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翻译研讨 —— 2009/05/05科学报道:科学家说北极大陆的冰盖继续缩小

楼主:jimdaolong 日期: 回贴:5 浏览:

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SCIENCE IN THE NEWS - Scientists Say Arctic Ice Continues to Shrink

科学新闻——科学家说北极大陆的冰盖继续缩小

This is SCIENCE IN THE NEWS in VOA Special English. I'm Doug Johnson.

这是美国之音的科学新闻。我是道格·乔汉森。

And I'm Faith Lapidus. This week, we will tell about ice loss in the Arctic Sea.

我是 Faith Lapidus. 。本周,我们要告诉大家北冰洋的冰在减少。

We also will tell about a campaign to improve treatment of snakebites. And we report on an effort to save wild lions in Africa.

我们还要告诉大家有关提高医治蛇咬的活动。还有我们给大家报道有关拯救非洲野生狮子的努力。

American scientists say ice covering the Arctic Sea continued to shrink last winter.

美国科学家说去年冬天覆盖在北极的冰盖在继续缩减。

The scientists say they recently found that older, thicker sea ice was increasingly replaced with new ice.

科学家说最近他们发现古老的厚的冰盖在快速的被新的冰盖所替代。

The new ice is thinner and melts faster than the older ice.

新的冰较薄,而且它们融化的比那些很久前形成的冰融化得要快!

The scientists work for the American space agency and the National Snow and Ice Data Center in Boulder, Colorado.

科学家是为美国太空站和国家冰雪数据中心工作,数据中心坐落在科罗拉多州的 boulder.

The two government agencies have been studying Arctic Sea ice from space since nineteen seventy-nine. One of the scientists says the past six years have shown the lowest Arctic sea ice cover ever measured.

 这两个政府工作站从 1979 年开始就在太空中研究北冰洋的冰盖。其中一位科学家说在过去的六年里所检测的北冰洋的冰盖是历史上最低的。

The study found an average ice cover of about fifteen million square kilometers in March.

研究发现在三月份平均冰盖面积大约有 1500 万平方公里。

That is seven hundred thirty kilometers above the record low set three years ago.

它是 730 公里长的冰盖超过了 3 年前的最低记录。

But it represents a loss of about five hundred ninety thousand kilometers from the yearly average between nineteen seventy- nine and two thousand.

表明大约平均每年有 590000 公里的冰线在 1979 年到 2000 年之间消失了。

Scientists say ninety percent of all Arctic sea ice is only one or two years old.

科学家说北冰洋的所有冰盖的 90% 仅仅是一年或两年的冰龄。

This is up from forty to sixty percent in the nineteen nineties. The newer ice, experts say, is less resistant to melting during the summer months.

在二十世纪 90 年代新形成的冰最多是 40% 到 60% 。新形成的冰越新,科学家说它们在夏季里抵御融化的能力就越弱。

The amount of ice cover and its thickness are two measures of the health of the Arctic Sea.

冰盖的数量和它的厚度是检测北冰洋是否健康的两个标准。

Arctic sea ice is important because it throws sunlight back into space, keeping the sea cold. The ice also cools the air.

北冰洋的冰是很重要的。因为它能反射太阳光并能保持海水寒冷。冰还有使空气凉爽的功能。

But when the ice melts, the sun warms ocean waters. Walter Meier is a scientist with the National Snow and Ice Data Center.

但是一旦冰融化了,太阳就能使海水升温。沃特·米亚尔是一个在国家冰雪数据中心工作的科学家。

He says a warmer Arctic and thinner sea ice changes the balance between the normally cold Arctic and warmer areas.

????????________________________________________________________________________________

He says changes to the ice cover also affect Arctic wildlife and people who depend on the local environment.

他说冰盖的变化也会对北极的野生动物和依赖环境生存的人类有影响。

The melting has already threatened native animals like the polar bear. Arctic melting could also affect Earth's climate.

融化已经在影响着当地动物,像北极熊。北冰洋的融化也能影响地球的气候。

Professor Meier also says the possibility of ships being able to move through newly unfrozen parts of the Arctic could lead to losses of natural resources.

