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我的第一篇学习笔记:12/30/2008 SCIENCE IN THE NEWS

楼主:Tracy Lovell 日期: 回贴:12 浏览:

学到的新知识

1 、知识点一 Heavy amounts of snow fall in surprisingly small areas

2 、知识点二 Snow crystals grow in one of two designs -- platelike and columnar. Platelike crystals are flat . They form when the air temperature is about fifteen degrees below zero Celsius . Columnar snow crystals look like sticks of ice. They form when the temperature is about five degrees below zero.

3 、知识点三 Snow also is known to influence the movement of sound waves. Under these conditions, sounds may seem clearer and travel farther.

4 、知识点四

Most natural materials take in some sunlight. This gives them their color. However, when light travels from air to snow, some light is sent back, or reflected. Snow crystals have many surfaces to reflect sunlight. Yet the snow does take in a little sunlight. It is this light that gives snow its white appearance.

Sometimes, snow or ice may appear to be blue. The blue light is the product of a long travel path through the snow or ice. In simple terms, think of snow or ice as a filter . A filter is designed to reject some substances, while permitting others to pass through. In the case of snow, all the light makes it through if the snow is only a centimeter thick. If it is a meter or more thick, however, blue light often can be seen.

学到的新词汇

1、 particles 与词汇英文解释

1 a very small piece of something:

dust particles

particle of

tiny particles of soil

2

not a particle of truth/evidence etc

no truth etc at all:

There's not a particle of truth in what he says.

3 one of the very small pieces of matter that an atom consists of

4 technical SLG an adverb or preposition that can combine with a verb to form a phrasal verb phrasal verb [countable]

( SLG a group of words that is used like a verb and consists of a verb with an adverb or preposition after it, for example 'set off' or 'look after'. In this dictionary, phrasal verbs are marked 'phr v'. )

particle accelerator [countable]

HP a machine used in scientific studies which makes the very small pieces of matter that atoms are made of move at high speeds

particle physics [uncountable]

HP the study of the way that parts of atoms develop and behave

elementary particle [countable]

technical HP one of the types of pieces of matter including electron s , proton s , and neutron s that make up atoms

atom 原子;

electron 电子;

proton 质子;

neutron 中子;

particle 粒子,可泛指以上各子。

2 、 Celsius

Cel si u s [uncountable] written abbreviation C

TMT a scale of temperature in which water freezes at 0º and boils at 100º [= Centigrade] :

12º Celsius (=12 degrees on the Celsius scale)

3 、 Columnar

A shape of column :

a tall solid upright stone post used to support a building or as a decoration

4 、 sleet

sleet [uncountable]

HEM half-frozen rain that falls when it is very cold:

scattered sleet and snow showers

—sleet verb [intransitive]

It was sleeting so hard we could barely see for 30 yards.

