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2010/8/11科学报道----人类的活动威胁珊瑚礁

楼主:郑秀娟 日期: 回贴:0 浏览:

Scientist Scott Porter holds coral samples that he removed in June from an oil drilling rig in the Gulf of Mexico. He is studying the effects of the BP spill.

Scientist Scott Porter holds coral samples that he removed in June from an oil drilling rig in the Gulf of Mexico. He is studying the effects of the BP spill.

科学家斯科特。鲍特拿着他六月份从墨西哥湾一个石油钻孔点取下的珊瑚标本。他正在研究BP石油泄露的影响。

BOB DOUGHTY: This is SCIENCE IN THE NEWS in VOA Special English. I'm Bob Doughty.

FAITH LAPIDUS: And I'm Faith Lapidus. Today we tell about threats to coral reefs and some new discoveries about these

ancient, biological structures.

鲍勃 。道蒂:这里是美国之音慢速英语的科学报道。我是鲍勃。道蒂。

费斯。拉皮德斯:我是费斯。拉皮德斯。今天我们讲述关于威胁珊瑚礁和一些新发现的远古的生物结构。

(MUSIC)

BOB DOUGHTY: Corals are groups of small organisms called polyps. Millions of polyps grow together to form coral reefs.

 America's National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, NOAA, says the coral reefs that exist today are up to fifty

million years old. The ancestors of these reefs were formed at least two hundred forty million years ago.

鲍勃。道蒂:珊瑚是一组被称作珊瑚虫的微小的有机体。成千上万个珊瑚虫组成了珊瑚礁。美国国家海洋和大气管理局NOAA,说珊瑚礁存活到今天已经有500万年之久了。珊瑚礁的祖先在2500万年以前就形成了。

However, human activities are threatening the world's coral reefs. NOAA scientists say the main threats are pollution, overfishing and climate change. As a result, coral reef populations are decreasing worldwide.

然而,人类的活动正在威胁着珊瑚礁的世界。美国国际海洋大气局的科学家说主要的威胁来自于污染,过度捕捞和气候变化。结果导致珊瑚礁的数量在世界范围内减少。

An undated image provided by NOAA shows a shallow-water coral reef in the Florida Keys

An undated image provided by NOAA

shows a shallow-water coral reef in the

 Florida Keys(美国国家海洋气候局提供的一张没有日期的图片,展示了佛罗里达的一个潜水珊瑚礁)

NOAA says an estimated twenty percent of the reefs have been damaged beyond recovery. About fifty percent of the remaining coral are under risk of collapse.美国国家海洋大气局说估计有百分之二十的珊瑚礁被永久性的破坏了。大约百分之五十的珊瑚礁处于崩溃的边缘。

FAITH LAPIDUS: Now there is a new threat facing coral reefs in the Caribbean Sea. The threat comes from another sea creature.费斯。拉皮德斯:现在加勒比海的珊瑚礁正面临这一个新的威胁。这个威胁来自于另外一种海洋生物。

A recent study found that damselfish are killing head corals in the Caribbean. Researchers say this is creating problems for the area's already troubled coral reefs. The journal PLoS ONE published a report about the study.

近期的一个研究发现少女鱼正在杀死加勒比海珊瑚的顶部。研究者说这甚至正在发展为影响珊瑚礁的更加严重的问题。PLoS ONE杂志出版了关于这个研究的报道。

Damselfish live in ocean waters throughout the world. They kill parts of coral colonies or communities, so that simple organisms like algae can grow. Damselfish use the resulting gardens of algae for feeding and producing young.

少女鱼生活在全世界的海水里。他们杀死了部分珊瑚聚居地或社区,因此那些简单的有机物像海藻能够生长。少女鱼利用肥沃的海藻来喂养和生产幼仔。

BOB DOUGHTY: In earlier times, damselfish often used staghorn corals to grow in these areas. During this period, staghorns were the most common coral in the Caribbean. The coral's long, thin branches offered the damselfish great places to hide and feed. Even after damselfish killed off parts of the staghorn colonies, the areas that remained were able to survive.

鲍勃。道蒂:早期,这些地区的少女鱼经常用鹿角珊瑚来生长。这段时间,鹿角珊瑚石加勒比海最常见的珊瑚,这种珊瑚又长又细的分支给少女鱼提供了很大的空间来隐藏和喂食。甚至少女鱼杀死鹿角珊瑚一部分群体后,剩余的部分仍然能存活。

In recent years, coral diseases, storms and other activity in the environment have reduced staghorn coral populations. The corals are now listed as threatened under America's Endangered Species Act.

最近这些年,珊瑚疾病,暴风雨和环境中的其他活动减少了鹿角珊瑚的数量。珊瑚已经被列入受威胁的美国灭绝物种法。

FAITH LAPIDUS: Les Kaufman is a biologist with Boston University and Conservation International. He says the damselfish had to find new grounds for algae after the staghorn coral disappeared. He says the damselfish are now killing off parts of slow-growing coral. This coral is not able to recover from the destruction as well as its staghorn relative. Professor Kaufman says it could take the slow-growing coral as long as one hundred years to recover.

