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翻译研讨- 1-APR-09 自然探索: 不断繁忙的太空和宇宙中越来越多轨道交叉的风险

楼主:SHANGYU CHEN 日期: 回贴:5 浏览:

EXPLORATIONS - Risk of Crossed Paths Grows in Increasingly Crowded Skies and Space

自然探索:不断繁忙的太空和宇宙中越来越多轨道交叉的风险

【这个题目的意思是:在拥挤的太空和宇宙中,航空器的运行的轨道越来越多,风险也越来越大。这里的“拥挤”从下文的内容来看包括太空中存在的航空器的残骸。】

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在线聆听和下载本文请到下列地址:
http://www.unsv.com/voanews/specialenglish/scripts/2009/04/01/0045/

Written by  Mario Ritter

VOICE ONE:

I'm Steve Ember.

VOICE TWO:

And I'm Faith Lapidus with EXPLORATIONS in VOA Special English. This week, we tell about a growing threat to airplanes around the world. And we hear about objects in space that are threatening satellites and the International Space Station.

我是美国之音特别英语的 FAITH LAPIDUS 。本周,我们讲述有关全世界的飞机面临的威胁增加和听说正威胁着卫星和国际空间站的太空物体的问题。

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

On January fifteenth, US Airways flight fifteen forty-nine was leaving La Guardia airport near New York City. Everything seemed normal and the weather was good that day. But as the passenger jet climbed to about nine hundred meters in the air, something happened.

今年一月十五日, US AIRWAY 的 1549 航班正离开纽约附近的 LA GUARDIA 机场。一切看起来都很正常,那天天气也很好。但是,当乘客们在空中被抛起 900 米高的时候,意外的事情发生了。

【 US AIRWAS: 美国的一家经营的很好的航空公司。 】

Captain Chesley Sullenberger reported that both of his plane's engines had struck birds. The engines soon lost all power. The plane was unable to return to the airport. So Captain Sullenberger made a quick decision to land the plane on the freezing water of the nearby Hudson River. The emergency landing was performed perfectly.

机长 CHESLEY SULLENBERGER 报告说,他的飞机的两个引擎被鸟撞上了,引擎马上会失去动力,飞机已经无法回到机场。所以 SULLENBERGER 机长很快做了一个决定将飞机迫降在哈德森河附近的结冰的水面上。紧急迫降非常成功。

Captain Sullenberger's actions saved the lives of one hundred fifty-five passengers and crew.But the incident brought attention to a real and growing threat to air safety.

SULLENBERGER 的行动拯救了 155 名乘客和机组人员的生命。但是这件小事的发生引起人们对空中安全威胁的存在和增多的注意。

VOICE TWO:

Bird strikes happen all over the world. And they are not rare. Bird Strike Committee USA gathers information about such incidents in the United States and around the world. The group is a volunteer committee. It includes members from the Federal Aviation Administration, Department of Agriculture, Defense Department and the aviation industry.

全世界到处都发生飞机撞鸟的事件,这并不罕见。美国鸟撞委员会收集美国及全世界发生的类似的事件。这个委员会一个自愿者机构,成员包括联邦航空管理局,农业部,国防部和航空工业界。

Bird Strike Committee USA says bird strikes cause about six hundred million dollars in damage to American civilian and military aviation each year. The group says fifty-six thousand incidents were reported to the F.A.A. between nineteen ninety and two thousand four. More than seven thousand six hundred bird and other wildlife strikes were reported for civilian aircraft in two thousand seven.

美国鸟撞委员会说:每年,鸟撞击事件导致美国的民用和军事航空业大约 6 亿美元的损失。委员会还说,在 1990 年至 2004 年间,联邦航空协会收到 56000 起鸟撞事件的报告。较 2007 年收到的 7600 起民用航空鸟撞及其他野生生物撞击事件多出许多。

But studies show only about twenty percent of bird strikes to civilian aircraft are reported. These incidents can be deadly. The organization says wildlife strikes have led to the deaths of two hundred nineteen people around the world since nineteen eighty-eight.

但是,研究表明,只有大约 20% 的民用航空的鸟撞时间报告了有关部门。这些事件都是致命的。有关的组织说全世界野生生物撞击事件自 1988 年以来已经导致 219 人死亡。

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

In the United States, aviation officials have taken measures to reduce the risk from bird strikes and dangers from other wildlife since the nineteen sixties.

在美国,从上世纪六十年代开始,航空部门已经采取措施旨在减少鸟及其他野生生物的撞击的危险。

Federal Aviation Administration rules require airports to study the risks of wildlife to safe airport operations. These studies must consider wildlife activity up to about three thousand meters above an airport and eight kilometers around it. They also must provide detailed information about nearby water and environmental issues that could cause wildlife to gather near an airport.

