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翻译研讨——09/04/28 科技报道:骨质疏松症增加了骨折的危险

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SCIENCE IN THE NEWS - Osteoporosis Increases Danger of Broken Bones


Written by Jerilyn Watson

由杰瑞琳 - 沃特森撰稿

This is SCIENCE IN THE NEWS, in VOA Special English. I'm Barbara Klein.

And I'm Bob Doughty. Today we tell about osteoporosis, a disease that can make bones weak so they break easily.

这里是美国之音慢速英语科技报道栏目,我是巴巴拉 - 克林,我是鲍伯 - 道蒂。今天我们说一说骨质疏松症,这是一种疾病可以使骨骼变得脆弱并导致骨折。

Osteoporosis is a silent disease until it develops. If you do not know you have it, it can hurt you.


A fifty-five year-old American woman named Jill went skiing several years ago. Although she was a good skier, she fell on a difficult hill. She attempted to get up, but could not move one leg. She was taken to a hospital, where doctors found she had broken a bone in her upper leg. And there was another discovery in the hospital. She had osteoporosis.

吉尔,一名 55 岁的美国妇女,很多年前去滑雪,虽说她是个她滑得很好,但还是在一个险峻的山上跌倒。她试着站立,但有一条腿无法挪动。她被送到医院,在那儿,医生发现她大腿的一根骨头骨折,还有另一个发现,就是她得了骨质疏松症。

Today, Jill still goes skiing. But now she takes medicine to protect against osteoporosis.


Like Jill, many people do not know they have osteoporosis unless they break a bone. Or, they may find that they are getting shorter.


Osteoporosis can make it hard for a person to stand up straight if the disease is untreated for a long time. When it has progressed very far, walking can be difficult. Severe osteoporosis in older adults can take away their independence.


The National Osteoporosis Foundation works to inform Americans about bone health. The group says breaks caused by weakened bones can lead to pain, disability and even death


The word osteoporosis means porous bones, or bones that are not solid enough. The disease harms bones by removing calcium and other important minerals from tissue. Bones are living tissue. Tissues continually break down and then they replace themselves. But as people get older, more bone breaks down than gets replaced. The result is that small spaces inside the bone get larger. And the shell of the bones gets thinner.


The National Osteoporosis Foundation, or NOF, says eight of every ten osteoporosis patients are women. It says the condition is most common in Caucasian women over age fifty. Last year, the group suggested that doctors expand their list of persons to watch for osteoporosis. The additions included Latina, African American, Asian and other women. The NOF also called attention to the fact that men can also suffer from osteoporosis.

国家骨质疏松基金会或是简称“ NOF ”说,十个骨质疏松症患者中有八个是妇女。据悉,这种情况在超过 50 岁的白种人尤为多见。去年,该组织建议医生们能够扩充其病患名单,观察更多的骨质疏松症患者,如加入拉丁人、非裔美国人、亚洲人或其它妇女患者。该组织还告诫说男性也会得骨质疏松症。

Before people develop osteoporosis, they have a condition called osteopenia. Treatment can prevent this condition from becoming osteoporosis. Doctors agree that the best way to deal with osteopenia or osteoporosis is to find and treat it before the disease progresses. Bone damage need not be permanent. Drugs can help replace lost bone.


Identification of osteoporosis and osteopenia is made by measuring the mineral density of a person's bones. In this case, density means the strength of the bones.


The American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons says there are a number of ways bone mineral density can be measured. The group suggests bone mineral density examinations for women sixty years and older. Doctors use the tests to examine the hip and spine, or backbone.


The NOF says a test called Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, or DXA, is the best test for osteoporosis. DXA uses radiation from x-rays. The patient does not get much radiation from the process, which lasts only a few minutes.

国家骨质疏松基金会说,一种叫作双重能量 X 射线吸光测定法,或是 DXA 是用来诊断骨质疏松症的最佳途径。 DXA 使用 X 射线,在此过程中,患者受到的辐射较少,且时长只有几分钟。

Another way to measure bone-density is called peripheral bone mineral density testing. It is often used in the United States to show people if they are in danger of osteoporosis. A moveable machine does the test.


Medical testing companies sometimes perform this examination at an office or other place of business. The test costs less than the DXA. But peripheral testing measures only one part of the body. Usually that place is the wrist, the heel, or the bones between finger joints.

医疗仪器检测公司有时会到企业的办公室或是商业场所做这种测试演示,这种检测方法比 DXA 方法更便宜。但这种检测方法只针对身体的一部分,如腕关节、足部、指关节区间等。

If the testing device is in good condition, it probably will give satisfactory results. But what if the patient has normal bones in the tested areas, but not in others? A person could appear normal on the test. But she still might have osteoporosis in her backbone or hips.


Differences in bone mineral density among body parts are most often found in women who recently ended their childbearing years. The density may be normal at one place but low at another. Bone mineral density in the spine decreases first. A woman's bone mineral density becomes about the same in all parts of her body after she is seventy years old.

在身体不同部位出现不同的骨密度指标,这种情形在该年度刚完成分娩的妇女中常见。密度值在身体的某个部位可能是正常的,但在另一个部位可能会低些。脊椎部位的骨密度首先减少, 70 岁以上的妇女身体各部位的骨密度值大体相同。

The lower-cost test may not give complete answers. But it can warn that osteoporosis threatens or has started.


