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翻译研讨——09/04/28 科技报道:骨质疏松症增加了骨折的危险

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From:http://www.unsv.com/voanews/specialenglish/scripts/2009/04/28/0045/


SCIENCE IN THE NEWS - Osteoporosis Increases Danger of Broken Bones

骨质疏松症增加了骨折的危险

Written by Jerilyn Watson

由杰瑞琳 - 沃特森撰稿

This is SCIENCE IN THE NEWS, in VOA Special English. I'm Barbara Klein.

And I'm Bob Doughty. Today we tell about osteoporosis, a disease that can make bones weak so they break easily.

这里是美国之音慢速英语科技报道栏目,我是巴巴拉 - 克林,我是鲍伯 - 道蒂。今天我们说一说骨质疏松症,这是一种疾病可以使骨骼变得脆弱并导致骨折。

Osteoporosis is a silent disease until it develops. If you do not know you have it, it can hurt you.

骨质疏松症是一种十分隐蔽直至出状况的疾病。如果你事先不知道得了这种病,你就会受到伤害。

A fifty-five year-old American woman named Jill went skiing several years ago. Although she was a good skier, she fell on a difficult hill. She attempted to get up, but could not move one leg. She was taken to a hospital, where doctors found she had broken a bone in her upper leg. And there was another discovery in the hospital. She had osteoporosis.

吉尔,一名 55 岁的美国妇女,很多年前去滑雪,虽说她是个她滑得很好,但还是在一个险峻的山上跌倒。她试着站立,但有一条腿无法挪动。她被送到医院,在那儿,医生发现她大腿的一根骨头骨折,还有另一个发现,就是她得了骨质疏松症。

Today, Jill still goes skiing. But now she takes medicine to protect against osteoporosis.

今天,吉尔还是去滑雪,但她现在已经服用治疗骨质疏松症的药物了。

Like Jill, many people do not know they have osteoporosis unless they break a bone. Or, they may find that they are getting shorter.

象吉尔一样,有许多人在发生骨折前还不知道自己得了骨质疏松症,或许他们可能会发现自己变矮了。

Osteoporosis can make it hard for a person to stand up straight if the disease is untreated for a long time. When it has progressed very far, walking can be difficult. Severe osteoporosis in older adults can take away their independence.

如果很长时间不加以治疗,那么骨质疏松症可以使一个人难以直立,再进一步发展下去,就连走路都会出现困难。如果老年人得了严重的骨质疏松症,那么他们就无法独立生活。

The National Osteoporosis Foundation works to inform Americans about bone health. The group says breaks caused by weakened bones can lead to pain, disability and even death

国家骨质疏松基金会,致力于提醒美国人关注骨骼健康。该组织说,因骨骼脆弱引起的骨折可以引发疼痛、残疾甚至于死亡。

The word osteoporosis means porous bones, or bones that are not solid enough. The disease harms bones by removing calcium and other important minerals from tissue. Bones are living tissue. Tissues continually break down and then they replace themselves. But as people get older, more bone breaks down than gets replaced. The result is that small spaces inside the bone get larger. And the shell of the bones gets thinner.

骨质疏松这个词意思是骨头渗漏或是骨头不够坚固。这种病通过让身体的组织丢失钙质及其它重要的矿物质来伤害骨骼。骨骼是活组织,组织不断分解,然后用新的组织更换老的组织,就是新陈代谢。但当人变老,分解的速度远高于更新的速度。结果导致骨骼上小的间隙变得越来越大,而骨骼的外壳也变得越来越薄。

The National Osteoporosis Foundation, or NOF, says eight of every ten osteoporosis patients are women. It says the condition is most common in Caucasian women over age fifty. Last year, the group suggested that doctors expand their list of persons to watch for osteoporosis. The additions included Latina, African American, Asian and other women. The NOF also called attention to the fact that men can also suffer from osteoporosis.

国家骨质疏松基金会或是简称“ NOF ”说,十个骨质疏松症患者中有八个是妇女。据悉,这种情况在超过 50 岁的白种人尤为多见。去年,该组织建议医生们能够扩充其病患名单,观察更多的骨质疏松症患者,如加入拉丁人、非裔美国人、亚洲人或其它妇女患者。该组织还告诫说男性也会得骨质疏松症。

Before people develop osteoporosis, they have a condition called osteopenia. Treatment can prevent this condition from becoming osteoporosis. Doctors agree that the best way to deal with osteopenia or osteoporosis is to find and treat it before the disease progresses. Bone damage need not be permanent. Drugs can help replace lost bone.

得骨质疏松症之前,人们会出现一种被称为“先兆骨质疏松”的症状。此时加以治疗,就可以避免发展成骨质疏松症。医生们一致认为,处理先兆骨质疏松或骨质疏松的最好的办法就是尽早发现、及早治疗。骨骼损害不是一层不变的,药物可以帮助替换丧失的骨质。

Identification of osteoporosis and osteopenia is made by measuring the mineral density of a person's bones. In this case, density means the strength of the bones.