—sleety adjective

WORD FOCUS : weather

good weather: sunny/fine used to describe weather or a day when there is a lot of sunshine
nice/lovely/glorious
very sunny and good
bright
if the weather is bright, the sun shines strongly
there isn't a cloud in the sky
the sky is completely clear
dry
if the weather is dry, it does not rain
fair
sunny and not windy or rainy - used especially in weather forecasts
rain: wet/rainy/damp used to describe weather or a day when there is a lot of rain
unsettled
if the weather is unsettled, it keeps changing and it often rains
drizzle
light rain which consists of very small drops of water
shower
a short period of rain
downpour
a short period when it suddenly rains very heavily
it's pouring down British English/it's pouring rain American English it is raining very hard
it's drizzling
it is raining a little, with very small drops of rain
snow: snowy used to describe weather or a day when there is a lot of snow
sleet
a mixture of snow and rain
slush
a mixture of partly melted snow and ice
hail/hailstones
frozen drops of rain, that fall as drops of ice
blizzard
a storm with a lot of snow and strong wind
frost
white powder that covers the ground when it is cold
wind: windy used to describe a day or weather when there is a lot of wind
blustery
very windy
breeze a gentle pleasant wind
hurricane
(in the Atlantic Ocean) /typhoon (in the Pacific Ocean) a violent storm with extremely strong winds
cloudy: cloudy used to describe weather or a day when there are a lot of clouds in the sky
grey/dull
cloudy and not bright
overcast
if the sky is overcast, it is very cloudy and dark, and it is likely to rain
hazy
not clear, especially because there is a slight mist caused by heat or smoke
hot: boiling/scorching/sizzling/blazing/burning/baking/broiling (hot) extremely hot
sweltering
very hot and humid
warm
a little hot, in a way that is pleasant
balmy
pleasantly warm, with a gentle wind blowing
heatwave
a period of unusually hot weather
cold: freezing (cold) extremely cold
arctic
extremely cold, usually with a lot of ice and snow
wintry
cold and snowy or rainy, like the weather in winter
crisp
if the air is crisp, it feels cold but pleasantly fresh and clear
chilly
a little too cold, in a way that makes you feel uncomfortable
cool
a little cold, in a way that is pleasant
cold snap/cold spell
a period of unusually cold weather

5 、 droplets

drop le t [countable]

a very small drop of liquid

droplet of

tiny droplets of water

6 、 pellets

pel le t [countable]

1 a small ball of a substance:

food pellets for rabbits

7 hail

hail 1

1 [uncountable] DN frozen rain drops which fall as hard balls of ice:

heavy showers of rain and hail

2

a hail of bullets/stones etc

PMW a large number of bullets, stones etc that are thrown or fired at someone:

The aircraft were met by a hail of gunfire.

3

a hail of criticism/abuse etc

a lot of criticism etc:

The proposals met with a hail of criticism.

8 、 filter

fil te r 1 [countable]

1 T something that you pass water, air etc through in order to remove unwanted substances and make it clean or suitable to use

water/air/oil etc filter

a pond filter

coffee filter papers

filter cigarettes (=with a filter at the end)

2 TDC a piece of equipment or computer program that only allows certain sounds, images, signals, types of information etc to pass through it:

a UVA light filter

The firm uses electronic filters to prevent workers from accessing the Internet.

3 British English TTC a traffic light that shows car drivers when they can turn right or left

9 、 coastal

coast a l [only before noun]

DN in the sea or on the land near the coast:

the coastal waters of Britain

the coastal path

10 、 Alps

Alps

the Alps

a range of mountains which go through France, Switzerland, Italy, Germany, and Austria. Many people visit the Alps to ski .

11 、 Sierra Nevada

Sierra Nevada

1

the Sierra Nevada

also the Sierras a mountain range in California

2 a mountain range in southern Spain

12 、 continental United States

con ti nen ta l

1

a)

the continental United States

SG all the states of the US except Alaska and Hawaii

b)

continental Europe/Asia etc

SG all the countries of Europe, Asia etc that are not on islands

13 、 iodide DJ: [ ]

【化】碘化物

14 metaldehyde

DJ: [ ]

n.

1. 【化】聚乙醛

15 、 propane

pro pan e [uncountable]

TPG a colourless gas used for cooking and heating

DJ: [ ]

n.

1. 【化】丙烷

16 、 gas poisoning

poi son in g [uncountable and countable]

1 MI illness caused by swallowing, touching, or breathing in a poisonous substance

alcohol/lead/radiation etc poisoning (=caused by a particular substance)

a case of alcohol poisoning

2 the act of giving poison to someone:

An autopsy revealed no evidence of poisoning.

发现的实用表达

1 、实用表达一 Snow is a subject of great interest to weather experts. ;

2 、实用表达二; Each year, the continental United States has an average of one hundred snowstorms.

3 、实用表达三; People in many other areas have little or no snowfall

4 、实用表达四; Snow is responsible for the deaths of hundreds of people in the United States every year.