费斯。拉皮德斯:赖斯。考夫曼波士顿大学国际环境保护的一个生物学家。他说少女鱼在鹿角珊瑚消失后必须找到新的海藻丰富地。他说少女鱼正在杀死部分生长缓慢的珊瑚。这些珊瑚和鹿角大珊瑚亲戚一样也不能从破坏中恢复,考夫曼教授说生长缓慢的珊瑚需要花一百年的时间来恢复。

BOB DOUGHTY: Earlier research suggested that overfishing was responsible for an increase in damselfish populations in the Caribbean. The research found that many of the bigger fish known to eat damselfish had disappeared from the area. Scientists said the increased damselfish populations led to the killing of more coral.

The new study found that the number of damselfish is not the issue. Instead, researchers are blaming the increased killing of coral on the lack of staghorn coral in the Caribbean waters.

(MUSIC)

鲍勃。道蒂;早期研究暗示过度捕捞是加勒比海少女鱼数量增加的原因。研究发现海里很多捕食少女鱼的大鱼都消失了。科学家说少女鱼数量的增长将会杀死更多的珊瑚。

新的研究发现少女鱼的数量不是问题的关键。代替它的是,研究者指责珊瑚死亡的增加是因为加勒比海水里缺乏鹿角珊瑚。

FAITH LAPIDUS: A report in the journal Marine Policy draws attention to another threat to corals and other sea creatures. The report says international law has failed to protect coral reefs and the tropical fish that live among them from collectors.

Researchers looked at information collected for the United Nation's conservation monitoring program. The researchers say the coral trade is removing about one million five hundred thousand live stony corals from the oceans each year. They say thirty million tropical fish are disappearing every year because of a growing interest in tropical fish. Many of the fish die while being transported.

费斯。拉皮德斯;海事方针杂志的一篇报道把注意力吸引到了另外一个威胁珊瑚和其他海洋生物的因素上。报道说国际法在从捕捞者中保护珊瑚礁和生活在他们中间的热带鱼很失败。研究者审视为国际环境保护监控节目信息。研究者说珊瑚交易每年从海洋中移走150万活的珊瑚石。他们说因为正在增长的热带鱼利益,每年有3000万种热带鱼正在消失。很多鱼都是在转移过程中死的。

BOB DOUGHTY: Brian Tissot is a marine ecologist with Washington State University. He was one of eighteen researchers who wrote the Marine Policy paper. He says some kinds of reef fish are close to disappearing forever.

The researchers say the United States represents more than fifty percent of the trade in coral and reef fish. They have urged America to take a position of international leadership in coral reef protection and to take steps to reduce the trade's environmental effects.鲍勃。道蒂:布莱恩是华盛顿州立大学的一名海洋生物学家。他是撰写海洋政策论文的十八个研究者之一。他说一些珊瑚礁鱼正在接近永远的消失。

研究者说美国作为超过百分之五十的珊瑚和珊瑚鱼的代表。他们已经敦促美国在珊瑚和珊瑚鱼的保护中站在国际领导者的角度采取行动来减少贸易对环境影响。

(MUSIC)

FAITH LAPIDUS: Researchers in the Netherlands Antilles have discovered what they believe is the secret to how young coral find their way home. They use sound from coral reefs to guide them.

费斯。拉皮德斯:荷兰安的列斯群岛的研究者已经发现他们认为是秘密的年轻珊瑚是如何找到他们回家的路。他们利用从珊瑚礁发出的声音指导它们。

Researchers at the University of Bristol in England discovered similar movements among baby reef fish several years ago. A research team at the Carmabi Foundation in Curacao carried out experiments to see if the same was true for baby coral.

The team designed a device it called a choice chamber. Each chamber offered the coral larvae two opposing conditions. One was silence. The other was the recorded sound of a coral reef.

英格兰布里斯托尔大学的研究者几年以前发现了珊瑚鱼宝贝的相似的运动。库拉索的 Carmabi 基金的一个研究团队进行了实验来验证是否珊瑚宝贝也是这样。这个团队设计了一个装置 称它为可选择的房间。每个房间都提供珊瑚两种相反的条件。一个是安静的。另外一个是有珊瑚礁声音的录音。

The researchers described what happened when they placed the coral larvae into the chamber. They said the larvae nearly always chose to follow the sound as they sought a place to call home. With this latest discovery, the researchers say noise pollution in coral environments raises yet another cause for concern for these organisms.研究者表述当他们把珊瑚幼虫放到了房间里发生了什么。他们说幼虫们几乎都选择跟着声音像它们寻找的称之为家的地方。加上近期的发现,研究者们说噪音污染在珊瑚的环境里增加了另外一个这些有机物焦虑。

(MUSIC)

BOB DOUGHTY: Coral reefs exist in underwater colonies. These communities make up some of the largest living structures on earth. Some are so large that they can be seen from space.

Coral reefs were listed as plants until seventeen fifty-three. That year a French biologist who had been studying reefs in the western Atlantic discovered that they are animals. His name was J.A. de Peysonnell.

