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2009.10.13-农业报道-科学家们帮助揭示修剪背后的秘密

楼主:liuling 日期: 回贴:1 浏览:

2009.10.13-农业报道-科学家们帮助揭示修剪背后的秘密
AGRICULTURE REPORT - Scientists Help Cut the Mystery Behind Pruning


This is the VOA Special English Agriculture Report.
这里是VOA特别英语农业报道。

We talked last week about when and how to prune plants. Today we tell you about some new understanding of why cutting the main branch of a plant or tree can lead to better development.
上周我们讨论过何时以及如何修剪植株。今天,我们来告诉你为什么修剪植物或树木的主要枝干会有助于它们更好的生长。

The findings are from researchers on two continents. Professor Prezemyslaw Prusinkiewicz of the University of Calgary in Canada led the research with scientists from Britain and Sweden. Their study appears in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
这些发现来自两个洲的研究员。来自加拿大卡尔加里大学的Prezemyslaw Prusinkiewicz教授带领着来自英国和瑞典的科学家们(进行研究)。他们的研究成果刊登在国家科学研究院的学报上。

Researchers have known since the nineteen thirties that the actively growing tip of a plant releases a hormone called auxin. This hormone flows down the main stem. Scientists say the auxin has an indirect effect on buds on the side of the stem to prevent branching.
自1930S起,研究人员就了解到生长旺盛的植物顶梢会释放出一种被称为茁长素的激素。这种激素向下流淌在植物主干内。科学家们称这种激素可以间接地阻止主干两侧的芽体分枝。

These buds themselves also produce auxin. The research suggests that to grow, they have to be able to export the hormone into the main stem. But the flow from the stem tip prevents them from doing this. The researchers wanted to find out how this blocking happens.
这些芽体自身也产生茁长素。这项研究提示说如果要生长,它们必须能够将这种激素输入主干之内。但是,来自主干顶端的(激素)流会阻止它们这么做。研究员们希望能够发现这种阻碍(机制)是怎么发生的。

Professor Prusinkiewicz is on sabbatical leave in Australia, but he sent us an e-mail suggesting a simple way to understand the process. Think of a major road crowded with traffic. So many cars are on the main road that the cars on the side roads cannot enter.
Prusinkiewicz教授正在澳大利亚休假,不过他给我们发来一个封电子邮件引导我们用一个简单的方式来理解这一过程。设想一个主干道上塞满了车辆。如此多的车占据了主干道以至于辅道上的车辆没法进入(主干道)了。

The stem is like the crowded main road. The new research shows that the buds on the side cannot export their auxin into the main stem because it is too full. But if that main shoot is pruned, other buds below it can start exporting. They are no longer inhibited from growing.
主茎秆就像那个拥堵的主干道。这项新的研究显示侧边的芽体无法将它们的茁长素输送到主茎秆是因为主干内太过饱和了。但是如果主要的芽体被修剪掉,那么其下部的其他芽体就会开始输送(茁长素)。它们就不会被限制生长了。

Ottoline Leyser from the University of York says that after a plant is pruned, all the inhibited shoot tips compete with each other to grow. In doing this, the branches influence each other's growth. Nearby shoot tips are more likely to affect each other than those that are far apart from each other.
来自约克大学的Ottoline Leyser 称,一株植物被修剪之后,所有被抑制的芽体都会竞相生长。在这一过程中,这些分枝相互影响着彼此的生长。比起那些相距较远的茎芽来说,相互邻近的茎芽更会彼此影响。

Professor Leyser says the strongest branches grow best, wherever they may be on the plant. The study found that the main shoot grows the best of all not because of its position at the top of the plant, but mostly because it got there first.
Leyser教授说,最强壮的分枝会生长得最好,无论它处于这个植株的什么位置。这项研究发现主茎芽在所有茎芽中生长得最好并不是因为它处于植株的最顶端,而极有可能是它最先到达那里(最顶端)。

And that's the VOA Special English Agriculture Report, written by Jerilyn Watson. Transcripts and MP3s of our reports, including last week's advice about pruning, can be found at www.unsv.com. You can also post comments. We invite you to share your own experiences -- good or bad -- with pruning plants and trees. I'm Steve Ember.
以上是VOA特别英语农业报道,由Jerilyn Watson编写。我们报道的文本和MP3文件,以及上周的关于修剪的建议,都可以在 www.unsv.com找到。你同样可以发表自己的评论。我们期待你的经验分享——不管是成功的还是失败的——关于植物和树木修剪方面的。我是Steve Ember。

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AGRICULTURE REPORT - Scientists Help Cut the Mystery Behind Pruning

农业报道——科学家帮助剪去修剪之后的谜团

This is the VOA Special English Agriculture Report.