5 、实用表达五; It is always a good idea to keep a lot of necessary supplies in the home even before winter begins. These supplies include food, medicine, clean water, and extra power supplies.

6 、 实用表达六; People living in areas where winter storms are likely should carry emergency supplies in their vehicle.

7 、 实用表达七。 Snow can be beautiful to look at, but it can also be dangerous.

遇到的疑难问题

1 、疑难问题一; Fresh snow is made largely of air trapped among the snow crystals. Because the air has trouble moving, the movement of heat is greatly reduced.

2 、疑难问题二; In warmer climates, snow is known to fall in areas over four thousand nine hundred meters above sea level.

分享到:
  第1楼 作者:Webmaster 创建: <编辑>  <引用>

TO Tracy Lovell:

非常壮观的的学习笔记,看得出来是花了很多时间和心思的。我已经将你的这个帖子在 SCIENCE IN THE NEWS 文章正文 http://www.unsv.com/voanews/specialenglish/scripts/2008/12/30/0045/ 中推荐,并加为精华帖,奖励100个积分,希望你继续加油。建议你考虑下每周都坚持做一篇 SCIENCE IN THE NEWS 的学习笔记,如果你接受这个建议,我可以将你加入到 VOA Special English 学习研讨团队里。

2楼 作者:鲁普雷希特 创建: <编辑>  <引用>

楼主太牛了。可惜俺没这么多时间。每天也就上班时抽空听听写写就完了。

赞一个!

  第3楼 作者:Anny Wang 创建: <编辑>  <引用>

楼主做的真不错  赞一个 前段时间我也准备了一篇文章准备做读书笔记 但没有坚持下去 很惭愧 决心多向楼主学习

  第4楼 作者:jason 创建: <编辑>  <引用>

太强大了~!! 我都看不怎么懂!!

  第5楼 作者:Tracy Lovell 创建: <编辑>  <引用>

疑难问题一:Fresh snow is made largely of air trapped among the snow crystals. Because the air has trouble moving, the movement of heat is greatly reduced.

今天再看一遍,总算看懂了前面那句,“独乐乐不如众乐乐”,呵呵,分享分享。。。。

Fresh snow is made largely of air /trapped among the snow crystals.

刚下的雪是由大量空气构成的,这些空气埋藏在雪晶里面。

6楼 作者:jarlus andy 创建: <编辑>  <引用>
楼主 真是很热心啊也很认真 值得消防队饿榜样
7楼 作者:spirit-moon 创建: <编辑>  <引用>
要是我有这份学习的雅兴,英语应该很不错吧
8楼 作者:Renhongwei 创建: <编辑>  <引用>

好啊,打印下来好好学习。

我计划每周翻译一篇“Word and their stories”, 从简短的开始。

  第9楼 作者:Renhongwei 创建: <编辑>  <引用>

VOICE ONE:

This is SCIENCE IN THE NEWS, in VOA Special English. I'm Steve Ember.

VOICE TWO:

And I'm Barbara Klein. Today, we tell you everything you ever wanted to know about snow.

(MUSIC)

Winter weather has returned to northern areas of the world. In much of the United States, winter means the return of snow. Snow is a subject of great interest to weather experts. Experts sometimes have difficulty estimating where, when or how much snow will fall. One reason is that heavy amounts of snow fall in surprisingly small areas. Another reason is that a small change in temperature can mean the difference between snow and rain.

冬天已来到北方大地,。在美国大部分地区,冬天意味着降雪回归。对于气象专家来说,雪是一个很趣的课题。 有时专家很难估计何时、何地会下雪,以及雪会下多大。一个原因是大量的雪下在一些不可思议的小地方。另一个原因是气温上的微小变化意味着雪和雨之间的不同结果。

VOICE TWO:

Snow is a form of frozen water. It contains many groups of tiny ice particles called snow crystals. These crystals grow from water particles in cold clouds. They usually grow around a piece of dust. All snow crystals have six sides, but they grow in different shapes. The shape depends mainly on the temperature and water levels 森 in the air.