米亚尔教授还说船舶能够穿越那些已经解冻的地方能导致自然资源的损失。

He says the competition this could create may also threaten international security.

他说这样所产生的竞赛也威胁着国际安全。

The study follows a separate report by the United States Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the Joint Institute for the Study of Atmosphere and Ocean.

研究依据美国海洋和大气管理和研究大气的联合机构所发表的一个独立的报告。

That study used computers and current ice-level information to predict future ice levels.

这项研究使用了计算机和当前冰水平面的信息资料预测了未来的冰的水平面。 

The findings predicted that most of the Arctic's summer ice could disappear in thirty years.

预测发现北冰洋的夏季里大部分的冰在未来的 30 年中将消失。

Parts of Antarctica are also believed to be melting because of climate change. Satellite images show an ice bridge that held a huge Antarctic ice shelf in place recently broke apart.

北极洲的很多地方因为气候变化相信也会融化。卫星图片显示支撑着巨大北冰洋的冰盖的边缘最近已经破裂。

More than four million people around the world are bitten by snakes each year. At least one hundred twenty-five thousand of these people die.

每年在世界各地有大约超过 400 万被蛇咬。至少其中有 125000 死亡。

Almost three million others are seriously injured. Doctors and researchers say the world does not provide enough good treatment for poisonous snakebites.

几乎其他的三百万人严重受伤。医生和研究者说世界上还不能提供足够好的医疗方法来对付毒蛇咬伤。

To help improve the situation, experts have formed a project called the Global Snakebite Initiative. Poisonous snakebites are common in rural areas of many developing countries with warm climates.

为改变这种状况,专家们组成了一项计划叫全球蛇咬启动会。毒蛇咬人在许多发展中国家并且具有温暖气候的农村地区是普遍的。

Many victims are agricultural workers and children in Asia and southern Africa. Shortages of antivenom medicines, the treatment for snakebite, are common there. Existing supplies may not be high quality or developed correctly for local needs. .

在亚洲和南部非洲许多死亡者是农业工人和孩子。治疗蛇咬的防毒药品短缺在那里很普遍。存在供给不够或者为当地需求没有正确开发。

Ken Winkel directs the University of Melbourne's Australian Venom Research Unit. He and university scientist David Williams are among the organizers of the Global Snakebite Initiative.

Ken Winkel 指导着澳大利亚墨尔本大学蛇毒研究单位。他和大学的科学家 David Williams 是全球防蛇咬动员会的组织者之一。

Other project leaders are from Britain, Brazil, Sri Lanka, Costa Rica and Singapore.

其他的项目的领导来自英国,巴西,斯里兰卡,科斯达·利卡和新加坡。

The International Society of Toxinology supported the Initiative at the recent World Congress of Plant, Animal and Microbial Toxins in Recife, Brazil.

国际抗毒素学协会支持最近的世界植物动物和微生物毒素协会在巴西的里瑟夫的召开。

Doctor Winkel says antivenom treatment is too costly for many poor people who need it most. The drugs are developed from the venom of poisonous snakes.

温科尔博士说对许多最需要它的穷人来说防毒液治疗花费很高。这种药品是从毒蛇的毒液中提取的。

The Global Snakebite Initiative is working to increase the availability of good quality antivenom treatments and improve medical training for patient care. Another goal is to help manufacturers of antivenom medicines improve their products.

全球防蛇咬启动会正在为发展高品质的防毒治疗的能力和改善对病人照顾的医疗培训。另一个目标就是帮助防蛇毒药品的制造者提高产品的功效。

The project also wants communities to learn about snakebites and first aid. It wants more research and reporting systems. And it aims to help national health officials choose antivenoms for their countries' special needs.

项目还想交流学习蛇伤和一级救助的经验。它需要研究和报告系统。它致力于国家卫生官员来选择防治蛇毒液来满足国家的特殊需要。

The antivenom that cures the bite of one kind of snake may not be effective for another kind of snake. And the medicines for a cobra bite in the Philippines may not work for someone bitten by a similar snake in West Africa.

