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PEOPLE IN AMERICA - Diane Arbus, 1923-1971: A Revolutionary Photographer of Unusual People



And I'm Steve Ember with People in America in VOA Special English. Today, we tell about Diane Arbus, a revolutionary modern photographer. 我是《美国之音》“特别英语”节目的主持人Steve Ember。今天我们来讲述关于黛安·阿布斯的故事,她是一个反叛的现代摄影师。

Diane Arbus is known for creating intense black and white photographs of very unusual people. She used a special camera that produced square shaped images. Often her subjects look sad, conflicted or physically abnormal. But they do not try to hide their insecurities. They openly stare at the camera. One art expert said Diane Arbus turned photography inside out. Instead of looking at her subjects, she made them look at her. 黛安·阿布斯以给特殊人群拍摄(对比效果)强烈的黑白照片而著称。她用特殊的相机拍摄出方形的图像。她的作品中(人物)看起来面容忧郁,相互冲突,外形奇异,但他们并不隐藏自己的不安。(而是)大胆地看着相机(镜头)。一位艺术专家说,黛安·阿布斯把照片(人物的)内心展现了出来,让人不是去看她的作品,而是让作品中的人物去看她。

Arbus learned to mix the realistic nature of photography with its expressive possibilities. She explored how people live with sameness and difference as well as acceptance and rejection. These combinations created very interesting art that was often disputed. 阿布斯懂得将画面的真实特性与画面的表现潜力加以(完美地)组合。她伸入(到人物内心深处),(用镜头告诉观众,)人们在相互容纳而又相互排斥时如何相处,彼此相似或各不相同时又如何共存。这种组合非常有趣,但也倍受争议。

Diane Arbus was born in nineteen twenty-three to a wealthy family in New York City. Her father David Nemerov, owned a large clothing store in a costly area near 黛安·阿布斯于1923年出生于纽约市的一个富裕之家,父亲大卫·奈莫若夫是纽约第五大街附近昂贵地段的一家大型时装专卖店老板。她的父母收集艺术珍品,是当时纽约“上流社会”的知名人物。全家常到欧洲旅游。父母帮助三个孩子实现自己的艺术目标。黛安的哥哥豪威尔·奈莫若夫是一位著名诗人,妹妹则是一位雕塑家。

After finishing high school at the age of eighteen, Diane married Allan Arbus. Mister Arbus worked in the advertising department of her father's store. 高中毕业后,黛安18岁,嫁给了艾伦·阿布斯。阿布斯先生在她父亲店中的广告部工作。

It was Mister Arbus who gave Diane her first camera. Diane soon decided to take a class with the famous photographer Berenice Abbott. The Arbuses eventually started taking photographs of clothing. These images were used as advertisements for Diane's father's store. After the birth of their daughter, Doon, the Arbuses started a business together. Their purpose was to photograph clothing fashions. Diane Arbus was the stylist. She would prepare the hair and faces of the fashion models who wore the clothing being photographed. Allan Arbus took the pictures. 是阿布斯先生给了黛安第一部照相机。黛安很快决定去上当时著名摄影师贝瑞尼斯·阿博特开的(摄影)课程。阿布斯夫妇最终开始拍摄服装照片,这些照片是用来给黛安父亲的(服装)店做广告的。他们的女儿出生后,阿布斯夫妇开始合作,给时装拍摄照片。黛安·阿布斯是造型师。她给时装模特准备发型和脸部化妆,模特穿着时装拍照。艾伦·阿布斯给模特摄影。

The couple soon had jobs from important fashion magazines such as "Vogue" and "Harper's Bazaar". Their work was very successful during the nineteen fifties. They became part of a group of artists that were helping to redefine visual culture. They were breaking with past traditions to create a new look for a new decade, the sixties. 夫妇二人很快有了多家重要时装杂志社(需求的)业务,如“Vogue"”和“Harper's Bazaar”。20世纪50年代,他们二人的合作非常成功,(逐渐)成为艺术家组合的成员,帮助艺术家们重新定义视觉文化。他们与过去的传统绝裂,为新时期创造新面貌,并(迎来了崭新的)60年代。

But Diane was not satisfied with her secondary role. She wanted a more active part in making photographs. She wanted to explore her own artistic expression and freedom. To do this, she stopped working with her husband. Then she started taking photography classes at the New School in New York City. 但黛安对她的从属地位并不满足,她想在摄影制作中有扮演为活跃的角色,(独立)探求自己的艺术表现力和自由性。为了实现自己的愿望,她停止了与丈夫的合作,然后开始在纽约新学校学习摄影课程。