雪是由冻水形成,包含大量细小冰粒的冻水被称作雪晶,这些晶体由寒冷云层中的小水滴形成。通常它们在尘埃的周围形成。所有的雪晶都有六个边,但是有不同的形状。形状主要有赖于温度和空气中的水层。

Snow crystals grow in one of two designs -- platelike and columnar. Platelike crystals are flat. They form when the air temperature is about fifteen degrees below zero Celsius. Columnar snow crystals look like sticks of ice. They form when the temperature is about five degrees below zero.

雪晶有两种图案 — 盘状和柱型。盘状雪晶是平的,当温度在摄氏零下 15 度是形成。柱状雪晶看起来是冰棒,当温度在摄氏零下 5 度是形成。

VOICE ONE:

The shape of a snow crystal may change from one form to another as the crystal passes through levels of air with different temperatures. When melting snow crystals or raindrops fall through very cold air, they freeze to form small particles of ice, called sleet.

当雪晶的穿过不同温度的空气时,形状可能会从一种形状变化成另一种。当融化的雪晶和降雨下降穿过寒冷空气时,会被冻成小冰粒,叫做冰雨。

Groups of frozen water droplets are called snow pellets. Under some conditions, these particles may grow larger and form solid pieces of ice, or hail.

一群冰冻的水滴被称为雪雹。在一些条件下,这些粒子可能变大,形成实心的冰粒,或者冰雹。

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

When snow crystals stick together, they produce snowflakes. Snowflakes come in different sizes. As many as one hundred crystals may join together to form a snowflake larger than two and one-half centimeters. Under some conditions, snowflakes can form that are five centimeters long. Usually, this requires near freezing temperatures, light winds and changing conditions in Earth's atmosphere.

当雪晶相互贴在一起时,形成雪花。雪花有不同大小。一百个雪晶结合在一起能够形成 1.5 到 2 厘米 大的雪花。在有些情况下,雪花能有 5 厘米 那么大,这需要接近冰冻的温度,清风和大气压的变化。

Snow contains much less water than rain. About fifteen centimeters of wet snow has as much water as two and one-half centimeters of rain. About seventy-six centimeters of dry snow equals the water in two and one-half centimeters of rain.

雪含有的水分比雨少。 15 厘米 的湿雪含有的水分和 1.5 厘米 的雨差不多。大约 76 厘米 的干雪和 2 到 1.5 厘米 的雨含有一样多的水分。

VOICE ONE:

Much of the water we use comes from snow. Melting snow provides water for rivers, electric power centers and agricultural crops. In the western United States, mountain snow provides up to seventy-five percent of all surface water supplies.

我们使用的大量水来自雪。融化的雪为江河、电厂、农作物提供了水。在美国西部,雪山提供的地表水达到 75% 。

Snowfall helps to protect plants and some wild animals from cold, winter weather. Fresh snow is made largely of air trapped among the snow crystals. Because the air has trouble moving, the movement of heat is greatly reduced.

降雪有助于保护植物和一些野生动物免于冬日的严寒。新下的雪中的雪晶中包含大量的空气。由于空气不容易流动,热量的流动大大减少。

Snow also is known to influence the movement of sound waves. When there is fresh snow on the ground, the surface of the snow takes in, or absorbs, sound waves. However, snow can become hard and flat as it becomes older or if there have been strong winds. Then the snow's surface will help to send back sound waves. Under these conditions, sounds may seem clearer and travel farther.

雪被知道会影响声音的传播。当地上新下过雪时,雪的表面会吸收声波。然而,当雪下过一段时候后,或者经过大风刮过时,雪会变硬变平,因此,雪表面将有助于音波传递。在这种情况下,声音听出来更清晰,传的更远。

VOICE TWO:

Generally, the color of snow and ice appears white. This is because the light we see from the sun is white. Most natural materials take in some sunlight. This gives them their color. However, when light travels from air to snow, some light is sent back, or reflected. Snow crystals have many surfaces to reflect sunlight. Yet the snow does take in a little sunlight. It is this light that gives snow its white appearance.