这是美国之音特别英语的农业报道。

We talked last week about when and how to prune plants. Today we tell you about some new understanding of why cutting the main branch of a plant or tree can lead to better development.

上周我们谈了在什么时间和怎样修剪植物。今天我们告诉你为什么修剪植物和树木的大支能够使之生长的更好的一些新的理解。

The findings are from researchers on two continents. Professor Prezemyslaw Prusinkiewicz of the University of Calgary in Canada led the research with scientists from Britain and Sweden. Their study appears in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

这些研究结果来自两个大洲的研究人员。来自加拿大卡尔加里大学的Prezemyslaw Prusinkiewicz 教授同来在英国和瑞典的科学家们进行着这项研究。他们的研究结果发表在美国国家科学院的公报上。

Researchers have known since the nineteen thirties that the actively growing tip of a plant releases a hormone called auxin. This hormone flows down the main stem. Scientists say the auxin has an indirect effect on buds on the side of the stem to prevent branching.

从十九世纪三十年代,研究人员已经知道植物活跃的生长锥释放一种称之为auxin的荷尔蒙。这种荷尔蒙流入植物的主干。科学家称auxin对阻止位于主干侧边的嫩芽长成树枝没有直接的影响。(下划线内如何翻译最好呢)

These buds themselves also produce auxin. The research suggests that to grow, they have to be able to export the hormone into the main stem. But the flow from the stem tip prevents them from doing this. The researchers wanted to find out how this blocking happens.

这些嫩芽本省也产生auxin。这项研究表明为了生长,嫩芽必须能够将荷尔蒙注入到主干。但是来自茎尖得流动阻碍了嫩芽这么做。研究人员希望弄清楚这种阻碍是如何发生的。

Professor Prusinkiewicz is on sabbatical leave in Australia, but he sent us an e-mail suggesting a simple way to understand the process. Think of a major road crowded with traffic. So many cars are on the main road that the cars on the side roads cannot enter.

Prusinkiewicz 教授正在澳大利亚休假,但他给我们发了封邮件,来说明理解这个过程的一个简单的方法。

The stem is like the crowded main road. The new research shows that the buds on the side cannot export their auxin into the main stem because it is too full. But if that main shoot is pruned, other buds below it can start exporting. They are no longer inhibited from growing.

主干就像是一条拥挤的主要公路。这项研究说明位于侧边的嫩芽不能将它们的auxin输入主干是因为主干太满了。但是如果主干被修剪一下,位于它之下的一些内压就能够开始输出(auxin).它们就不再受生长的限制。(main shoot如何翻译更清楚呢)

Ottoline Leyser from the University of York says that after a plant is pruned, all the inhibited shoot tips compete with each other to grow. In doing this, the branches influence each other's growth. Nearby shoot tips are more likely to affect each other than those that are far apart from each other.

来在约克大学的Ottoline Leyser称,当植物被修剪之后,所有被阻碍生长的茎尖将互相竞争以便生长。这样做,枝条之间互相影响着彼此的生长。相互接近的茎尖之间比相距较远的茎尖之间的影响要大些。

Professor Leyser says the strongest branches grow best, wherever they may be on the plant. The study found that the main shoot grows the best of all not because of its position at the top of the plant, but mostly because it got there first.

Leyser教授说越强壮的树枝长的越好,无论它们在植物的那个部位。这项研究说明主枝长的最好不是因为它在植物的最高端,而是因为它最先达到那里。

And that's the VOA Special English Agriculture Report, written by Jerilyn Watson. Transcripts and MP3s of our reports, including last week's advice about pruning, can be found at www.unsv.com. You can also post comments. We invite you to share your own experiences -- good or bad -- with pruning plants and trees. I'm Steve Ember.

这是美国之音特别英语农业报道,撰写Jerilyn Watson,。我们这篇报道的文稿和mp3,包括上周关于修剪的建议可以在www.voaspecialeng.com网站上找到。你也可发表你的评论。我们邀请你分享你自己关于修剪植物和树木的经验——无论其是好是坏。我是Steve Ember。

【生词】

prune  [pru:n] vt.修剪(树枝);删除,消减

Proceeding [prəˈsi:diŋ] n.进程,过程;会议记录,公报;诉讼,诉讼程序

hormone [ˈhɔ:məun] n.荷尔蒙;激素

sabbatical [səˈbætikəl] adj.休假的,公休的

inhibite [inˈhibit] vt.抑制;阻止

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