The National Osteoporosis Foundation has advised several steps toward the goal of healthy bones. Its experts say get enough calcium and vitamin D. The experts say do not smoke or drink too much alcohol. Talk to your healthcare provider about bone health and a possible bone mineral density test.

国家骨质疏松症基金会已经考虑到达到健康骨骼标准的几个步骤,专家们提醒,摄入足量钙质和维生素 D ;专家们还告诫人们不要吸烟、不要过量饮酒,与健康检查机构沟通骨骼健康问题以及做骨密度检测事宜。

The NOF's guide for healthcare providers says people over fifty should get one thousand two hundred milligrams of calcium every day. The guide also says this age group should get eight hundred to one thousand International Units of Vitamin D. It says Vitamin D-Two and Vitamin D-Three are both good for bones.

国家骨质疏松症基金会向健康检查机构提示说,五十岁以上的人,需要每天摄入 1200 毫克的钙质,还提醒这个年龄段的人们摄入 800 至 1000 个国际单位的维生素 D ,并且说维生素 D-2 、 D-3 都对骨骼有好处。

Milk and milk products contain calcium. So do fish with soft bones, like salmon, and dark green leafy vegetables. Some orange juice, bread and cereals may have calcium added.


Some people also take pills containing calcium. But be careful about how much calcium you take. You should not have more than two thousand five hundred milligrams a day. That total includes calcium from food and all other sources. Too much calcium can cause problems like kidney stones.

有些人还吃钙片,但请注意摄入量,你每天的摄入量不能超过 2500 毫克,这个量包括从食物及其它途径摄入的钙量。钙质摄入太多会生病,如肾结石。

Vitamin D absorbs, or takes up, calcium. Fish, cereal and milk are good sources of Vitamin D. If you spend at least fifteen minutes a day in the sun without a product to block the sun's radiation, you probably get enough Vitamin D.

维生素 D 吸收或是占据钙,鱼、谷物和奶富含维生素 D 。如果每天在无摭挡的情况下在阳光下待上至少 50 分钟,你可能就会得到足够的维生素 D 了。

Several kinds of drugs treat osteoporosis. America's Mayo Clinic medical centers say bisphosphonates are the most popular. Fosamax, Actonel and Boniva are products of this family of drugs. The Mayo Clinic advises that these drugs are very effective and appear safe for most people if taken as directed. Fosamax has been sold for at least ten years. Other drugs proven effective for osteoporosis are hormones and parathyroid hormone.

有几种药物可以治疗骨质疏松症,美国梅奥门诊医疗中心说 ”BISPHOSPHONATES” 这种药最常用,而另外三种药物也是这个家族的产品。梅奥门诊提醒说,如果按指示服用,这些药物对大多数患者来说是很有效并安全的。“ GOSAMAX ”这种药物已销售了至少十年。其它对治疗骨质疏松症有效的药物还有激素和甲状旁腺素。

Doctors who treat osteoporosis patients say physical exercise can help the bones. For active people, lifting weights or playing tennis, slow running and dancing can be helpful.


Some older adults worry about exercising. They believe they could hurt themselves. The Mayo Clinic says that could be true if they have not exercised in the past. It says people who have not been active in the past need a doctor's advice before starting.


Some people who are afraid of exercise worry about its effects on their joints, especially the knees. They are afraid exercise might cause osteoarthritis, a condition in which connective tissue around the bones wears down. A study in The Netherlands found that could be true. Results of the study were reported recently in the publication "Arthritis Care and Research."


Researchers studied one thousand six hundred seventy eight people over a period of twelve years. The subjects were between fifty-five and eighty-five years old. The results linked knee osteoarthritis to high mechanical strain -- activities that are hard on joints.

研究机构对 1678 人进行了为期十二年的跟踪调查,限于 55 至 85 岁的人群。结果与膝关节炎与高度机械拉伸有关 - 都是些磨损关节的动作。

But another study found that regular exercise does not harm joints. Those findings were reported in "The Journal of Anatomy." Scientists from Germany and the United States considered earlier research on the effect of exercise on joints. They did not find a link between regular exercise and knee osteoarthritis.


If you are still worried about exercise for osteoporosis, why not go for a walk? But you have to do it correctly. The Mayo Clinic says hold your head high. Straighten your back and neck as much as possible. Tighten the chest muscles. As you move along, let your shoulders and arms move freely and naturally.


Walking places the full weight of your body on your bones. It also has other good effects. It raises the levels of chemicals in the brain known as endorphins. They reduce pain and make you feel happier.


This SCIENCE IN THE NEWS program was written by Jerilyn Watson. Our producer was Brianna Blake. I'm Bob Doughty.

And I'm Barbara Klein. Join us again next week for more news about science in Special English on the Voice of America. 这就是科学报道节目,由杰瑞琳 - 沃特森撰稿,制作人布里安娜 - 布雷克。我是鲍博 - 道蒂,还有我是巴巴拉 - 克林。下周同一时间欢迎收听美国之音慢速英语节目更多的科学见闻。

最佳回复 该帖于2009年4月29日被版主推荐为精华帖。

  第1楼 作者:yanhaiqiang 创建: <编辑>  <引用>
2楼 作者:Aurora 创建: <编辑>  <引用>

第一句是不是应该这样翻译呢?    这是一种可以使骨骼变得脆弱并导致骨折的疾病。

If you are still worried about exercise for osteoporosis,why not go for a walk?这一句是不是应该理解成:如果你仍然在为骨质疏松症的锻炼而担心的话,为什么不去散散步呢?

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