联邦航空局的规定要求各机场研究野生生物的撞击的危险以使机场能够安全的运行。这些研究必需考虑到野生动物的活动范围围绕着机场上空高达 3000 米,方圆 8 公里。他们必需提供详细的附近的水域和环境的信息。这些水域会导致野生动物聚集在机场的附近。

Michael O'Donnell is director of the F.A.A. Office of Airport Safety and Standards. He says there are about five hundred sixty commercial service airports in the United States. Not all airports need wildlife control plans. But the ones that do work closely with government agencies. The Department of Agriculture, for example, provides biologists to help study wildlife that could be a danger to air travel.

MICHAEL O’DONNELL 是联邦航空协会的机场安全和标准办公室的主任。他说,在美国大约有 560 个商用机场。不是每一个机场都需要野生动物控制计划的。但是,如果需要的话,他们确实需要与政府的有关部门紧密合作。例如,农业部,能够提供那些会引起空中飞行危险的野生动物的生物学资料,以有助于对这些野生动物的研究。

VOICE TWO:

The number of reported bird strikes has increased since nineteen ninety. One reason is that there are more birds. Protected species have reproduced in huge numbers. For example, permanent populations of Canada geese in North America have increased three hundred percent in eighteen years to four million birds.

自九十年代以来,鸟撞事件的报告数量一直在增加。一个原因是鸟的数量在增加。物种保护使得它们繁殖数量巨大。例如,一直生长在北美的加拿大雌鹅在过去的十八年里增加了 300% ,达到了 400 万只。

Other birds have spread quickly across areas with heavy air traffic. The European starling was released for the first time in the United States over one hundred years ago. Today, there are more than one hundred fifty million of these birds. They are called "feathered bullets" because of their high body density.

其他鸟类也随着大量的在夸区域的迁徙而快速的扩散。欧洲八哥一百年以前首先在美国出现。今天,有超过 1.5 亿只这种鸟类生长在美国。他们被称为“带羽毛的子弹”,因为他们的身体的密度很高。

Another reason for the increase in bird strikes is the growing popularity of air travel in the United States. Since nineteen eighty, flights have increased by about two percent each year. In two thousand seven, the number reached twenty-eight million.

另一个导致鸟撞事件增加的原因是美国空中旅行的普及程度的增加。自 1980 年以来,航班每年以 2% 的速度在增加。 2007 年,航班数量已经达到 2800 万个。

Airports have used many different methods to reduce the number of birds and other wildlife nearby. These include lasers, noise makers and, when necessary, killing problem animals.

机场已经使用各种不同的方法去减少附件的鸟类及其他野生动物。这些方法包括激光,制造噪声和必要时对有问题的鸟类进行捕杀。

VOICE ONE:

The F.A.A. is also seeking ways to help planes avoid birds. Since the emergency landing of flight fifteen forty-nine, special radars have received a lot of attention. The air travel agency is currently testing a radar system at the international airport in Seattle, Washington. The F.A.A. plans to test new radar systems at airports in Chicago, Illinois; Dallas, Texas; and New York City.

联邦航空局也在寻找方法帮助飞机避开鸟类。因为这次 1549 航班在降落的时候,一种特殊的雷达收到了很多值得注意的信息。航空部门现在正在华盛顿的西雅图国际机场测试一种雷达系统。联邦航空局计划在芝加哥,伊利诺伊斯,达拉斯,德克萨斯和纽约测试这种新的雷达系统。

Michael O'Donnell says the F.A.A. is spending between seven hundred fifty thousand and one million dollars a year on radar research.

MICHAEL O’DONNELL 说,联邦航空局在新雷达系统的研究上一年花费 75 万至 100 万美元。

The United States space agency already uses an Aircraft Birdstrike Avoidance Radar at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The radar is built by the company DeTect of Panama City, Florida. It was put in place to help protect the space shuttle from bird strike damage. And the Air Force currently uses radar developed by DeTect at several bases.

美国空间局已经在佛罗里达州的肯尼迪宇航中心使用一种叫做“航空器鸟撞回避雷达”。这个雷达由位于佛罗里达巴拿马市的 DE TECH 公司制造。同时,美国空军现在也在几个基地使用这种由该公司开发的雷达系统。

Technology also has a part in the growing threat from birds. Today's large passenger planes have fewer but more powerful engines than older models. That means it is easier for planes with only two engines to strike a flock of birds and lose power in both engines.

鸟类的威胁还有一部分的原因是来自于航空技术。今天,大型的旅客飞机较以前的老型号的飞机减少了引擎的数量,但增加了引擎的功率。这就意味着,飞机比较容易两个引擎撞到一群鸟,同时两个引擎失去动力。

But Michael O'Donnell says the number of serious bird strike incidents has remained at or b elow two hundred each year. He credits this to better education and knowledge about the issue.