防治蛇毒的要对一种蛇的咬伤是有用的,但对另外的蛇的咬伤就没有作用。对治疗菲律宾的眼镜蛇咬伤的药物可能对那些被西非洲国家的眼镜蛇的咬伤就不起作用。

Experts look forward to improvements in worldwide treatment for snakebite. But they say the best ways to reduce death and injury from snakebites are education and prevention.

专家努力寻求改善世界范围内的治疗蛇伤的方法。但是他们说减少蛇伤死亡和伤害的最好方法是教育和预防。

Up to two hundred thousand lions lived in Africa twenty years ago. Today, fewer than thirty thousand lions live there, many in protected areas.

20 年前有多达 20 万头狮子生活在非洲。今天,不足 3 万头狮子生活在那里,许多是在保护区里。

But environmental activists are working to save the animals. And, the activists have some unexpected helpers.

但是环境保护者在努力挽救这些动物。 而且这些保护者有了一些意想不到的助手。

Members of the Maasai people have stopped killing lions and now are protecting them.

马斯人的成员阻止杀戮狮子而且现在他们还在保护狮子。

Maasai herders care for cattle, sheep and goats on the Mbirikani Group Ranch.

马斯的牧人关心在 the Mbirikani Group Ranch. 的大牧场里的家畜,羊和山羊。

This community-owned ranch is in southeastern Kenya. It covers more than one hundred twenty one thousand hectares. 

 这个集体所有的大牧场在肯尼亚的东南部。它面积超过了 121000 公顷。

Maasai warriors in their late teenage years, twenties and early thirties are called murran. The murran normally gain fame and honor if they kill a lion.

called Living with Lions.

马斯的战士在他们十八九岁,二十几岁,和三十几岁的时候称为武士。他们如果杀死了狮子就获得了声誉和荣誉。

But some of them now defend the animals and work to keep them alive. The murran are called Lion Guardians. They are part of a scientific and environmental-protection group.

但是他们中的许多人现在保护动物并为动物的生存工作。武士被称为狮子的卫士。他们是科学和环境保护团体的一部分被称为与狮子一起生活。

The Lion Guardians help herders find lost sheep, goats and cows. They observe the movement of lions and warn herders of their presence. Sometimes the guardians intervene and break up lion- hunters.

狮子卫兵帮助牧人找到丢失的羊和山羊和小牛。他们狮子的行动并警告当地的牧人。有时他们干涉并驱散偷猎狮子者。

If a lion does kill a herd animal, the Maasai receive money from a program that repays herders for losses. The program has lessened the traditional conflict between herders and lions.

如果狮子要死了牧人的动物,马斯就会从项目中拿出钱来弥补牧人的损失。这个项目就减少了传统的在牧人和狮子之间的利益争斗。

The murrans can follow a lion for hours without needing to drink water. They also learn radio work. That knowledge helps them find lions wearing radio collars. Scientists place the devices around the lions' necks so they can follow their movements.

这些武士可以跟踪狮子几个小时而无需喝水。他们还学会了用无线电工作。无线电的知识帮助他们找到了那些带无线电设备的狮子。科学家把无线电的设备放在狮子的脖子上他们能跟随狮子移动。

Some guardians also learn to read and write so they can keep records of their work. Others keep records using pictures.

一些狮子的卫士还学会读写。所以他们能记录他们的工作。其他的人使用照相保存工作记录。

The Lion Guardians have been facing an especially difficult situation in recent times. Herders in Kenya are suspected of killing lions with a pesticide product, Furadan.

最近狮子的卫士们一直面临一个特别的困难形势。肯尼亚的牧人被怀疑用灭虫剂弗拉大杀死狮子。

They reportedly pour the product on dead animals that lions eat. Furadan makes the lions unable to move, then causes a painful death.

他们把这种杀虫剂洒在狮子吃的动物的死尸上。弗拉大使狮子不能移动,在痛苦中死亡。

Laurence Frank is a lion expert with the University of California at Berkeley.

劳伦斯·弗兰克是伯克利大学的一位研究狮子的专家。

He says up to seventy- five wild Kenyan lions may have died this way during the past five years. Professor Frank heads the Living with Lions group.

在过去的五年里他说至少有 75 头野生肯尼亚狮子可能被这种方式致死。弗兰克教授领导着与狮子生活组织的工作。

In reaction to protests, the manufacturer of Furadan stopped all sales of it in Kenya.

