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翻译研讨:23-MAR-09 科学新闻——经济衰退加重美国工人的心里疾病“STRESS ”

楼主:SHANGYU CHEN 日期: 回贴:5 浏览:

SCIENCE IN THE NEWS - Recession Raising Stress Levels in US Workers

科学新闻 --- 经济衰退加重美国工人的心里疾病“ STRESS

【 注: STRESS 本意是压力,紧张。这里的意思是一种由于压力引起的心里疾病。具体应该怎么翻译,希望得到大家的指点。 】

Written by George Grow

VOICE ONE:

This is SCIENCE IN THE NEWS in VOA Special English. I'm Barbara Klein.

VOICE TWO:

And I'm Bob Doughty. This week, we will tell about stress and its effects on human health. Stress is a condition resulting from mental or emotional tension. Studies have shown it can reduce the body's ability to fight disease and lead to serious health problems.

我是 BOB DOUGHTY 。本周,我们将谈论有关 STRESS 以及 STRESS 对人类健康的影响。 STRESS 是一种由于精神或者心里上的紧张而导致的身体状况。研究发现,这种疾病会减低身体对疾病的抵抗能力从而引起一系列健康的问题。

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

Almost two-thirds of American workers say they are struggling or suffering because of stress from the current economic recession. That information comes from a recent opinion study by the Gallup Organization.

【 GALLUP ORGANIZATION: 盖洛普咨询公司,美国著名的咨询公司。 】

差不多有三分之二的美国工人说,由于当前经济衰退的压力,他们正在苦苦挣扎而备受折磨。这些信息来自于盖洛普咨询公司最近的研究观点。

Another study found that almost half of American workers expressed concern about their ability to provide for immediate family needs. Not surprisingly, many workers say they are eating or drinking too much, and smoking more as they attempt to deal with money issues.

另外的一个研究发现差不多有一半的美国工人表示他们担心自己的能力能否为自己的家庭提供基本的需求保障。不出意料,许多工人说他们现在吃的更多,喝的也多,抽烟也多,因为他们试图处理他们目前的收入的问题。

VOICE TWO:

Stress affects everybody, every day. Stress is how your body reacts to physical, chemical, emotional or environmental influences. Some stress is unavoidable and may even be good for us. Stress can keep our bodies and minds strong. It gives us the push we need to deal with an urgent situation.

每一个人每一天的生活都存在着紧张和压力。紧张和压力是一个人的身体对物理,化学,情绪和环境影响的反映。有些紧张和压力是不可避免的而且对人是有好处的。它会保持我们的身体和精神处在一个最活跃的状态。他会促使我们处理好一些紧急的情况。

But too much stress can be harmful. It may make an existing health problem worse. Or it can lead to sickness if a person is at risk for the condition.

但是,太大的紧张和压力是有害的。他会使得一个人已经存在的健康问题更为严重,也会使有疾病征兆的人真正生病。

For example, your body reacts to stressful situations by raising your blood pressure and making your heart work harder. This is dangerous if you already have heart disease or high blood pressure. Stress is more likely to be harmful if you feel helpless to deal with the problem or situation that causes the stress.

例如,身体对紧张和压力的反应是血压升高同时心脏加速。这对于一个已经有高血压或者心脏疾病的人来说是非常危险的。如果你对引起紧张和压力的情况和问题还感到无助,这种情况就更具有伤害性。

VOICE ONE:

Anything you see as a problem can cause stress. It can result from everyday situations or major problems. Stress results when something causes your body to act as if it were being attacked.

【这句话的理解有点困难,不知正确的理解是什么?】

任何你觉得是一个问题的事情都会引起紧张和压力。这种紧张和压力来自于每天面对的情况或者一些大的问题。当一些事情将受到侵袭需要你的身体做出反映的时候,紧张和压力就产生了。

Causes of stress can be physical, such as injury or disease. Or they can be mental, such as problems involving your family, job, health or finances. Many visits to doctors are for conditions linked to stress.

引起紧张和压力的原因可以是物理的:例如损伤或者疾病。也可以是精神上的,例如家庭问题,工作问题,健康的问题和财务的问题。许多需要看医生的情况都是与紧张和压力有关。

The tension of stress can interfere with sleep or cause anger or sadness. A person may become more forgetful or find it harder to think clearly. Losing one's sense of humor is another sign of an unhealthy amount of stress.

