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翻译研讨 —— 09/04/30 美国历史故事:堪萨斯州向州际化道路挺进

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Written by Christine Johnson

由克里斯廷 - 强森撰稿

Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English.


Now, we continue the story of America's fourteenth president, Franklin Pierce.

现在,我们继续讲美国第十四任任总统弗兰克林 - 皮尔斯的故事。

Pierce was elected in eighteen fifty-two. He was a compromise candidate of the Democratic Party. He was well-liked. But he was not considered a strong leader.

皮尔斯于 1852 年当选。他是民主党妥协派候选人,他是个大好人,但不是个强势的领导者。

The eighteen fifties were an increasingly tense time in the United States. Most of the population lived east of the Mississippi River. But more and more people were moving west. As western areas became populated, they became official territories, and then new states.

19 世纪 50 年代是美国的紧张局势不断升级的年代,那时候大多数人口集中在密西西比河以东。后来越来越多的人向西部迁移。当那些西部地区人口聚集到一定程度,就成了官方领土,然后就变成了美国新的州。

What kind of laws would these new territories and states have? Would the laws be decided by the Congress in Washington? Or would they be voted on by the people living in them?


The biggest legal question affecting western lands was slavery. This week in our series, Rich Kleinfeldt and Shirley Griffith tell more about the long disputed issue of slavery and the Kansas-Missouri bill.

影响西部领土控制的最大的法律问题就是奴隶。本周的美国故事系列节目,由理查 - 克林沸尔德和雪莉 - 格林菲斯来给我们讲述一个长期困扰人们的奴隶问题以及堪萨斯 - 密苏里法案的故事。

Owning another human being was legal in many parts of the United States at that time. Slaves were considered property, like furniture and farm animals.


People who owned negro slaves wanted to take all their property -- including the slaves -- with them when they moved west. People who opposed slavery did not want it to spread. Some of them considered slavery a moral issue. They believed it violated the laws of God. An increasing number of white Americans, however, saw slavery as an economic issue. They wanted new states to be free from slavery, so they would not have to compete with slave labor.


The United States had been established as a democracy. Yet slavery existed. America's early leaders knew that trying to end slavery probably would split the nation in two. So they looked for compromises. They decided it was better to save the Union...even if it was not perfect...than to watch the Union end.


Like other presidents, Franklin Pierce hoped to avoid the issue. He also believed that earlier legislation had settled the debate. In eighteen twenty, Congress had passed the Missouri Compromise. It extended a line across the map of the United States. South of the line, slavery was legal. North of the line, slavery was not legal, except in Missouri.

与其它的总统们一样,富兰克林 - 皮尔斯希望避开这个问题,并且他还认为,之前的法律制度已经解决了这个有争议的问题。 1820 年时,国会就通过了密苏里折衷法案。美国版图上出现了一条横穿美国的界线,线以南的州,奴隶制合法化;而线以北的州,除密苏里州外,拥有奴隶是非法的。

Thirty years later, another political compromise made the situation less clear.


The compromise of eighteen fifty made slavery a local issue, instead of a national issue, in several western territories. It said the people in those territories had the right to decide for themselves if slavery would be legal or illegal.

1850 年的妥协法案在几个西部省份,使得奴隶问题成了一个地方性的问题而非国家大事,据说,那里的人们有权自己决定拥有奴隶是否合法。

Within a few years, that law caused a new debate in Congress. Lawmakers argued: was the peoples' right to decide the issue of slavery restricted only to the territories named in the compromise of eighteen fifty? Or was the right extended to the people of all future territories?

在短短的几年里,那个法案在国会就引发了新的争议。立法者们争论说:公民决定拥有奴隶合法与否的权利是不是就只能依据 1850 年的妥协法案?或,是否所有新的领土辖区的公民也享有这个权利?

The answer came in eighteen fifty-four. In that year, Congress debated a proposal to create two territories from one large area in the west. The northern part would be known as the Nebraska territory. The southern part would be known as the Kansas territory. Settlers in both new territories would have the right to decide the question of slavery.

1954 年有了答案,那一年,国会议出一项法案建议:将西部一个大区域分成两个小区域,北部叫内布拉斯加区,南部叫堪萨斯区。两个辖区内的公民有权决定奴隶问题。

President Pierce did not like the Kansas-Nebraska bill. He feared it would re-open the bitter, national debate about slavery. He did not want to have to deal with the results. Tensions were increasing. Violence was increasingly possible.

皮尔斯总统不喜欢堪萨斯 - 内布拉斯加法案。他担心这项法案会重新揭开痛苦的、全国性的、有关奴隶问题的争论。他不想落到被迫收拾这个残局的境地:紧张局势升级、暴乱也可能出现。

The Kansas-Nebraska bill had a lot of support in the Senate. It passed easily. The bill had less support in the House of Representatives. The vote there was close, but the measure passed. President Pierce finally agreed to sign it. In exchange, congressional leaders promised to approve several presidential appointments.

堪萨斯 - 内布拉斯加法案在参议院拥有很多支持者,很容易就通过了。而在众议院没多少人支持,在那儿的投票结束,但法案通过了。皮尔斯总统最终同意签字。作为交换条件,国会领导们承诺对总统几项提议予以支持。

Supporters of the Kansas-Nebraska bill celebrated their victory. They fired cannons as the city of Washington was waking to a new day. Two senators who opposed the bill heard the noise as they walked down the steps of the capitol building. One of them said: "They celebrate a victory now. But the echoes they awake will never rest until slavery itself is dead."

