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昨晚加班翻了一篇,水平有限,请各位指教

楼主:jennifer 日期: 回贴:0 浏览:

For many years, scientists have warned us not to smoke. The World Health Organization says tobacco is the leading preventable cause of death in the world. Five million people die of causes linked to tobacco use every year.

许多年来,科学家提醒我们不要吸烟。世界健康组织说,烟草是世界上主要可以主旨的死亡原因,每年有五百万人的死亡与烟草有关。

Now, medical research has provided even more warnings. Advisers to America's Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report that pneumococcal pneumonia threatens smokers more than nonsmokers. The advisers say many smokers will need a vaccine to help prevent the disease.

现在医学研究已经提供了更多的警示,美国疾病控制与预防中心的建议者报道,肺炎对于吸烟者的威胁远高于非吸烟者。建议者说,许多许多吸烟者需要疫苗来防止这类疾病。

This is the first time medical experts have suggested the vaccine for young and middle-aged adult smokers. The Advisory Committee on Immunization proposed that the vaccine be given to smokers ages nineteen through sixty-four.

这是医学专家首次建议年轻和中年的吸烟者使用疫苗。免疫力咨询委员会建议疫苗给年龄在19-64岁之间的吸烟者使用。

VOICE TWO:

Past research showed that cigarette smokers are four times more likely to get pneumococcal diseases than nonsmokers. For years, older adults and children under two have been urged to get the vaccine. So have people with serious health problems like diabetes and heart disease. Others at risk are people with low resistance to infection.

过去的研究表明,吸烟者患肺炎的几率是非吸烟者的四倍。这些年,老年人和两岁以下儿童被催促接种疫苗,患有糖尿病、心脏病等严重健康类疾病的更要接种,还有就是免疫力比较低的人群也是很危险的。

A C.D.C. official says it is not known why smokers are more likely to get pneumococcal infections. One idea is that smoking damages protective tissue in the back of the throat. As a result, bacteria are more likely to connect to the smoker's windpipe and lungs.

A.C.D.C的官员说,目前还不清楚为什么吸烟者更易患肺炎,一种说法是,烟破坏的喉咙后面的保护器官,结果导致,细菌更易进入吸烟者的气管儿和肺部。

VOICE ONE:

The vaccine fights several kinds of Streptococcus pneumoniae. The bacteria can infect a person's brain, causing the disease meningitis. It also can affect the blood. Experts say up to twenty percent of people with pneumococcal blood infections die, even when treated.

疫苗可以抵抗好几种链锁状球菌引起的肺炎,细菌会传染到大脑,引起脑膜疾病,还会影响到血液。专家说得了肺炎的人20%以上因血液被感染受到死亡的威胁或已经死亡。

The experts say smoking even one cigarette a day can increase the threat of pneumococcal pneumonia by one hundred percent. The more cigarettes a person smokes, the greater the threat of the disease. Health officials say smokers should do more than get the pneumococcal vaccine. They urge people to stop smoking.

专家说,一天吸一支烟,受到肺炎威胁的几率就增加1%。一个人吸的烟越多,受到疾病的威胁就越大。健康官员表明吸烟者不应该局限于接种肺炎疫苗,他们呼吁人们戒烟。

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

Smoking also can affect your hearing. That warning resulted from a study reported earlier this year by the International Society of Audiology Congress in Hong Kong. The study was said to be one of the largest ever carried out about hearing loss. The results were published in Springer's "Journal of the Association for Research in Audiology."

吸烟还会影响听力,这源于今年年初在香港的国际社会听觉学会议上的研究报告,研究表明,吸烟是导致失聪的最主要原因之一,该研究结果出版在《关于听觉学研究杂志》的春季刊上。

The report says hearing loss is not just a natural result of the aging process. The major cause is noise. But the report says smoking and being over-weight aid the development of hearing loss.

该报道称,失聪不仅仅是年龄增长的自然结果,主要原因是噪音。但是报道还说,吸烟和过度肥胖会加剧听力衰退。

VOICE ONE:

Four thousand eighty-three people took part in the study. They were fifty-three to sixty-seven years old. They answered questions about their medical history and their contact with possible environmental threats. They also took hearing tests.

