cropland. Floods can remove fertile topsoil and begin a process resulting in the loss of planting areas. 长期的干旱,高温和滥砍滥伐都可以导致失去肥沃的农田。洪水可以带走肥沃的表土层,最终导致种植区域的损失。
Another danger to good land is poor farming methods. Farmers should avoid continually planting crops in the same places, or letting animals feed year after year on the same lands.
肥沃土地的另一个威胁就是粗放的耕作方式。农民应该避免在同一地块上持续的种植,或者年复一年的在同一地块上喂养动物。
Countries from Guatemala to Greece to Vietnam are working against the loss of cropland. Africa especially faces the risk of desertification. 从危地马拉、希腊到越南,一些国家在跟耕地减少斗争。非洲尤其要面对土壤荒漠化的危险。
Nigeria, for example, says it loses three hundred fifty thousand hectares of usable land each year. Hills of sand now cover places where people once lived.比如,尼日利亚每年减少35万公顷耕地。沙丘已经覆盖了以前人们曾经居住的地方。
When cropland turns to desert, people move to other places for better land and better jobs. This migration can cause political and social tensions. 当农田变成沙漠,人们被迫迁移到其他地方耕种生活。这种迁移带了政治和社会的动荡。
A nonprofit organization in Nigeria is working to bring public attention to the problem. The group is called Fighting Against Desert Encroachment, or FADE. 在尼日利亚,一个非营利性组织在为引起公众对此问题的重视而努力。这个机构叫抵抗沙漠侵蚀,FADE。
Newton Jibunoh is a retired soil engineer who started this group in the year two thousand. He says desert encroachment could cause widespread hunger. Newton Jibunoh是个退休的土壤工程师,他在2000年创立了这个机构。他说,沙漠侵蚀可以造成广泛的饥饿。
Newton Jibunoh is currently leading a delegation to thirteen African countries to discuss the dangers of losing farmlands. In northern Nigeria, the group organized a competition between schools in seven areas. The goal was to see who could plant the most trees. Newton Jibunoh现在领导一个代表团到13个非洲国家,讨论农田减少的威胁。在尼日利亚北部,这个机构组织了7个区域学校之间的比赛,目标是谁种植了最多的树。
Trees are often cut down for fuel wood. But lines of trees around cropland can catch blowing sand. In addition, tree roots can hold soil in place. Even within a desert, trees can be planted as borders around grassy areas.树木经常作为燃材被砍伐。但是农田周围的防风林可以阻挡风沙。同时,树根可以固定土壤。甚至在沙漠里面,树木也可以生长,作为绿洲的分界。
For many years, China has been building a wall of trees in the northern part of the country. The goal is to stop the Gobi Desert from extending toward Beijing. The Great Green Wall will extend about five thousand kilometers. Completion is expected in two thousand fifty. 多年来,中国已经在北部种植了防护林。目的是阻止戈壁沙漠扩展到首都北京。绿色长城将延伸5000公里,有望在2050年完成。
And that's the VOA Special English Agriculture Report, written by Jerilyn Watson. For more stories about agriculture, go to www.unsv.com for transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our reports. I'm Bob Doughty. 这是由Jerilyn Watson 编写的VOA特别英语的农业报道。更多的农业故事,请访问www.unsv.com上的文稿及MP3档案,我是Bob Doughty。

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Countries from Guatemala to Greece to Vietnam are working against the loss of cropland. 从危地马拉、希腊到越南,一些国家在跟耕地减少斗争??? 呵呵~
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