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2009年10月16日VOA经济报道 –诺贝尔奖认可经济治理研究

楼主:Early Bird 日期: 回贴:3 浏览:

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From:http://www.unsv.com/voanews/specialenglish/scripts/2009/10/16/0041/

ECONOMICS REPORT - Nobel Recognizes Research Into Economic Governance
2009 年 10 月 16 日 VOA 经济报道 – 诺贝尔奖认可经济治理研究

This is the VOA Special English Economics Report.
这里是 VOA 特别英语的经济报道

Economists usually study markets. Now, two Americans have won the Nobel Prize in economics for not studying markets.

经常学家通常研究市场。如今,二位美国人因非市场类研究(经济学)而荣获诺贝尔奖。

They will share almost one and a half million dollars for their analysis of economic governance. This is the study of how economic activity is governed within companies, communities and other groups.

他们将因经济治理分析而分享大约 150 万美元。经济治理分析是经济活动在公司、社区及其它团体内如何治理的研究。

The winners are Elinor Ostrom of Indiana University in Bloomington and Oliver Williamson of the University of California, Berkeley. The prize in economic sciences has gone to sixty-three men since it was first awarded forty years ago. Elinor Ostrom is the first woman. And, like other winners over the years, her training is not limited to economics. She is a professor of political science and of public and environmental affairs.

获奖者是 印地安那大学伯明顿分校的艾利诺 - 奥斯特罗姆和加州大学伯克利分校的奥利弗 - 威廉姆森。自诺贝尔经济学奖在 40 年前首次颁奖以来,已经颁奖给了 63 位男士。艾利诺 - 奥斯特罗姆是首位女性获奖者。另外,与多年来的其它获奖者一样,她的受训并不局限于经济学本身。她是政治学以及公共与环境事务的教授。

Today, economic theory suggests that good resource management requires ownership, either private or public. If not, the thinking goes, then self-interest will lead to overuse and destruction of shared resources. Ecologist Garrett Hardin described this idea in nineteen sixty-eight as "the tragedy of the commons."

当前,经济理论表明,良好的资源管理要求私有或公共的所有权。如果不是,理论表明自利将导致分享资源的滥用及毁灭。经济 学家 加勒特 . 哈丁在 1968 年称这一观念为“共有的悲剧”。

Elinor Ostrom showed how local decision making can lessen the tragedy. Her research has deepened understanding of how people balance their needs with those of others who depend on the same resources.

艾利诺 - 奥斯特罗姆证明,当地决策可减轻悲剧。她的研究已经深入到民众与依赖于同一资源的其它人如何平衡其需求的理解。

She studied communities like farmers in Southern California who depended on a common water supply. She documented how people who use resources often develop ways to share them. One example is forest management.

她研究了社区,如依赖于同一水源的南加州农民。她记录了民众使用资源时通常是如何制定分享资源的方法。一个实例是森林管理。

ELINOR OSTROM: "One of the absolutely key, most important variables as to whether or not a forest survives and continues is whether local people monitor each other and its use. Not officials, locals."

艾利诺 - 奥斯特罗姆:“绝对关键且最重要的变量之一是森林生存与续存是当地民众是否监督对方及森林使用。不是官方监督,而是当地民众监督。”

Oliver Williamson has studied big companies and found that they often are better than markets at doing complex jobs. Under his theory, businesses act as structures for conflict resolution.

奥利弗 - 威廉姆森研究了大公司,并且发现在从事复杂工作时,大公司通常优于市场。根据他的理论,公司的行为通常寻求冲突的解决方案。

For example, companies that own their suppliers can avoid long-term contracts and disputes over prices. This can make production more efficient and make better use of limited resources.

例如,拥有供应商的公司可避免长期合约以及价格争议。这使生产更具效率,并更好地利用有限的资源。

But businesses can also abuse their power. Professor Williamson says the best way to deal with this is not by limiting the size of companies, but through industry regulation.

但是,公司也可滥用其权力。 威廉姆森教授说,处理的最佳途径不是限制公司大小,而是业界监管。

The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences said economists need to do more than study markets and prices. The Nobel judges urged more research like the kind they recognized with this year's award.