4083人参与了此次调研,他们年龄在53-67之间,他们回答了关于他们的医疗史以及可能收到的环境影响等问题,还做了听力测试。

Researchers considered the possibility of the links between the possible threats and hearing loss. The researchers found a close connection between smoking and hearing loss.

研究者考虑失聪与收到的威胁之间存在联系的可能性,发现了吸烟与失聪之间的紧密联系。

VOICE TWO:

Many smokers use tobacco products while eating or drinking alcohol in public. The American state of Massachusetts banned smoking in almost all restaurants and workplaces four years ago.

许多吸烟者在公共场合吃东西或喝酒的时候吸烟。四年前,美国马塞诸塞州在几乎所有的旅馆和工作场所禁烟。

Recently, a study found that the state had five hundred seventy-seven fewer heart attack deaths each year since the ban became law. The Massachusetts Department of Public Health and the Harvard School of Public Health organized the study. The findings may strengthen evidence for workplace smoking bans.

最近,研究发现该州自执行禁令以来,每年因心脏病死亡的人数减少577人。马塞诸塞州公共健康部和哈佛学校公共健康学院组织的此次调研,该发现进一步强化了公共场所禁烟的正确性。

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

The World Health Organization says one billion three hundred million people still smoke worldwide – even after all the warnings. W.H.O. officials say eighty-four percent of all smokers live in developing countries. At the same time, smoking in the United States and Europe has decreased.

世界健康组织说甚至在警示以后,世界上的吸烟者人数还有130万人,该组织官员表明其中84%的吸烟者来自发展中国家。同时,美国和欧洲的吸烟者在减少。

People who smoke also harm non-smokers. The American Cancer Society says this kind of secondhand smoke causes lung infections in as many as three hundred thousand young children each year.

Expectant mothers who smoke are more likely to have babies with health problems and low birth weight. Such babies may suffer health problems as they grow.

吸烟者也在危害着非吸烟者。美国癌症协会声称每年多达30万儿童因吸二手烟而受到肺部感染。预计吸烟的母亲所生婴儿更易产生健康问题或生来体重偏低,这样在婴儿成长过程中更易遭受健康问题。

VOICE TWO:

Older smokers are also at risk. A study in the publication "Neurology" showed that older adults who smoke face an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease. Decreased mental health also was more likely in persons who smoked than in non-smokers. After a time Alzheimer's, patients lose the ability to think, plan and organize.

年长的吸烟者也会很危险。在出版物《神经病学》中表明老人吸烟面临增加患老年痴呆症的危险。吸烟者的精神健康也会不如非吸烟者。患老年痴呆一段时间之后,患者就会失去思考、计划和组织能力。

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

Most people know that smoking causes lung cancer. But it also has been shown to be a major cause of cancers of the mouth, esophagus, kidney, bladder and pancreas. Cigarettes are not the only danger. Smokeless tobacco and cigars also have been linked to cancer. But these facts are not enough to prevent people from smoking.

大部分人都知道吸烟会引起肺癌,但也有报道表明它还是引起口腔癌、食道癌、肾癌、膀胱癌、胰腺癌的主要因素。烟草不是唯一的危险,无烟烟草和雪茄也和癌症有关。但这些因素不足以阻止人们吸烟。

The American Cancer Society says there is no safe way to smoke. The group has warned that smoking begins to cause damage immediately. All cigarettes can damage the body. Smoking even a few cigarettes is dangerous.

美国癌症协会说吸烟没有安全的方式。该组织称,只要吸烟就会立即产生危害,所有的烟草都对身体有害,甚至一小点儿都是危险的。

VOICE TWO:

Nicotine is a substance in tobacco that gives pleasure to smokers. Nicotine is a poison. The American Cancer Society says nicotine can kill a person when taken in large amounts. It does this by stopping the muscles used for breathing.

尼古丁是烟草中的一种物质会给吸烟者带来愉悦,尼古丁是毒品,美国癌症协会称大量的尼古丁会致命,由阻止肌肉呼吸而致命。

The body grows to depend on nicotine. When a former smoker smokes a cigarette, the nicotine reaction may start again. This forces the person to keep smoking.