但是, MICHAEL ODONNELL 说,鸟撞事件的数量现在每年只有两百起以下。他相信,这是因为就这个问题进行了较多的教育和掌握了较多的知识的原因。

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

From bird strikes, we turn to another kind of threat caused by objects in space. The number of man-made objects in Earth orbit has been growing each year. These include satellites, old rocket parts and other pieces of spacecraft.

从鸟撞事件,我们转去另一个由于空间物体导致的威胁。在地球的轨道上空,人造的物体每年都在增加。这些包括卫星,旧火箭的部体和其他航空器的残体。

Nicholas Johnson is chief scientist for orbital debris for the United States space agency. He says there are more than three hundred thousand small objects or pieces of debris in orbit that are larger than one centimeter. Any one of these could cause damage to a spacecraft. This is because orbital debris travels at speeds of thirty-two thousand kilometers an hour or more. Even a very small object can be a major threat.

NICHOLAS JOHNSON 是美国空间局的轨道残体的主任科学家。他说,有超过 30 万个超过一厘米的小物体或者残体碎片在地球的轨道上运行着。这些中间任何一个都会导致航空器的损坏。这是因为在轨道上的残体以超过 32000KM 每小时的速度在飞行。即使一个很小的物体也会引起大的威胁。

VOICE ONE:

Space debris made news on March twelfth when a part of an old rocket motor about ten centimeters in size threatened the International Space Station. NASA warned the three astronauts inside about one hour before the object was to reach the area of the station.

空间碎片在三月二十日那天就制造了一个新闻:一个大约十厘米大小的旧火箭马达威胁着国际空间站。 NASA 在物体到达空间站一个小时前告诉了空间站里面的宇航员。

Americans Mike Fincke and Sandra Magnus and Russian Yury Lonchakov quickly moved into the Soyuz emergency escape vehicle as a safety measure. They spent eleven tense minutes in the capsule.

美国人 MIKE FINCKE 和 SANDRA MAGUNS 还有俄罗斯人 YURY LONCHAKOV 很快就采取措施,三个人躲到了 SOYUZ 应急逃生车中。他们在密封舱里度过了紧张的十一分钟。

It is unclear how close the object came to the station. But the piece was big enough to have caused severe damage. On March twenty-second, NASA again ordered the astronauts on the linked space station and shuttle Discovery to move out of the way of another piece of debris from a rocket.

现在不清楚到最后这个物体离空间站有多近。但是,这物体大的足够引起严重的损坏。在三月二十二日, NASA 再次命令正在对接着的空间站和发现号航天飞机上的宇航员们离开一块火箭的碎片的轨道。

【 shuttle Discovery :发现号航天飞机。 】

The space station has been hit in the past by very small debris. But these strikes caused little damage, mostly to the station's solar energy collectors.

空间站在过去曾经被一些很小的碎片击中过。但是这些撞击只是引起很小的损坏。大多数只是撞向空间站的太阳能板。

VOICE TWO:

A more costly incident took place on February tenth. An old Russian military satellite and a United States communications satellite crashed into each other eight hundred kilometers above Siberia in Russia.

在二月十日,发生了一件损失重大的事件。一个俄罗斯的老的军事卫星和一个美国的通信卫星在俄罗斯西伯利亚 800KM 的上空相撞。

Russia had launched the Kosmos satellite in nineteen ninety-three. But it had not operated for ten years. It was one of hundreds of inactive satellites that remain in orbit.

俄罗斯在一九九三年发射了 KOSMOS 卫星。但是已经停用十年了。这只是几百个停止运行的仍然在轨道上的卫星之一。

【 KOSMOS 是俄罗斯的军事卫星系列的名称 】

The American Iridium thirty-three satellite was used for telephone communications. It was owned by Iridium Satellite, a company based in Bethesda, Maryland. The company said the loss caused little interference with its service at the time. Before the collision, Iridium had a group of sixty-six satellites in orbit.

美国的三十三个过去用于电话通信的铱星卫星,是属于位于马里兰毕士达的一家铱星卫星公司的。这家公司说卫星的陨落给那时的卫星的服务造成了一些干扰。在这些卫星陨落之前,铱星公司有 66 颗卫星在轨道上运行。

The United States Space Surveillance Network is closely studying the collision involving the Russian satellite. The agency is part of United States Central Command. It follows over eighteen thousand pieces of debris as small as the size of a baseball.

【 United States Central Command. :美国空军中央司令部 】

美国空间监视网络正在关注与俄罗斯卫星相撞的事件。这个机构是美国空军司令部的一部分。他们跟踪着超过 18000 个篮球大小的轨道上的碎片。

VOICE ONE:

The collision of the Russian and American satellites was the first of its kind in over fifty years of space travel. It spread hundreds of pieces of debris.