【这句话的理解有点困难,不知正确的理解是什么?】

紧张的压力妨碍睡眠或者会引起怒气或者悲伤,也会使一个人变得健忘或者思路不清晰。失去一个人应有的幽默感是许多不健康的紧张的另一个信号。

Stress can lead to other problems if people attempt to ease it by taking drugs, smoking, drinking alcohol or by eating more or less than normal.

如果人们想通过吃药,吸烟,喝酒或者比平常吃的更多或者更少来减少压力,这只会导致另外的更多的问题。

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

Chronic stress lasts a long time or happens often. Chronic stress causes the body to produce too much of two hormones, cortisol and adrenalin. Cortisol is called the "worry" hormone. It is produced when we are afraid. Adrenalin prepares the body to react physically to a threat.

慢性的 STRESS 会持续很长时间或者会经常发作。慢性的 STRESS 会使身体内产生过多的皮质醇肾上腺素这两种荷尔蒙激素。皮质醇被称为“忧虑”荷尔蒙。在我们感到害怕的时候就会产生皮质醇。肾上腺素是身体对威胁的反应。

Persons suffering from chronic stress produce too much of these hormones for too long. Too much cortisol and adrenalin can result in physical problems and changes that lead to stress-related sickness.

一个人在承受慢性的 STRESS 的过程中会长时间的产生这些荷尔蒙。太多的皮质醇和肾上腺素会引起一些身体问题和有导致与 STRESS 相关的疾病的危险。

Cortisol provides high levels of energy during important periods. However, scientists have become concerned about the hormone's long-term effects on our health. Evidence shows that extended periods of cortisol in the body weakens bones, damages nerve cells in the brain and weakens the body's defense system against disease. This makes it easier to get viral and bacterial infections.

【这里的 IMPORTANT PERIODS 理解为危机时刻更为合理】

在危急的时刻,皮质醇会给身体提供高水平的能量。然而,科学家们开始关心长时间的荷尔蒙分泌对我们健康的影响。有证据显示身体中长时间的皮质醇的存在会使得人体骨骼弱化;损害大脑的神经元同时弱化身体的免疫系统。这会使得身体容易受到病毒和细菌的感染。

VOICE ONE:

Chronic stress has been linked to high blood pressure and heart disease. Studies suggest that people who are easily stressed develop blockages in blood passageways faster than other people.

慢性 STRESS 与高血压和心脏疾病有密切的联系。研究发现一个容易紧张的人较其他人在血液中形成堵塞物的速度要快。

High stress levels have been found to cause asthma attacks that make it difficult to breathe. Stress is also linked to mental conditions like depression and anxiety disorders. Extended periods of stress have been linked to headaches, difficulty sleeping, stomach problems and skin disorders.

【 SKIN DISOEDERS 如何翻译?】

严重的 STRESS 已经发现会导致气喘并引起呼吸的困难。 STRESS 也会引起与精神状态有关的疾病:情绪低落或者身心焦虑。长期的 STRESS 还会引起头疼,失眠,胃疼和皮肤的失调。

Studies also show that chronic stress reduces the levels of the hormone estrogen in women. This might put some women at greater risk for heart disease or the bone-thinning disease osteoporosis.

研究还发现慢性 STRESS 会降低女性的雌性激素的分泌水平。这可能会导致一些女性面临心脏疾病或者骨质疏松症的巨大风险。

VOICE TWO:

A recent study found that emotional stress may put some older adults at risk of falls and broken bones. Swedish researchers studied one hundred thirty-seven older adults who suffered bone fractures after falling. The patients were questioned at two hospitals.

瑞典的研究人员在两个医院里对 137 名因为摔倒而骨折的老人进行问卷调查,结果显示:情绪性的 STRESS 会让一些老人有摔倒和骨折的风险。

The study found that the patients' risk of suffering a fall was higher for up to one hour after emotional stress. Sadness increased the risk nearly six percent compared to periods with no such feelings. For anger, there was an increased risk of more than twelve percent. And, stress increased the risk of falling by about twenty percent.

研究发现对于情绪性 STRESS 的病人在病情发作后一个小时后摔倒的风险最高。这个期间如果掺有悲伤的情绪会使摔倒的风险比没有悲伤的情绪的情况下增加 6% 。对于掺有忿怒的情绪,其风险更是增加 12% 以上。同时,紧张度的不断增加会使得摔倒的风险增加 20% 。

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

Mental and health experts believe personality is an important part in how we experience stress. Personality is the way a person acts, feels and thinks. Many things influence a person's personality, including genetics and experience.