对抗议的反应,弗拉大的生产者停止了在肯尼亚的所有销售。

But environmental activists worry that the pesticide is already in stores and people's homes.

但是环境保护者担心杀虫剂在一些商店和居民家中还有。

Farmers use it to protect crops from insects, worms and mites.

农民用它们保护庄稼以防昆虫,蠕虫和小虫的危害。

African lions are also threatened by human expansion into areas that once were wild lion country.

非洲狮子还受到人类扩张的威胁而离开了狮子曾经生活的家园。

Other enemies are hunters who kill lions for their body parts. The parts are then used in traditional medicines and souvenirs.

别的敌人是猎人,他们杀死狮子是为了狮子的身体一些东西。这些东西可以是传统上的药物和纪念品。

And, diseases sometimes kill large numbers of lions. Infectious animal tuberculosis, for example, has established itself as a threat to lions in southern Africa.

而且,疾病有时也使大量的狮子死亡。感染的动物例如结核病已经形成了对南部非洲狮子的威胁。

Researchers also blame long periods of dry weather and heavy rain. Some scientists say climate change makes this worse.

研究者还抱怨漫长的旱季和雨季。一些科学家说气候的变化使这种情况更糟!

This SCIENCE IN THE NEWS was written by Jerilyn Watson and Brianna Blake, who was also our producer. I'm Faith Lapidus.

这是科学新闻,作者是杰瑞林·沃森和布莱尼·布雷克。他们也是制作者。我是 . Faith Lapidus. 。

I'm Doug Johnson. Transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our programs are at www.unsv.com. Join us again next week for more news about science in Special English on the Voice of America.

我是道格·乔汉森。副本, mp3s 格式和我们节目的播出本在 www.unsv.com 。欢迎下周继续收听在美国之音栏目特殊英语的更多的新闻。

----------------------------------------
最佳回复 该帖于2009年5月5日被版主推荐为精华帖。

分享到:
  第1楼 作者:Frank Newton 创建: <编辑>  <引用>

您好,非常感谢您能提供如此的优质翻译文稿,真的很有奉献和分享精神!非常感谢!

我还有一点小小的请求:原帖对译的段落太长,我刚进行了一番处理。如果能把版面调整好些就好了,对译的句子最好别太长,如果是很短的句子的话,可以两句组合在一起对译,当然可以根据自己的感觉判断吧,这样网友看起来理解和吸收都比较有效些,当然也省去了版主们的二次处理时间,这样的话,版主们都要感谢你了哦!

2楼 作者:gaoxing 创建: <编辑>  <引用>
你好,感谢你的译文,使我学习起来更方便。只是有一处能否重译下。
3楼 作者:gaoxing 创建: <编辑>  <引用>
就是第一篇最后一句。

Parts of Antarctica are also believed to be melting because of climate change. Satellite images show an ice bridge that held a huge Antarctic ice shelf in place recently broke apart.

4楼 作者:华山布衣 创建: <编辑>  <引用>

He says a warmer Arctic and thinner sea ice changes the balance between the normally cold Arctic and warmer areas.
他说北极的暖化和海冰层的薄化改变了寒冷北极与较暖区域间的正常平衡。

5楼 作者:hollye 创建: <编辑>  <引用>

Up to two hundred thousand lions lived in Africa twenty years ago.

二十年前有二十万只狮子生活在非洲

Today, fewer than thirty thousand lions live there, many in protected

areas. But environmental activists are working to save the animals.

And, the activists have some unexpected helpers.

但是现在这里只有三万只狮子了,其中很多在保护区内。保护环境的积极分子致力于挽救这种动物。他们还有一些意想不到的帮助者。

Members of the Maasai people have stopped killing lions and now are protecting them. Maasai herders care for cattle, sheep and goats on the Mbirikani Group Ranch. This community-owned ranch is in southeastern Kenya. It covers more than one hundred twenty one thousand hectares.

