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成本升高迫使中国厂商撤离沿海省份

楼主:Jerry 日期: 回贴:0 浏览:

Higher Production Costs Shift Chinese Manufacturing

成本升高迫使中国厂商撤离沿海省份

原文地址:http://www.unsv.com/voanews/english/scripts/2011/04/20/5004/

For decades, China’s factories have supplied the world with cheap goods - from denim jeans to desktop computers. But export prices are expected to go up as Chinese manufacturers are battered by higher wages, more expensive raw materials and an appreciating currency.
中国的工厂过去几十年来向世界提供廉价商品,种类从牛仔裤到桌面电脑无所不包。但是随着工薪上涨、原料价格升高和人民币升值,中国产品的出口价格预计也会水涨船高。出口商目前正计划将工厂从沿海省份迁往内陆地区,或者海外,以迎接这些挑战。


During her recent visit to Beijing, Brazil’s President Dilma Rousseff said Foxconn International Holdings, the company that manufactures Apple’s popular iPhone, plans to spend $12 billion building factories in her country.

巴西总统罗塞芙近期在北京表示,富士康公司计划投资120亿美元,在巴西建造工厂。富士康是苹果电脑公司热门产品iPhone的制造商。

For some time, Foxconn has been expanding outside of its traditional manufacturing base in southern China, shifting north to Hebei province, to cut costs. The company, which employs hundreds of thousands of workers in China, reported a loss for 2010 because of higher production costs.
富士康过去一段时间以来一直都在努力将传统生产基地从中国南方迁到北方的河北省,以降低价格。这家公司在中国有雇员数十万,由于生产成本上涨,2010年出现亏损。

Companies increasingly are moving out of southern China’s manufacturing hub in the Pearl River Delta as profits decline.
利润下滑导致很多企业都将工厂从中国南方珠三角地区的传统制造基地迁出。

Stanley Lau is managing director of Renley Watch Manufacturing Company. He also heads the Pearl River Delta Council of the Hong Kong Federation of Industries.
刘展灏是香港工业总会珠三角工业协会会长、运年表业有限公司董事长。

“Wages are going up. The minimum wage has gone up by about 20 percent in 2010. And again this year wages have gone up by 20 percent roughly," said Lau. "When you look at any part of the world, I think you cannot find any other place with such kind of increase in wages.”
刘展灏说:“工资在上涨。2010年,最低工资上调了20%。今年,工资再次上涨了大约20%。在世界其他地方,我们看不到工资如此迅速地上涨。”

What is more, he says, the cost of raw materials such as cotton, plastics and electronic components, is rising. Although the Chinese currency has been rising against the dollar, which could help ease rising costs for imported raw materials, manufacturers say even locally made materials are getting more expensive. China’s inflation rate reached 5.4 percent in March, the highest in nearly three years.
刘展灏说,棉花、塑料、电子零部件等原材料的成本也在上涨。尽管中国人民币的升值可以在一定程度上抵销进口原材料涨价,但是制造商们抱怨说,本地产的原材料正在变得更加昂贵。今年3月,中国通胀率达到5.4%,这是三年来的最高水平。

At the same time, the yuan’s appreciation, which the United States and other Western nations say is essential to reduce China’s trade imbalance, makes Chinese products more expensive overseas.
与此同时,人民币升值使得中国的出口产品变得更加昂贵。美国和其他西方国家认为,人民币升值对于减少中国贸易失衡至关重要。

Li and Fung, a Hong Kong sourcing company that supplies the U.S. retailer Wal-Mart and other global retail chains, says Chinese export prices will increase as much as 15 percent this year. Company executives last month warned that Chinese goods are entering a new era of rising prices.
香港供货商利丰有限公司向沃尔玛和一些其他主要全球零售商供货。该公司认为,今年中国出口商品价格将上涨15%。该公司总裁上个月警告说,中国商品正在进入涨价的新阶段。


The challenges Chinese exporters confront are not new. They have been ramping up over the past two years. In 2008, China implemented a new law that increased factory workers’ salaries. At that time, manufacturers warned that many of them would be forced to close because of rising wages.
中国出口商面临的挑战并不是新的。他们在过去两年一直寻求突破。2008年,中国实施了一项新法律,增加工厂工人的工资。当时,制造商警告说,他们很多人会被迫关闭,因为不断上涨的工资。