精神和健康专家相信,对 STRESS 的不同的体验,每个人的个性是一个很重要的决定部分。人的个性是一个人的行为,感受和思维方式。许多事情会影响一个人的个性,包括遗传因素和个人的经历。

Some people, for example, are aggressive and always in a hurry. They often become angry when things do not happen the way they planned. They are called "Type A" personalities.

例如,有些人总是很激进和匆忙。他们经常对事情没有按照他们的计划发展而大发脾气。这种人的个性被成为“类型 A”

The "Type B" personality is calmer. These people are able to deal with all kinds of situations more easily. As a result, they are less affected by stress.

“类型 B “的人则心平气和。这些人比较容易处理各种情况,其结果他们较少受 STRESS 的影响。

VOICE TWO:

Studies have shown that men and women deal with stress differently. Women usually have stronger social support systems to help them in times of trouble. These social supports may help explain why many women seem to be better able to deal with stress than men are. However, experts say women are three times more likely to develop depression in reaction to the stress in their lives.

研究也发现,男性和女性对紧张和压力的处理是不同的。女性通常有一个比较强的社会支持系统帮助他们度过艰难的时刻。这些社会的支持有助于解释为什么许多女性较男性有较好的处理紧张和压力的能力。然而,女性在他们的生活中对紧张和压力的反映的沮丧程度三倍于男性。

VOICE ONE:

American writer John Gray became famous for his book, "Men are from Mars, Women are from Venus." The book explored the effect of biological differences between men and women on their personal relationships.

【注: MEN ARE FROM MARS,WOMEN ARE FROM VENUS 是一本书名】

【这里的 PERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS 翻译成“个人的社会关系”】

美国作家 JOHN GRAY ,就是因为他的书《男人来自火星,女人来自金星。》而出名的。这本书探讨了男性和女性在个人社会关系方面的生物学上的区别。

Mister Gray says one major difference is the way people react to the hormone testosterone. The body releases this hormone to deal with stressful situations. Mister Gray says studies have linked a rise in testosterone levels to reduced stress in men. But high testosterone levels have no such effect on women.

GRAY 先生说:一个最大的不同是人对睾酮激素的反应。人在处于紧张和压力的状况下身体会分泌出这种激素。 GRAY 先生说,对于男性来说,这种激素会减轻他的紧张和压力的程度。但是,高水平的睾酮激素对女性没有这种影响效果。

He notes that men and women have opposite ways of dealing with stress. For a man, the best way is to rest and forget about daily problems. But a woman suffering from stress needs to talk about her problems. Talking leads to the release of the brain hormone oxytocin, which lowers her stress levels.

他注意到男性和女性对处理紧张和压力是相反的办法。对于一个男性来说,最好的办法是休息和忘记这些每天的问题。但是女性需要通过谈论她的问题来对付紧张和压力。交谈会使大脑分泌“后叶催生素”的激素,这种激素会降低女性的紧张和压力程度。

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

Experts say there are several ways to deal with stress. They include deep breathing and a method of guided thought called meditation.

专家们说,有许多办法可以对付紧张和压力。这些办法包括深呼吸和一种引导性思维的方法叫做冥想

They also include exercise, eating healthy foods, getting enough rest and balancing the time spent working and playing. Doctors say people should limit the amounts of alcohol and caffeine in their diets. People who have many drinks with caffeine, like coffee, experience more stress and produce more stress hormones.

这些方法也包括锻炼,吃些健康的食品,足够的休息和平衡工作和娱乐的时间。医生说人们应该控制他们日常饮食中的酒精和咖啡因的数量。一个人喝了越多的咖啡因,例如咖啡,他会体验到更多的紧张和压力同时身体也会产生更多的紧张激素。

Experts say exercise is one of the most effective stress-reduction measures. Running, walking or playing sports causes physical changes that make you feel better. Exercise also improves the body's defense system against disease. And studies have found that it helps protect against a decrease in mental ability.