通过对一个人的骨骼进行矿物质密度的检测,就可以查出你是否得了先兆骨质疏松或是骨质疏松症。

The American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons says there are a number of ways bone mineral density can be measured. The group suggests bone mineral density examinations for women sixty years and older. Doctors use the tests to examine the hip and spine, or backbone.

美国整形外科协会的医生们说,有很多方法检测骨密度。该协会建议六十岁以上的妇女做骨密度检测。医生们通过臀部、脊椎、背部的骨骼做检测。

The NOF says a test called Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, or DXA, is the best test for osteoporosis. DXA uses radiation from x-rays. The patient does not get much radiation from the process, which lasts only a few minutes.

国家骨质疏松基金会说,一种叫作双重能量 X 射线吸光测定法,或是 DXA 是用来诊断骨质疏松症的最佳途径。 DXA 使用 X 射线,在此过程中,患者受到的辐射较少,且时长只有几分钟。

Another way to measure bone-density is called peripheral bone mineral density testing. It is often used in the United States to show people if they are in danger of osteoporosis. A moveable machine does the test.

另一种检测方法叫骨外围密度检测。这种方法在美国常用来提示人们是否有得骨质疏松症的危险。是一种便携式检测仪器。

Medical testing companies sometimes perform this examination at an office or other place of business. The test costs less than the DXA. But peripheral testing measures only one part of the body. Usually that place is the wrist, the heel, or the bones between finger joints.

医疗仪器检测公司有时会到企业的办公室或是商业场所做这种测试演示,这种检测方法比 DXA 方法更便宜。但这种检测方法只针对身体的一部分,如腕关节、足部、指关节区间等。

If the testing device is in good condition, it probably will give satisfactory results. But what if the patient has normal bones in the tested areas, but not in others? A person could appear normal on the test. But she still might have osteoporosis in her backbone or hips.

如果仪器状态良好,可能检测结果会令人满意。但如果检测的骨骼恰好是身体上正常的骨骼部分,而不是有问题的骨骼部分,该怎么办呢?结果就是,检测结果显示正常。但是,她仍有可能在背部或是臀部得骨质疏松症。

Differences in bone mineral density among body parts are most often found in women who recently ended their childbearing years. The density may be normal at one place but low at another. Bone mineral density in the spine decreases first. A woman's bone mineral density becomes about the same in all parts of her body after she is seventy years old.

在身体不同部位出现不同的骨密度指标,这种情形在该年度刚完成分娩的妇女中常见。密度值在身体的某个部位可能是正常的,但在另一个部位可能会低些。脊椎部位的骨密度首先减少, 70 岁以上的妇女身体各部位的骨密度值大体相同。

The lower-cost test may not give complete answers. But it can warn that osteoporosis threatens or has started.

便宜的检测方法可能不会给出完整的检测结果,但可以提醒人们是否会受到骨质疏松症的威胁或是已经开始得病了。

The National Osteoporosis Foundation has advised several steps toward the goal of healthy bones. Its experts say get enough calcium and vitamin D. The experts say do not smoke or drink too much alcohol. Talk to your healthcare provider about bone health and a possible bone mineral density test.

国家骨质疏松症基金会已经考虑到达到健康骨骼标准的几个步骤,专家们提醒,摄入足量钙质和维生素 D ;专家们还告诫人们不要吸烟、不要过量饮酒,与健康检查机构沟通骨骼健康问题以及做骨密度检测事宜。

The NOF's guide for healthcare providers says people over fifty should get one thousand two hundred milligrams of calcium every day. The guide also says this age group should get eight hundred to one thousand International Units of Vitamin D. It says Vitamin D-Two and Vitamin D-Three are both good for bones.

国家骨质疏松症基金会向健康检查机构提示说,五十岁以上的人,需要每天摄入 1200 毫克的钙质,还提醒这个年龄段的人们摄入 800 至 1000 个国际单位的维生素 D ,并且说维生素 D-2 、 D-3 都对骨骼有好处。

Milk and milk products contain calcium. So do fish with soft bones, like salmon, and dark green leafy vegetables. Some orange juice, bread and cereals may have calcium added.

奶及奶制品含钙质,还有那些含有软骨的鱼类,如鲑鱼以及深色绿叶菜均含钙质。橙汁、面包、谷物也富含钙质。

Some people also take pills containing calcium. But be careful about how much calcium you take. You should not have more than two thousand five hundred milligrams a day. That total includes calcium from food and all other sources. Too much calcium can cause problems like kidney stones.

有些人还吃钙片,但请注意摄入量,你每天的摄入量不能超过 2500 毫克,这个量包括从食物及其它途径摄入的钙量。钙质摄入太多会生病,如肾结石。

Vitamin D absorbs, or takes up, calcium. Fish, cereal and milk are good sources of Vitamin D. If you spend at least fifteen minutes a day in the sun without a product to block the sun's radiation, you probably get enough Vitamin D.