Arbus' teacher, Lisette Model, influenced her in many ways. She showed Diane how to use a camera like an expert. She also taught Diane to use her art to face her doubts and fears. Miss Model once said that Diane soon started "not listening to me but suddenly listening to herself." 黛安·阿布斯的老师莉赛特·莫德尔在许多方面影响了黛安。她教黛安如何像专业摄影师那样使用相机,也教她用自己的艺术感觉面对疑惑和恐惧。莫德尔小姐曾说,黛安很快开始学会“不听我怎样说,而是突然去听她自己怎样说。”

Diane Arbus chose her subjects very carefully. She photographed many of these people in or near New York City. She often chose to photograph unusual people living on the edge of acceptable society. But she showed the common and recognizable side of such unusual people. For example, she took pictures of extremely short and extremely tall people. She photographed men dressed as women, circus performers, and even patients with severe mental limitations. She once said: "My favorite thing is to go where I've never been." 黛安·阿布斯非常仔细地选择她要拍摄的对象。她曾给住在纽约市区里或附近的那些人拍摄照片。她常选拍居住在主流社会边缘的特殊人群,但她展示的是这些特殊人群中普通的和被人们认可的一面,例如,她拍摄极矮或极高的人,男扮女装的人,杂技团的演员,甚至有极度精神障碍的患者。她曾经说:“我最喜欢做的事情就是去我从未去过的地方。”

One of her famous photographs was taken in nineteen sixty-six. It is of a young transvestite. A transvestite is a man who dresses and acts like a woman. This man is wearing plastic objects in his hair to curl and shape it. He is also wearing makeup on his face to make it look more like a woman. The picture is taken from close up with severe lighting effects. In the dark centers of his eyes you can see the light from Arbus' camera. You can see every detail and imperfection of his pale skin. He looks directly at you as though he has nothing to hide. His look is one of interest and acceptance. 她有一张有名的照片,拍摄于1966年,拍的是一名年轻的爱穿异性服装的男子。这名男扮女装的男子头上戴着塑料发卷,使头发卷曲,固定发型,脸上还用化妆品,使他看起来更像个女人。这张照片是用特写镜头(close up)拍摄的,有极强的光线效果,在他眼睛漆黑的眸子里面,你可以看见阿布斯的相机的光线,你能看见照片中人苍白皮肤上的每一个细微之处和缺陷部位;他直直地看着你,似乎无可隐藏;他的目光使人产生兴趣,为人们所接受。

Another photograph like this is called "Mexican Dwarf in His Hotel Room in N.Y.C." It was taken in nineteen seventy. Here, Arbus uses similar dramatic lighting. She shows a close-up view of the upper body and face of this extremely small man. He looks directly at the camera with the suggestion of a smile. You can see all the lines on his small short fingers. The hair on his chest and face seems very close. You can almost smell the alcohol on the table beside him. You can almost feel the smooth cloth sheets on his bed. It is as though you have entered the personal world of this small stranger. 另一张类似的照片叫做“纽约市酒店房间的墨西哥矮人”,拍摄于1970年。这里,阿布斯同样使用了对比的灯光效果,运用特写镜头,向观众展示了这位身材极为矮小的男人的面庞和身体上部。他直率地看着镜头,面带微笑。你能看见他短小的手指上的每道细纹,他脸上和胸前的汗毛似乎非常切近,你甚至可以闻到他身边桌上的酒香,可以感到他床上的床单是多么柔和平滑,你仿佛已进入这位矮小的怪客的个人世界。

The expressions of these men are so honest that it is almost unpleasant to observe. Diane Arbus explored this tension in her work. She caught her subjects in positions where they show themselves completely. They do not seem afraid to show their imperfections and strangeness. They do not hide the parts of themselves that are not beautiful. They openly show their bodies and souls. Seeing the pictures, you sometimes feel you are interfering in the private lives of these strange people. You feel like maybe you are not supposed to be looking. 这些男子的神情坦诚大方,让人几乎不忍观看。黛安·阿布斯在拍摄时触摸到这种细微的张感,她在人物充分表现自我时,从各种姿势捕捉他们(的真实状态)。她镜头下的人物似乎毫不介意展示他们的(身体的)缺陷和(与人的)陌生感。他们并不隐藏自己身体中不雅部位,大方展示出自己的身体和内心世界。看着这些照片,你有时觉得对这些陌生的人们的私人生活产生了兴趣,(甚至)觉得或许自己不应该看着他们。