瑞典皇家科学院说,经济学家不仅仅需要研究市场与价格。诺贝尔奖评委呼吁更多象诸如今年奖项所认可之类的研究。

And that's the VOA Special English Economics Report, written by Mario Ritter. I'm Steve Ember.

这是由 Mario Ritter 编写的 VOA 特别英语经济报道。我是 Steve Ember 。

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最佳回复 该帖于2009年10月16日被版主推荐为精华帖。

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1楼 作者:maggie zhang 创建: <编辑>  <引用>

ECONOMICS REPORT - Nobel Recognizes Research Into Economic Governance

经济报道——诺贝尔奖认可深入经济管理类的研究

Economists usually study markets. Now, two Americans have won the Nobel Prize in economics for not studying markets.

经济学家经常研究市场。现在,两位美国人获得诺贝尔在非市场领域研究的经济学奖。

They will share almost one and a half million dollars for their analysis of economic governance. This is the study of(对研究) how economic activity is governed within companies, communities and other groups.

他们共同分享他们在经济管理分析方面大约150万美元的奖金。这项研究是针对经济活动是如何在公司,社团和其它组织里被管理的。

The winners are Elinor Ostrom of Indiana University in Bloomington and Oliver Williamson of the University of California, Berkeley. The prize in economic sciences has gone to sixty-three men since it was first awarded forty years ago. Elinor Ostrom is the first woman. And, like other winners over the years, her training is not limited to economics. She is a professor of political science and of public and environmental affairs.

获奖者是布卢明顿印地安那大学的elinor Ostrom 和加利福尼亚大学伯克利分校的Oliver Willamson. 经济学奖从40年前第一次颁奖以来,已授予63位男性。Elinor Ostrom是第一位获得些殊荣的女性。同时,和过去其它获奖者一样,她涉猎范围不仅限于经济领域。她同时是一位政治学和公共环境事物的教授。

Today, economic theory suggests that good resource management requires ownership, either private or public. If not, the thinking goes, then self-interest will lead to overuse and destruction of shared resources. Ecologist Garrett Hardin described this idea in nineteen sixty-eight as "the tragedy of the commons."

今天,经济理论提出优质的资源管理需要所有权,即要公有制也要私有利。如果不是这样,什么想法都会出现,随后利已主义将会导致对共同资源的过度使用和破坏。经济学家Garrett Hardin 1968把这个想法描述成“共有财务的悲剧”。

Elinor Ostrom showed how local decision making can lessen the tragedy. Her research has deepened understanding of how people balance their needs with those of others who depend on the same resources.

Elinor Ostrom向人们展示了当局所做的决策可以减少悲剧的发生。他的研究加深了人们对如何平衡需求和其它依赖相同资源人们的理解。

She studied communities like farmers in Southern California who depended on a common water supply. She documented how people who use resources often develop ways to share them. One example is forest management.

她研究社区,如:南加利福尼亚的农民依赖共同的水源。她记载了人们如何经常发现不同的方式共享资源。一个案例就是森林管理。

Oliver Williamson has studied big companies and found that they often are better than markets at doing complex jobs. Under his theory, businesses act as structures for conflict resolution.

Oliver Willamson对一个大公司进行了研究,发现他们在做复杂工作时经常比做交易干的好。按照他的理论,公司起着冲突解决结构的作用。

For example, companies that own their suppliers can avoid long-term contracts and disputes over prices. This can make production more efficient and make better use of limited resources.

例如,拥有自己供应商的公司可以避免长期合同和价格争议。可使生产更有效,更好的利用有限的资源。

But businesses can also abuse their power. Professor Williamson says the best way to deal with this is not by limiting the size of companies, but through industry regulation.

但是公司也有可能滥用他们的权力。Willamson教授说最好处理这个问题的方法就是通过行业规定来限定他们的权力,而不是限定公司的规模。

The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences said economists need to do more than study markets and prices. The Nobel judges urged more research like the kind they recognized with this year's award.

瑞典皇家科学学院说经济学家需要做更多市场和价格方面的研究。诺贝尔评审鼓励更多在今年获奖领域方面的研究。

 

3楼 作者:xuql@wfu.edu.cn 创建: <编辑>  <引用>
Early Bird
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