身体依靠尼古丁而活,当一位以前的吸烟者再一次吸烟的时候,尼古丁就再次活跃起来,这就迫使人们继续吸烟

Studies have found that nicotine can be as difficult to resist as alcohol or the drug cocaine. So experts say it is better never to start smoking than it is to smoke with the idea of stopping later.

研究表明,尼古丁就像酒精和可卡碱一样难以抵制,所以专家说与其后来靠精神的力量戒烟不如一开始就远离它。

VOICE ONE:

Experts say menthol cigarettes are no safer than other tobacco products. Menthol cigarettes produce a cool feeling in the smoker's throat.

专家说,薄荷脑烟草并不比其他烟草产品更安全,薄荷脑烟草让吸烟者的喉咙有凉爽的感觉。

That means that people may hold the smoke in their lungs longer than smokers of other products. As a result, scientists suspect that menthol cigarettes may be even more dangerous than other cigarettes.

这就意味着这样的烟会比其他的烟在肺部停留更长的时间,结果,科学家怀疑薄荷脑烟草甚至比其他烟草更危险。

VOICE TWO:

Other smokers believe that cigarettes with low tar levels are safer. Tar is a substance produced when tobacco leaves are burned. It is known to cause cancer.

另外一些吸烟者认为低焦油的的烟草更安全,焦油是烟叶燃烧时产生的一种物质,它以易引发癌症而著称。

America's National Cancer Institute has said that people who smoke low-tar cigarettes do not reduce their risk of getting diseases linked to smoking. Scientists found no evidence of public health improvements from changes in cigarette design and production in the past fifty years.

美国国家癌症研究所认为,吸低焦油烟并不会减少其患与吸烟有关疾病的危险。科学家发现,在过去50年没有证据表明改变香烟的设计和生产能提高公共健康。

VOICE ONE:

Is there no way to smoke without harming your health?

真的没有办法吸烟而又不影响健康吗

The American Cancer Society does not think so. The group wants people to stop, or at least reduce, smoking.

美国癌症协会人为没有,他们认为人们应该停止或至少减少吸烟

For this reason it organizes the Great American Smokeout every year. The event takes place in November. Local volunteers support the efforts of individuals who want to stop smoking.

因此,他们组织了每年一次的全美戒烟日。该活动于十一月份举办,当地的志愿者支持想要戒烟者的努力。

The American Cancer Society says blood pressure returns to normal twenty minutes after the last cigarette. Carbon monoxide levels in the blood return to normal after eight hours. The chance of heart attack decreases after one day. After one year, the risk of heart disease for a non-smoker is half that of a smoker.

美国癌症协会说吸完最后一支烟后20分钟人们的血压才能回到正常水平,8小时之后血液中的一氧化碳水平才能恢复正常,一天后患心脏病的几率减少。一年以后,非吸烟者患心脏病的危险性是吸烟者的一半。

VOICE TWO:

There are products designed to help people reduce their dependence on cigarettes. Several kinds of nicotine replacement products provide small amounts of the chemical. These can help people stop smoking.

有些产品设计出来帮助人们减少对烟草的依赖。有几种尼古丁的替代品提供少量的化学品,来帮助人们戒烟。

Experts also say a drug used to treat depression has helped smokers. The drug is called Zyban. It does not contain nicotine. It works by increasing levels of dopamine in the brain. Dopamine is a chemical that produces pleasure.

专家也说一种药品帮助吸烟者治疗抑郁,这种药叫‘zyban’,它不含尼古丁,它靠增加大脑中的多巴胺产生影响,多巴胺是一种能产生兴奋的化学品。

VOICE ONE:

Here is some advice from people who have stopped smoking: Stay away from alcohol. Take a walk instead of smoking a cigarette. Avoid people who are smoking. If possible, stay away from situations that trouble you.

这是已经戒烟人们的一些建议:‘远离酒精,用走路来代替吸烟,原理吸烟的人们,如果可能的话,原理任何可能让你产生麻烦的情况。

It is not easy to stop. And people never can completely control their own health. But as one doctor advises her patients, becoming a non-smoker is one way to gain control of your life.

戒烟并不容易,人们从不能完全控制自己的健康,但是一位医生建议她的父母,成为非吸烟者是控制自己命运的唯一途径。

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