一群马赛人已经停止猎杀狮子并开始保护他们。马赛牧人在Mbirikani Group牧场放养牛、绵羊和山羊。这个位于肯尼亚东南部的集体所有牧场有十二万一千公顷。

Maasai warriors in their late teenage years, twenties and early thirties are called murran. The murran normally gain fame and honor if they kill a lion. But some of them now defend the animals and work to keep them alive. The murran are called Lion Guardians. They are part of a scientific and environmental-protection group

called Living with Lions.

十几岁、二十多岁和三十出头的马赛勇士被叫做murran。如果猎杀一头狮子,murran就能得到荣誉和尊重。但是现在有些murran开始保卫狮子并致力于维持它们的存活。这些murran被叫做狮子卫士,他们是一个叫作“与狮子共存”的科学和环境保护组织的一部分。

The Lion Guardians help herders find lost sheep, goats and cows. They observe the movement of lions and warn herders of their presence. Sometimes the guardians intervene and break up lion hunters.

狮子卫士帮助牧人们寻找他们丢失的羊、山羊和牛。他们观察狮子的动静并在狮子出现时警告牧人们。有时候卫士们会介入和阻止猎杀狮子的猎人。

If a lion does kill a herd animal, the Maasai receive money from a program that repays herders for losses. The program has lessened the traditional conflict between herders and lions.

如果的确有狮子咬死牧场的动物,损失者就会得到一个赔偿牧人损失项目的赔偿款。这个项目减少了传统上牧人与狮子之间的冲突。

The murrans can follow a lion for hours without needing to drink water. They also learn radio work .That knowledge helps them find lions wearing radio collars. Scientists place the devices around the lions' necks so they can follow their movements.

保护狮子的murran可以几个小时不喝水跟踪一个狮子。他们也在学无线电,这种知识能帮助他们找到戴无线电环的狮子。科学家们把无线电环戴在狮子脖子上以跟踪他们的行动。

Some guardians also learn to read and write so they can keep records of their work. Others keep records using pictures.

有些狮子卫士也在学习识字写字,这样他们就能记录他们的工作了,不识字的人就用图像来记录。

The Lion Guardians have been facing an especially difficult situation in recent times. Herders in Kenya are suspected of killing lions with a pesticide product, Furadan. They reportedly pour the product on dead animals that lions eat. Furadan makes the lions unable to move, then causes a painful death.

最近狮子卫士们面临着极其困难的情况,他们怀疑肯尼亚的牧人们用一种叫做 furadan的杀虫剂杀死狮子。据报道,他们把这种药撒在狮子吃的动物尸体上。Furadan可以让狮子不能动弹,然后死于疼痛。

Laurence Frank is a lion expert with the University of California at Berkeley. He says up to seventy five wild Kenyan lions may have died this way during the past five years. Professor Frank heads the Living with Lions group.

Laurence frank是加州大学伯克利分校的狮子专家。他说在过去五年中可能有75只之多的肯尼亚野生狮子这样死掉。Frank教授领导着“与狮子共存”组织。

In reaction to protests, the manufacturer of Furadan stopped all sales of it in Kenya. But environmental activists worry that the pesticide is already in stores and people's homes. Farmers use it to protect crops from insects, worms and mites.

为了反对这种杀死狮子的做法,生产furadan的制造商停止向肯尼亚出售这种药。但是环保积极分子担心这种杀虫剂已经在商店和当地人家里。农民用这种杀虫剂保护农作物免受昆虫、蠕虫和螨虫伤害。

African lions are also threatened by human expansion into areas that once were wild lion country. Other enemies are hunters who kill lions for their body parts. The parts are then used in traditional medicines and souvenirs.

非洲狮也受到人类扩张到他们领地的威胁。其他的敌人是猎杀他们来获取某些身体部位的猎人,这些部位被用作传统药材和纪念品。

And, diseases sometimes kill large numbers of lions. Infectious animal tuberculosis, for example, has established itself as a threat to lions in southern Africa.

疾病也会夺取大量狮子的性命,例如传染性动物肺结核已经确定威胁到南非的狮子。

Researchers also blame long periods of dry weather and heavy rain. Some scientists say climate change makes this worse.

研究者们也抱怨长期干旱或者长期暴雨的天气。科学家们说气候变化可能会使这一情况更加糟糕。

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