维生素 D 吸收或是占据钙,鱼、谷物和奶富含维生素 D 。如果每天在无摭挡的情况下在阳光下待上至少 50 分钟,你可能就会得到足够的维生素 D 了。

Several kinds of drugs treat osteoporosis. America's Mayo Clinic medical centers say bisphosphonates are the most popular. Fosamax, Actonel and Boniva are products of this family of drugs. The Mayo Clinic advises that these drugs are very effective and appear safe for most people if taken as directed. Fosamax has been sold for at least ten years. Other drugs proven effective for osteoporosis are hormones and parathyroid hormone.

有几种药物可以治疗骨质疏松症,美国梅奥门诊医疗中心说 ”BISPHOSPHONATES” 这种药最常用,而另外三种药物也是这个家族的产品。梅奥门诊提醒说,如果按指示服用,这些药物对大多数患者来说是很有效并安全的。“ GOSAMAX ”这种药物已销售了至少十年。其它对治疗骨质疏松症有效的药物还有激素和甲状旁腺素。

Doctors who treat osteoporosis patients say physical exercise can help the bones. For active people, lifting weights or playing tennis, slow running and dancing can be helpful.

治疗骨质疏松症患者的医生们说,体育锻炼对强壮骨骼有帮助。对爱运动的人来说,举重或是打网球、慢跑和跳舞也很有帮助。

Some older adults worry about exercising. They believe they could hurt themselves. The Mayo Clinic says that could be true if they have not exercised in the past. It says people who have not been active in the past need a doctor's advice before starting.

一些老人们对锻炼身体有些担心,他们觉得这样会伤着自己,梅奥诊所说,对于从前不爱锻炼的人确实是这样,对于这些人,就需要在医生的指导下开始锻炼。

Some people who are afraid of exercise worry about its effects on their joints, especially the knees. They are afraid exercise might cause osteoarthritis, a condition in which connective tissue around the bones wears down. A study in The Netherlands found that could be true. Results of the study were reported recently in the publication "Arthritis Care and Research."

有些人害怕因为锻炼伤到关节,特别是膝盖,他们害怕因为锻炼引起骨关节炎,也就是骨骼周围的组织磨损。荷兰的一项研究发现,这些情况都有可能出现。研究结果就在最近的一本“关节炎的保护与研究”出版刊物上发表。

Researchers studied one thousand six hundred seventy eight people over a period of twelve years. The subjects were between fifty-five and eighty-five years old. The results linked knee osteoarthritis to high mechanical strain -- activities that are hard on joints.

研究机构对 1678 人进行了为期十二年的跟踪调查,限于 55 至 85 岁的人群。结果与膝关节炎与高度机械拉伸有关 - 都是些磨损关节的动作。

But another study found that regular exercise does not harm joints. Those findings were reported in "The Journal of Anatomy." Scientists from Germany and the United States considered earlier research on the effect of exercise on joints. They did not find a link between regular exercise and knee osteoarthritis.

但另一项研究发现,有规律的运动不会对关节造成损伤。研究成果在“解剖杂志”上发表过。德国和美国科学家们比较认可前面的、有关关节运动的影响的研究结果。他们没找到有规律运动与膝关节炎之间的关系。

If you are still worried about exercise for osteoporosis, why not go for a walk? But you have to do it correctly. The Mayo Clinic says hold your head high. Straighten your back and neck as much as possible. Tighten the chest muscles. As you move along, let your shoulders and arms move freely and naturally.

如果你们仍然担心因运动导致关节炎,为什么不去走路?但你得做得正确。梅奥诊所说,尽可能抬高头、挺直背和颈部,拉紧胸肌,在向前走的过程中,肩、臂部要自由和自然的移动。

Walking places the full weight of your body on your bones. It also has other good effects. It raises the levels of chemicals in the brain known as endorphins. They reduce pain and make you feel happier.

走路可以使全身的重量作用在骨骼上,还有其它的好处,它可以提升大脑中的化学物质水平,这种物质可以减少痛苦产生快感。

This SCIENCE IN THE NEWS program was written by Jerilyn Watson. Our producer was Brianna Blake. I'm Bob Doughty.

And I'm Barbara Klein. Join us again next week for more news about science in Special English on the Voice of America. 这就是科学报道节目,由杰瑞琳 - 沃特森撰稿,制作人布里安娜 - 布雷克。我是鲍博 - 道蒂,还有我是巴巴拉 - 克林。下周同一时间欢迎收听美国之音慢速英语节目更多的科学见闻。

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最佳回复 该帖于2009年4月29日被版主推荐为精华帖。

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  第1楼 作者:yanhaiqiang 创建: <编辑>  <引用>
谢了
2楼 作者:Aurora 创建: <编辑>  <引用>

第一句是不是应该这样翻译呢?    这是一种可以使骨骼变得脆弱并导致骨折的疾病。

If you are still worried about exercise for osteoporosis,why not go for a walk?这一句是不是应该理解成:如果你仍然在为骨质疏松症的锻炼而担心的话,为什么不去散散步呢?

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