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09/10/21【健康报道】惩罚还是奖励:那种方式对行为更有效?

楼主:Shi YF 日期: 回贴:0 浏览:

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Punishment or Reward: Which Works Better on Behavior?

惩罚还是奖励:那种方式对行为更有效?

21 October 2009

This is the VOA Special English Health Report.

这是美国之音特别英语的健康报道。

Two recent studies have found that punishment is not the best way to influence behavior.

近期有两项研究表明惩罚对于行为干预来说并不是最好的方式。

One showed that adults are much more cooperative if they work in a system based on rewards. Researchers at Harvard University in the United States and the Stockholm School of Economics in Sweden did the study.

其中一个说明成年人在基于奖励的环境下工作会更加协作。位于美国的哈佛大学和瑞典的斯德哥尔摩经济学校进行了这项研究。

They had about two hundred college students play a version of the game known as the Prisoner's Dilemma. The game is based on the tension between the interests of an individual and a group.

他们让200名大学生玩一种Prisoner's Dilemma(囚徒困境)的游戏。这款游戏基于个人和集体之间的利益的关系。

The students played in groups of four. Each player could win points for the group, so they would all gain equally. But each player could also reward or punish each of the other three players, at a cost to the punisher.

学生们在游戏中每四人一组。每个玩家都能为集体赢分,他们都能平等的得分。但每个玩家也能作为惩罚者,奖励或惩罚其他三位玩家。

Harvard researcher David Rand says the most successful behavior proved to be cooperation. The groups that rewarded it the most earned about twice as much in the game as the groups that rewarded it the least.

哈佛研究人员David Rand称最成功的行为时合作。奖励最多的团队得分是奖励最少团队的两倍。

And the more a group punished itself, the lower its earnings. The group with the most punishment earned twenty-five percent less than the group with the least punishment. The study appeared last month in the journal Science.

团队中惩罚的越多,得分也越少。惩罚最多的团队得分是惩罚最少团队得分的25%。这项研究上个月发表在科学杂志上。

The other study involved children. It was presented last month in California at a conference on violence and abuse.

另一个研究是关于孩子们的。该研究是上个月在加利福尼亚举行的关于暴力和虐待会议中发表的。

Researchers used intelligence tests given to two groups. More than eight hundred children were ages two to four the first time they were tested. More than seven hundred children were ages five to nine.

研究人员对两个小组进行智力测验。超过800名2到4岁的孩子首先进行测试。另一组为700多名5到9岁的孩子

The two groups were retested four years later, and the study compared the results with the first test. Both groups contained children whose parents used physical punishment and children whose parents did not.

这个组孩子四年后再次进行测验,测验结果同第一次测验进行比骄。每个测试小组都有被父母进行过体罚的孩子和没有受到过体罚的孩子。

The study says the IQs -- or intelligence quotients -- of the younger children who were not spanked were five points higher than those who were. In the older group, the difference was almost three points.

研究称没有受到过体罚的年幼些孩子的智商比受到过的高%。在年长的那组,差距大约是3%。

Murray Strauss from the University of New Hampshire worked with Mallie Paschall from the Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation. Professor Strauss has written extensively about physical punishment of children. He says the more they are spanked, the slower their mental development. He also looked at average IQs in other nations and found them lower where spanking was more common.

来自新罕布什尔州的Murray Strauss 和来自太平洋研究和评估学院的Mallie Paschall 共同进行了这项研究。Strauss教授充分的撰写了关于对儿童进行体罚的文章。他说惩罚的越多,孩子的思想发展就越慢。他同样也研究了其他国家(民族?)孩子的平均智商,发现受到体罚多的孩子们的智商普遍偏低。

What do you think are the best ways to correct misbehavior? Share your comments at voaspecialenglish.com.

你认为改变坏行为的最好方式是什么呢?请把你的意见发表在voaspecialeng.com网站上。

And that's the VOA Special English Health Report, written by Caty Weaver. I'm Steve Ember.

这是美国之音的健康报道,撰写Caty Weaver。我是Steve Embers。

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最佳回复 该帖于2009年10月22日被版主推荐为精华帖。

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