鲍勃。道蒂:珊瑚礁存在于水下聚居地。这些团体组成了地球上大的生物圈。一些很大,在太空中能被看到。

FAITH LAPIDUS: Corals are anthozoans, the largest class of organisms in the cnidaria group. Jellyfish, anemones and

seafans are part of the same family. Corals are non-moving animals. They stay positioned in one place. They capture food by seizing it with their long tentacles.

Each coral polyp releases a hard calcium carbonate skeleton that serves as a base. The base grows as more calcium

carbonate is released. This creates the main structure of the coral reef.

Several different species of coral can be present in the different colonies that form the reef structure. Soft corals do not form reefs, but may be present in a coral reef ecosystem.

(MUSIC)费斯。拉皮特斯:珊瑚属于珊烘类,有机物腔肠类中最大的门类。水母,银莲花和海贝是同一家族的部分。珊瑚石不能移动的动物。它们在一个地方保持不动。它们用长长的触角抓住,捕捉食物。每一个珊瑚虫释放一种碳酸钙骨骼来作为自己的基地。这个基地随着不断地释放太酸钙而变大。这创造了珊瑚礁的主要结构。

几个不同的珊瑚种类能能够从不同群体的珊瑚礁的结构来区分出来。软的珊瑚不能形成礁。但是在珊瑚生态系统也是有可能存在的。

BOB DOUGHTY: Scientists have identified thousands of different species of reef-building coral. They have also discovered hundreds of species of soft corals and deep-sea corals. Progress in science and technology is leading to the identification of even more species of coral each year.

鲍勃。道蒂:科学家已经识别出上千种建造礁石的不同的珊瑚物种,他们也发现了上百种软珊瑚物种和深海珊瑚。科学和技术的进步导致每年鉴别出越来越多珊瑚物种。

Two years ago, scientists discovered more than one hundred corals in the Great Barrier Reef and on a reef near northwestern Australia. The scientists said that about half of the coral species were new to them.

两年前,科学家们在大礁堡发现超过一百种珊瑚,靠近澳大利亚西北部的礁石。科学家们说大概超过一半的珊瑚物种对他们来说都是新的。

The four-year study looked at the health, diversity and biological make-up of the reef. The scientists investigated the effect of pollution and climate change on what they called the rainforests of the ocean.

为期四年关于珊瑚礁健康,多样性和生活组成的研究。科学家们调查污染和气候变化对他们称之为海洋热带雨林的影响。

FAITH LAPIDUS: The study was part of a larger ten-year project called the Global Census of Marine Life. More than two thousand scientists from eighty nations have taken part in the project. The goal is to produce the first detailed list of sea creatures. The scientists are expected to release their findings later this year.

费斯。拉皮斯特:这项研究是为期十年的称之为全球海洋生物普查项目的一部分。来自八十个国家超过两千个科学家参与了这个项目。目标是制作出第一个海洋生物详细的名单。科学家们盼望着今年年末发布他们的发现。

In a separate project, scientists identified seven new species of bamboo coral in deep waters near the Hawaiian Islands. The scientists believe that six of the species may represent a completely new kind of coral.

在这个单独的项目中,科学家鉴别了出了夏威夷岛的深海里七个竹竿珊瑚物种。科学家们相信六个物种代表了一个全新的珊瑚种类。

Some of the coral dated back about four thousand years. The scientists say deep-sea bamboo corals produce growth rings similar to those found on trees. They say this can provide important information about how ocean conditions change

over time and how corals react to climate change.

一些珊瑚可以追溯到四千年以前。科学家说深海竹竿珊瑚也会长出年轮和那些在树上发现的相似。他们说这能提供关于随着时间的推移海洋条件变化和珊瑚对于气候变化的反应的重要信息。

BOB DOUGHTY: Coral reefs are extremely important to the earth's environment. They are home to millions of species of sea life that depend on coral reefs for their survival. This makes reefs an important source of food for millions of people around the world.

鲍勃。道蒂:珊瑚礁对于地球环境是非常重要的。他们是成千上万依靠珊瑚礁生存的海洋生物的家。珊瑚礁成为世界范围内无数人一个重要的食物来源。

Coral reefs also protect coastlines from storms and flooding. And, they are important for the travel industry in some countries. Experts say a continuing reduction in coral reef populations will have harmful effects for people worldwide.

珊瑚礁也在暴风雨和洪水中保护海岸线。而且他们对于一些国家的旅游业非常重要。专家说珊瑚礁的持续减少对世界范围的人们都有害的影响。

(MUSIC)

FAITH LAPIDUS: This SCIENCE IN THE NEWS was written and produced by June Simms. I'm Faith Lapidus.

BOB DOUGHTY: And I'm Bob Doughty. Listen again next week for more news about science in Special English on the Voice of America.

费斯。拉皮德斯:这篇可续报道的作者是祖恩。西姆斯。

鲍勃。道蒂:我是鲍勃。道蒂。下周继续收听美国之音慢速英语更多的科学报道。    

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