Pansy Yau, deputy chief economist of the Hong Kong Trade Development Council, says Chinese exports have stayed strong since then.
香港贸发局副首席经济师邱丽萍说,中国出口仍然强劲。

“When we look at the share of China export in Europe and the [United] States, we find that the import share from China continues to increase. It proves that China is not only competing on cost because after all these years the wages in China are already higher than some Southeast Asian countries and other low-cost countries,” said Yau.
她说:“我们看一下中国出口在美国和欧洲市场的表现,就会发现中国的市场份额仍然在扩大。这说明,中国的出口优势不仅仅局限于成本方面。经过过去几年的变化,中国的工资水平事实上已经高于一些东南亚国家和其他低成本国家。”

The Chinese government has been encouraging manufacturers to move factories to poorer inland regions as a way to distribute economic development. Lau says not all industries can do so because they rely on the efficient supply chain in southern China, near other factories making needed components.
中国政府鼓励制造商把工厂转移到更加贫穷的内陆地区,以此促进经济发展平衡。邱丽萍说,并非所有行业都可以完成这种转移,因为很多企业依赖华南地区的供应链。

Southern China is blessed with deep ports that allow access for container ships bringing raw materials and carrying finished products to the rest of the world. Also, electricity and water supply are stable. Moving factories inland could prove costlier than staying put because companies may have to pay more in shipping costs.
华南地区深水港密集,集装箱货轮可以在此装卸进口的原材料和出口的制成品。另外,这里水电供应稳定。将工厂迁入内地将增加运输成本,对于企业来说可能得不偿失。

When it comes to moving overseas, the Federation of Industries’ Lau says it will be easiest for textile manufacturers to relocate to places like Vietnam and Indonesia, because the infrastructure is already there.
至于将生产线迁往海外,香港工业总会珠三角工业协会会长刘展灏说,纺织业制造商转移到越南和印度尼西亚等国可能最容易,因为这些地方已经有现成的基础设施。

“Years ago when they had a problem with the [export] quotas, many textile industries moved part of their production to these countries in order to get a better quota for their textile products," said Lau. "So there’s a good set up in those countries. For the other industries like electronics, plastics, the watch and clock industries, it’s more difficult because if you’re going to move you need the whole supply chain to move together with you. You will have problems in the delivery of parts.”
刘展灏说:“几年前,当这些企业面临出口配额问题时,它们已经把一些生产线转移到这些国家,以便获得更好的配额。所以这些国家已经有了设备。对于电子产品、塑料、钟表等行业来说,就更困难一些。因为如果你转移生产线的话,整个供应链都要跟着转移。否则零部件的运送就会出问题。”

At the Hong Kong Trade Development Council, economist Yau says the pinch that Chinese exporters are feeling could well reverberate in supermarkets and shops across the world. She says it is inevitable rising costs will be passed on to customers.
香港贸发局副首席经济师邱丽萍说,中国出口商遇到的困难将在全球范围内的超市和商场里产生连锁反应。她说,生产成本的提高将不可避免地转嫁给消费者。

“Once they can prove that their product is good and [has] value for money, then they have the bargaining power to ask for a price increase,” added Yau.
邱丽萍说:“当企业可以证明他们的产品质量优秀,物有所值,它们就可以在定价方面掌握主动权。”

China’s ruling Communist Party has made clear it wants to hold the line on prices - for goods sold at home and abroad. The government is working to tamp down inflation to make sure high prices for food and housing do not spark unrest. And Beijing has moved slowly on its pledge to let the yuan trade more freely - fearing that a sharp gain in the exchange rate could make exports even more expensive, forcing factories to close and eliminate jobs.
中国政府明确表示,要控制国内物价和出口产品价格上涨过快。中国政府正在试图抑制通胀,并确保粮价和房价上涨不至于造成社会动荡。同时,北京在人民币升值问题上格外谨慎,以防过快升值造成出口产品过于昂贵,导致工厂关门和就业机会丧失。

该帖于2011年4月21日 16:54:18时被版主Jerry推荐为给力好帖!
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