Some art critics believe Diane Arbus photographed such unusual people as a result of her background. She grew up in a safe and wealthy environment. In photographing the strange and imperfect people in society, she rejected her own social group. She revolted against her upbringing to prove that she was artistically independent. She chose to explore the unusual sides of society instead of accepting common subjects to photograph. 有些评论家认为,黛安·阿布斯拍摄这些照片是因为她的家庭出身。她在一个安定富裕的(家庭)环境中长大,通过拍摄社会中这些奇特而畸形的人们的照片,她与自己的社会阶层绝裂。她反叛养育了她的世界,是要证明她在艺术上的独立性。(所以,)她选择探寻社会的特殊层面,而不是人们通常认可的人物进行拍照。

Diane Arbus' photo of identical twins

Arbus also photographed everyday people in a way that made them look very unusual. She was able to take the most recognizable people and environments and make them seem strange. For example, she took pictures of couples and families and even of female twins, sisters born at the same time. 阿布斯也给日常生活中的人们拍摄照片,她用一种(特有的)方式使这些人看起来非同寻常。她能够捕捉到许多人们熟知的人物和场景,使他们显得与众不同。比如,她为一些夫妇和许多家庭拍照,甚至还为在同一时间出生的双胞胎姐妹拍过照片。

One of her most famous photographs is called "Identical Twins." It was taken in nineteen sixty-seven in Roselle, New Jersey. Two little girls take up the entire center of the photograph. Their faces and bodies are exactly alike. They are wearing the same dark dresses and white bands in their hair. The girls look calmly at the camera with large, pale eyes. Although they are young, they look very wise, like they are intense little adults. 她最有名的要算“绝似双胞胎”这张照片了,照片拍摄于1967年新泽西的Roselle。两个小女孩站在照片的正中央,她们的脸蛋和身体长得几乎完全一样,身上穿着同样的黑色短裙,头上戴着白色的发带,用大大的、灰色的眼睛平静地注视着镜头。尽管年龄幼小,却看起来聪慧过人,简直就像两个小大人似的。

This image of the twins became the cover of an important book of photography titled "Diane Arbus." The book was published in nineteen seventy-two. It became one of the best-selling photography books in history. The photograph of the twins was also part of a major exhibition of Arbus' work at the Museum of Modern Art in New York City that same year. 这张双胞胎姐妹的照片成为一本重要的相册图书的封面,照片题为“黛安·阿布斯”。该书出版于1972年,成为美国历史上最为畅销的相册图书之一。双胞胎的照片也是阿布斯1972年纽约现代艺术博物馆中主要摄影展的组成部分。

This show set new records in attendance numbers. Sadly, Diane Arbus did not live to see this show. She had killed herself the year before. She was forty-eight years old. 那年的展览创造了新的观众纪录。遗憾的是,黛安·阿布斯没有看到展览。她于展览的前一年割腕自杀。那一年,她年仅48岁。

The photographs of Diane Arbus remain very popular in America. In March of two thousand five, the Metropolitan Museum in New York had a major exhibit of her work. The museum curators gathered many of her important photographs for the show. They also exhibited many less well-known works. But they also tried to show the personal side of this famous woman. They showed her letters, cameras and books. The book "Diane Arbus Revelations" documents this special exhibition. 黛安·阿布斯拍摄的照片在美国非常受欢迎。2005年三月,纽约的都市博物馆展出了她的大部分作品。该博物馆管理人员为该展出收集了她的许多重要摄影杰作,也展出了她的许多较不为人知的作品,但他们也想展示这位著名女性的个性化的一面。他们向公众展示了她的书信、相机和关于她的书籍。这本书名叫“黛安·阿布斯的革命”,书中记录了这次特殊的展出。

Diane Arbus once said: "A photograph is a secret about a secret. The more it tells you the less you know." This comment helps explain what is so powerful about Diane Arbus's work. The people in her photographs show themselves, but a great deal about them remains hidden as well. Her images make you ask what you might show about yourself -- and what you might try to hide. 黛安·阿布斯曾经说:“照片是一个关于秘密的秘密。它展现得越多,你知道得越少。”这句话帮助解释了为什么她的作品那么有表现力。她照片中的人物表现的是他们自己,但有大量的东西还不为人所知。她照片中的人物会让你问自己,你可能会展现出自己的哪些部分,还有哪些是你不想展现的。

Today, Diane Arbus' images remain as fresh and intense as they were forty years ago. Experts say her revolutionary way of capturing people on film has produced some of the most important images in twentieth century photography. 今天,黛安·阿布斯的作品形象一如他们四十年前鲜活生动,印象深刻。专家说,她这种获取胶卷人物的反传统方式使20世纪诞生了照相业中某些最伟大的人物形象。

Fifth Avenue
. Her parents collected art and were part of the "high society" of New York. The family traveled often to Europe. They helped their children express their artistic goals. Diane's brother was the famous poet, Howard Nemerov. Her sister became a sculptor.

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Instead of looking at her subjects, she made them look at her.



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