俄罗斯和美国卫星相撞的事件是过去五十多年太空中发生的首次类似的事件。这次的相撞在轨道上产生了几百个碎片。

But the biggest debris-causing event took place in January, two thousand seven. China tested an anti-satellite missile by destroying one of its weather satellites. The test broke the satellite apart into at least two thousand eight hundred identifiable pieces. The debris now circles the Earth in orbits from two hundred kilometers to over three thousand eight hundred kilometers.

但是,最大的碎片产生事件是发生在 2007 年一月份。中国通过摧毁他的一个气象卫星试验一种反卫星导弹。这个试验将一个卫星分解成至少 2800 片可以确认的碎片。这些碎片现在运行在 200KM 至 3800KM 的地球轨道上。

Currently, there is no treaty to control the spread of space debris. Scientists have proposed many ideas for cleaning up space. They include nets, giant collecting arms and powerful laser beams that would move or destroy space junk. But for now, these are just ideas. And, as more nations launch spacecraft, the risk of debris strikes will only grow.

目前,还没有相应的条约控制太空碎片的扩散。科学家们已经想了很多方法去清理太空。这些方法包括,用网扑捉,用大型的机械臂拾拣和高能量的激光,这高能量的激光能够移走或者摧毁太空中的垃圾。但是,至今这些还仅仅是一些相法。同时,随着越来越多的国家发生航天器,被碎片击中的风险只会越来越大。

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

This program was written and produced by Mario Ritter. I'm Faith Lapidus.

VOICE ONE:

And I'm Steve Ember.Transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our programs are at www.unsv.com. Join us again next week for Explorations in VOA Special English.

----------------------------------------
最佳回复 该帖于2009年4月2日被版主推荐为精华帖。

分享到:
  第1楼 作者:annieyhj 创建: <编辑>  <引用>

More than seven thousand six hundred bird and other wildlife strikes were reported for civilian aircraft in two thousand seven.

我觉得应该是:2007,收到的鸟撞击民用飞机及其他野生生物撞击事件超过7600起。

These studies must consider wildlife activity up to about three thousand meters above an airport and eight kilometers around it。

这些研究必须把在飞机上空3000米,周围8公里活动的野生动物纳入考虑范围。

2楼 作者:rain 创建: <编辑>  <引用>

More than seven thousand six hundred birds and other wildlifes strikes were reported for civilian aircraft in two thousand seven.\

在2007年被报道有超过7600只鸟和其他野生动物袭击了民用飞行器.

3楼 作者:boby 创建: <编辑>  <引用>

Michael O'Donnell is director of the F.A.A. Office of Airport Safety and Standards. He says there are about five hundred sixty commercial service airports in the United States. Not all airports need wildlife control plans. But the ones that do work closely with government agencies. The Department of Agriculture, for example, provides biologists to help study wildlife that could be a danger to air travel.

MICHAEL O’DONNELL 是联邦航空协会的机场安全和标准办公室的主任。他说,在美国大约有 560 个商用机场。不是每一个机场都需要野生动物控制计划的。但是,如果需要的话,他们确实需要与政府的有关部门紧密合作。例如,农业部,能够提供那些会引起空中飞行危险的野生动物的生物学资料,以有助于对这些野生动物的研究。

例如,农业部提供生物学家...,

4楼 作者:boby 创建: <编辑>  <引用>

Other birds have spread quickly across areas with heavy air traffic. The European starling was released for the first time in the United States over one hundred years ago. Today, there are more than one hundred fifty million of these birds. They are called "feathered bullets" because of their high body density.

其他鸟类也随着大量的在夸区域的迁徙而快速的扩散。欧洲八哥一百年以前首先在美国出现。今天,有超过 1.5 亿只这种鸟类生长在美国。他们被称为“带羽毛的子弹”,因为他们的身体的密度很高。

areas with heavy air traffic 航空繁忙区域

5楼 作者:boby 创建: <编辑>  <引用>

The F.A.A. is also seeking ways to help planes avoid birds. Since the emergency landing of flight fifteen forty-nine, special radars have received a lot of attention. The air travel agency is currently testing a radar system at the international airport in Seattle, Washington. The F.A.A. plans to test new radar systems at airports in Chicago, Illinois; Dallas, Texas; and New York City.

联邦航空局也在寻找方法帮助飞机避开鸟类。因为这次 1549 航班在降落的时候,一种特殊的雷达收到了很多值得注意的信息。航空部门现在正在华盛顿的西雅图国际机场测试一种雷达系统。联邦航空局计划在芝加哥,伊利诺伊斯,达拉斯,德克萨斯和纽约测试这种新的雷达系

自从1549紧急降落之后,人们将注意力放到了特种雷达上..

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