通常,冰雪的颜色看来是白的。这是因为我们看到的来自太阳的光是白的。自然界的大部分物质会吸收一些光线,这也是他们显示的颜色。但是,当光线从空气中穿过雪是,有些光会反射,雪晶有很多表面来反射太阳光,它们仅仅吸收少量太阳光,它显示出来的白色正是这种光线。

Sometimes, snow or ice may appear to be blue. The blue light is the product of a long travel path through the snow or ice. In simple terms, think of snow or ice as a filter. A filter is designed to reject some substances, while permitting others to pass through. In the case of snow, all the light makes it through if the snow is only a centimeter thick. If it is a meter or more thick, however, blue light often can be seen.

冰雪有时也显示成蓝色。当太阳光长距离穿过冰或雪时,形成蓝光。简单来说,将冰雪看出过滤器。过滤器用来阻止一些东西通过,然而允许其他东西穿过。就雪而言,如果雪的厚度仅仅有 1 厘米 厚,所有光线会穿过它。然而如果雪的厚度有 1 米 或者更多,常常会看到蓝光。

(MUSIC)

Snow falls in extreme northern and southern areas of the world throughout the year. However, the heaviest snowfalls have been reported in the mountains of other areas during winter. These areas include the Alps in Italy and Switzerland, the coastal mountains of western Canada, and the Sierra Nevada and Rocky Mountains in the United States. In warmer climates, snow is known to fall in areas over four thousand nine hundred meters above sea level.

在南极和北极地区,终年都有降雪。但是,在冬季,其他地方的山区里,经常被报道下来非常严重的暴风雪。这些地区包括意大利的阿尔比斯,瑞典,加拿大西部的海岸山区。在温带,雪被认为会下在海拨 4900 以上的地方。

VOICE TWO:

Each year, the continental United States has an average of one hundred snowstorms. An average storm produces snow for two to five days. Almost every part of the country has received snowfall at one time or another. Even parts of southern Florida have reported a few snowflakes.

在美国大陆,平均每年有 100 场暴风雪。平均每场暴风雪会到来 2-6 天的降雪。在全国大部分地区,都会有 1 场降雪或者更多。甚至福罗里达州南部也有少量暴风雪的报道。

The national record for snowfall in a single season was set in nineteen ninety-eight and nineteen ninety-nine. Two thousand eight hundred ninety-five centimeters of snow fell at the Mount Baker Ski area in the northwestern state of Washington.

全国单季的降雪记录在 1998-1999 年度创造。在华盛顿州的西北部的 Baker 山区,下了 2895 厘米 的雪。

VOICE ONE:

People in many other areas have little or no snowfall. In nineteen thirty-six, a physicist from Japan produced the first man-made snow in a laboratory. During the nineteen-forties, several American scientists developed methods for making snow in other areas. Clouds with extremely cool water are mixed with man-made ice crystals, such as silver iodide and metaldehyde crystals. Sometimes, dry ice particles or liquid propane are used. Today, special machines are used to produce limited amounts of snow for winter holiday ski areas.

许多地区的人们很少见到降雪或者根本见不到。在 1936 ,一名日本物理学家在实验室里第一次制出了人造雪。在 19 世纪 40 年代,一些美国科学家发明了一些方法,能够在其他地方产生雪。

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

Snow is responsible for the deaths of hundreds of people in the United States every year. Many people die in traffic accidents on roads that are covered with snow or ice. Others die from being out in the cold or from heart attacks caused by extreme physical activity.

在美国,每年雪要为数百人的死亡负责。许多人死于冰雪覆盖的道路上发生的交通事故。其他人死于户外的严寒或者由剧烈运动造成的心脏病发作。

Several years ago, a major storm caused serious problems in the eastern United States. It struck the Southeast in January, ninety ninety-six, before moving up the East Coast. The storm was blamed for more than one hundred deaths. It forced nine states to declare emergency measures.