专家们说,锻炼是减少紧张程度的最有效的方法之一。跑步,步行,或者球类运动会改变身体的状况,会改善你的自我感觉。锻炼也会改善你的身体的免疫系统更好的对付各种疾病。研究也发现锻炼也有助于阻止头脑思维能力的下降。

VOICE ONE:

Doctors say deep, slow breathing is also helpful. And many medical studies have shown that clearing the mind through quiet meditation helps you become calm. This causes lower blood pressure, reduced muscle tension and decreased heart rate.

医生说,慢慢的深呼吸也是很有帮助的。许多医学上的研究也显示用静静的冥想来清除头脑里的各种杂念有助于使你变得平静。这样会降低血压,减少肌肉的紧张程度,同时减慢心跳的速度。

Experts also say keeping stress to yourself can make problems worse. Researchers have linked the failure to identify and express emotions to many health conditions. These include eating disorders, fear disorders and high blood pressure.

【这段比较费解,请教正确的翻译和理解。】

专家们也说:将紧张和压力放在自己的肚子里只会让问题变得更糟糕。研究者注意到一些在健康的情况下不可取的表达情绪的现象。这些现象包括饮食混乱,莫名的恐惧和高血压。

They say expressing emotions to friends or family members or writing down your feelings can help reduce stress. Experts say people should attempt to accept or change stressful situations whenever possible.

他们说,向你的朋友或者家人说说你的问题或者把你的感觉写下来都有助于减少你的紧张和压力。专家们说,人们应该随时随地接受或者努力去改变造成紧张和压力的环境。

VOICE TWO:

Judith Orloff is a mental health expert at the University of California at Los Angeles. She wrote a book called "Emotional Freedom" that deals directly with Americans' economic fears. Doctor Orloff advises workers not to worry about things they cannot control. Instead, she urges them to think about the one thing that most concerns them, and to deal with it.

JUDITH ORLOFF 是位于洛杉矶的加州大学的一位精神健康专家。她写了一本叫做《释放情绪》的书。这本书就是直接针对美国的经济忧虑的。 ORLOFF 医生告诉工人们不要去担心那些你无法控制的事情。取而代之,她鼓励他们去考虑一件他们最关心的事情同时去处理它。

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

SCIENCE IN THE NEWS was written by George Grow. Our producer was Brianna Blake. I'm Barbara Klein.

VOICE TWO:

And I'm Bob Doughty. Join us again next week for more news about science in VOA Special English.

----------------------------------------
最佳回复 该帖于2009年3月25日被版主推荐为精华帖。

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1楼 作者:jackqdch 创建: <编辑>  <引用>

Stress(压力) results when something causes your body to act as if it were being attacked
这是2009-3-24的SCIENCE IN THE NEWS中的一篇文章。请教高手如何翻译,这个句型是
什么句型?请赐教。谢谢。

2楼 作者:Lee Winsu 创建: <编辑>  <引用>

我认为这是"含有一个时间状语从句里面还包含一个虚拟语气从句"

这句话总的意思是说人心理压力怎么产生的.具体翻译就是"就好象身体受到了攻击一样,当某件事情引发了身体的反应,这个时候就产生了心理压力"

3楼 作者:boby 创建: <编辑>  <引用>

Experts also say keeping stress to yourself can make problems worse. Researchers have linked the failure to identify and express emotions to many health conditions. These include eating disorders, fear disorders and high blood pressure. 【这段比较费解,请教正确的翻译和理解。】 专家们也说:将紧张和压力放在自己的肚子里只会让问题变得更糟糕。研究者注意到一些在健康的情况下不可取的表达情绪的现象。这些现象包括饮食混乱,莫名的恐惧和高血压。

health conditions:疾病, include eating disorders, fear disorders and high blood pressure.

 failure to identify and express emotions 不能正确鉴别和表达感情(不定式作定语)

link A to B : 将 A ,B 联系起来

研究人员认为不能正确鉴别和表达感情与很多疾病都有关系。

4楼 作者:JasonLai 创建: <编辑>  <引用>

stress results when something causes your body to act as if it were being attacked.

我认为这句话应该翻为:压力产生的征兆是你的身体感觉好像被攻击一样。或者像心里有块沉重的石头。

  第5楼 作者:JerryLiu 创建: <编辑>  <引用>

stress results when something causes your body to act as if it were being attacked.

我认为这句话应该翻为:心理压力(问题)发生于因外界事物所导致而引起你身体所出现的被侵犯感觉。

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