堪萨斯 - 内布拉斯加法案的支持者们庆祝他们的胜利,他们燃炮以示华盛顿城迎接新的一天的到来。当两位支持法案的国会议员走下国会大厦的台阶时,听到了炮声,其中一个说:“他们现在在庆祝胜利了,但这炮声将永不停息,直至奴隶制消亡。”

The new bill gave the people of Kansas and Nebraska the right to decide if slavery would be legal or illegal. The vote would depend on who settled in the territories. It was not likely that people who owned slaves would settle in Nebraska. However, there was a good chance that they would settle in Kansas.


Groups in the South organized quickly to help pro-slavery settlers move to Kansas. At the same time, groups in the North helped free-state settlers move there, too.


Some of the northern groups were companies called emigrant aid societies. Shares of these companies were sold to the public. The money was used to help build towns and farms in Kansas. Owners of the companies hoped to make a lot of money from the development.


The southern effort to settle Kansas was led mostly by slave-owning farmers in Missouri. They believed that peace in Missouri depended on what happened in Kansas. They did not want to live next to a territory where slavery was not legal.


In Washington, President Pierce announced the appointment of Andrew Reeder to be governor of the Kansas territory. Pro-slavery settlers urged Reeder to hold immediate elections for a territorial legislature. They believed they were in the majority. They wanted a vote before too many free-state settlers moved in. The legislature would have the power to keep the territory open to slavery and, in time, help it become a slave state.

在华盛顿,皮尔斯总统宣布任命安德鲁 - 瑞德为堪萨斯地方长官。支持奴隶制的殖民者们敦促瑞德马上举行地方立法委员会的选举,他们相信,他们会取得多数票,他们希望在更多的游离移民到来之前就开始投票,而立法者们有权使这个区域对奴隶开放并使其尽早成为实行奴隶制的州。

Governor Reeder rejected the demands. He decided to hold an election, but only for a territorial representative to the national Congress. On election day, hundreds of men from Missouri crossed the border into Kansas. They voted illegally, and the pro-slavery candidate won.


The same thing happened when Kansas finally held an election for a legislature. Governor Reeder took steps to make the voting fair. His efforts were not completely successful. Once again, men from Missouri crossed the border into Kansas. Many of them carried guns. They forced election officials to count their illegal votes. As a result, almost every pro-slavery candidate was elected to the new legislature.


The governor ordered an investigation. The investigation showed evidence of wrong-doing in six areas, and new elections were held in those areas. This time, when only legal votes were counted, many of the pro-slavery candidates were defeated. Yet there were still enough pro-slavery candidates to have a majority.


Andrew Reeder was governor of a bitterly divided territory. He wanted to warn President Pierce about what was happening.

安德鲁 - 瑞德身为一个分裂州的州长,他很想向皮尔斯总统汇报这里所发生的一切。

Reeder went to Washington. He met with Pierce almost every day for two weeks. He described how pro-slavery groups in Missouri were interfering in Kansas. He said if the state of Missouri refused to deal with the trouble-makers, then the national government must deal with them. He asked the president to do something.


Pierce agreed that Kansas was a serious problem. He seemed ready to act. So Reeder returned home and opened the first meeting of the territorial legislature. The pro-slavery majority quickly voted to move to a town close to the Missouri border. It also approved several pro-slavery measures.


Governor Reeder vetoed these bills. But there were enough votes to reject his veto and pass the new laws.


The Kansas legislature also sent a message to President Pierce. It wanted him to remove Andrew Reeder as governor. Political pressure was strong, and the president agreed. He named a new governor, Wilson Shannon. Shannon supported the pro-slavery laws of the legislature. He also said Kansas should become a slave state, like Missouri.

堪萨斯的立法委员会还给皮尔斯总统致函,希望总统免去安德鲁 - 瑞德的州长职务。迫于强烈的政治压力,总统同意了这一请求。他任命了一位新的州长威尔森 - 沙农,他支持奴隶制法案,他还说堪萨斯应该象密苏里州一样,成为奴隶合法化的州。

Free-state leaders were extremely angry. They felt they could not get fair treatment from either the president or the new governor. So they took an unusual step. They met and formed their own government in opposition to the elected government of the territory. It would not be long before the situation in Kansas became violent.

That will be our story next week.


Our program was written by Christine Johnson. The narrators were Rich Kleinfeldt and Shirley Griffith. Transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our programs can be found along with historical images at www.unsv.com. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English. 我们的节目由克里斯廷 - 强森撰稿,由里查 - 克林沸尔德讲述。相关资料可以上网查询。希望下周同一时间再次收听美国之音慢速英语美国历史故事系列节目。

最佳回复 该帖于2009年4月30日被版主推荐为精华帖。

THE MAKING OF A NATION - American History Series: Kansas Takes Steps Towards Statehood
1楼 作者:Aurora 创建: <编辑>  <引用>

People who owned negro slaves wanted to take all their property -- including the slaves -- with them when they moved west. People who opposed slavery did not want it to spread. Some of them considered slavery a moral issue. They believed it violated the laws of God. An increasing number of white Americans, however, saw slavery as an economic issue. They wanted new states to be free from slavery, so they would not have to compete with slave labor.

那些拥有黑奴的人向西部地区迁移的时候将会带上他们全部的财产——包括奴隶。 那些反对奴隶制的人不希望奴隶制得以扩散,他们中的一些人认为奴隶制是一种道义上的问题。他们相信它违反了神的意愿。  一个不断增长的美国白人数量 ,无论如何都把奴隶制视为了一种经济问题。他们(新增的白人)需要新的州从奴隶制中解脱出来(因为不需要那么多的奴隶主了),因此他们不要需要为奴隶劳动的问题而抗争。

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