许多年之前,一场大的暴风雪给美国东部造成了严重问题。在 1 月,向东海岸移动之前,它袭击了东南部。这场暴风雪早场 100 多人死亡,使得 9 个州宣布紧急状态。

Virginia and West Virginia were hit hardest. In some areas there, snowfall amounts were more than one meter high. Several states limited driving to emergency vehicles. Most major airports were closed for at least a day or two.

维吉尼亚和西维吉尼亚受灾最重。在那里的一些地区,降雪量达 1 米 厚。很多州为了紧急车辆而限制驾驶。大部分重要机场关闭了至少一到两天。

A week later, two other storms brought additional snow to the East Coast. In the New York City area, the added weight of the snow forced the tops of some buildings to break down. Many travelers were forced to walk long distances through deep snow to get to train stations.

一周以后,又有两场暴风雪给东海岸带来了更多的降雪。在纽约市区,新增的降雪使得一些建筑的顶部坍塌。为了赶到火车站,许多旅游者被迫踏着厚厚的积雪,走了很长的路。

VOICE ONE:

People may not be able to avoid living in areas where it snows often. However, they can avoid becoming victims of winter snowstorms.

人们不能使得生活的地区避免大雪光顾。然而,他们能够避免能为暴风雪的受害者。

People should stay in their homes until the storm has passed. While removing large amounts of snow, they should stop and rest often. Difficult physical activity during snow removal can cause a heart attack. It is always a good idea to keep a lot of necessary supplies in the home even before winter begins. These supplies include food, medicine, clean water, and extra power supplies.

人们应该呆在家里,知道暴风雪过去。当清除厚厚的积雪时,应该经常停下来休息。在清除积雪时的艰苦体力活动可能造成心脏病发作。在冬天来临之前,准备大量的必需物品总是个不错的想法,这些东西包括食物、药品、干净水和额外的电源。

VOICE TWO:

Some drivers have become trapped in their vehicles during a snowstorm. If this happens, people should remain in or near their car unless they see some kind of help. They should get out and clear space around the vehicle to prevent the possibility of carbon monoxide gas poisoning.

在暴风雪中,有些司机被困在车里。如果发生这种事,应该呆在车里或者车子附近,直到得到一些帮助。人们还应该下车,在车子周围清理出一些空间,防止一氧化碳中毒。

People should tie a bright-colored object to the top of their car to increase the chance of rescue. Inside the car, they should open a window a little for fresh air and turn on the engine for ten or fifteen minutes every hour for heat.

人们还应该在车子顶部贴一些颜色鲜亮的东西,来增加获救的机会。如果在车里,人们应该将车窗打开一些,来获取新鲜空气,每隔一小时,应该将发动机开 10-15 分钟,来保持车内温度。

People living in areas where winter storms are likely should carry emergency supplies in their vehicle. These include food, emergency medical supplies, and extra clothing to stay warm and dry. People in these areas should always be prepared for winter emergencies. Snow can be beautiful to look at, but it can also be dangerous.

生活在暴风雪经常光顾地方的人们应该在车里准备一些救急物品,包括食品、急救药品和额外的保暖防湿的衣物。那些地区的人们应该时常为冬天的紧急情况做准备。雪看起来美丽,但也危险。

10楼 作者:liupei 创建: <编辑>  <引用>
疑惑一下,这样学是不是有些浪费时间了啊,从小学到大学我没有做笔记的习惯。觉得用在做笔记上的时间不如背下来记在脑子里。说实在的我也没耐性做笔记,不知道有没有人同意我的观点?或者是给我点建议。
11楼 作者:jimven 创建: <编辑>  <引用>

非常好  谢谢

12楼 作者:小布 创建: <编辑>  <引用>

学习一下

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