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EXPLORATIONS - As the World Turns: Exploring the Art of Wood 探索发现——世界在转动:探索木材的艺术

楼主:anna 日期: 回贴:0 浏览:

2009 10 21 星期三

EXPLORATIONS - As the World Turns: Exploring the Art of Wood

探索发现——世界在转动:探索木材的艺术

At several galleries in the Washington, D.C. area, you might see work by the wood turner Phil Brown. His many wooden bowls and containers have a smooth and modern look.

在华盛顿特区的某些美术馆,你可以看见木工大师菲尔 · 布朗的作品。他的许多木碗、木盆和其它木制容器色泽光滑,时尚可观。

One tall bowl with a wide opening is made from black cherry wood. It is so perfectly formed it is hard to believe it is handmade. How did Phil Brown make this bowl? We will answer this question as we explore the many artistic traditions of wood.

有一个高脚木碗,口大底小,形似漏斗,以黑樱桃木制作而成。它制作精良,难以相信是手工作品。菲尔 · 布朗是如何制作这个木碗的呢?我们探索众多传统木制工艺品之后再来回答这个问题。

People from almost all cultures throughout history have been making objects from wood. Some of the first wooden objects included weapons and tools. Early cultures also learned to make boats, buildings and furniture for the home from this material. However, it is not always easy to say which wooden objects existed during a historical period because they often did not last as long as objects made from clay or metal.

在历史上几乎所有的文明时代,人们都一直使用木材制作各种物品。某些原始的物品包括武器和(生产)工具。早期文化也学会了用木材制作木船、建筑物和家俱。然而,很难说出哪种木制品曾经存在于某个历史时期,因为它们并不像陶器或金属器皿的使用时间长久。

Experts say most current woodworking tools were developed by the beginning of the Bronze Age, about five thousand years ago. These tools include the saw, axe, chisel and drill which are used to cut and shape wood in different ways. The lathe may have been developed as early as two thousand seven hundred years ago.

专家说大多数现有木制工具开始于 5 , 000 年前的铜器时代,包括锯、斧、凿和钻等用于切削和给木材定型的工具,它们各有用途。车床可能形成于 2 , 700 年前。

This tool holds and rotates the wood. As the wood turns, the wood worker uses a sharp tool to slowly and evenly cut pieces from the wood.

车床用来固定木料,对木木料进行加工。木料转动时,木工使用一种头部尖尖的工具慢慢地、均匀地切割木料。

There are many methods of woodworking and each culture has its own traditions. Artistic wood creations include architectural decoration on buildings, furniture for the home or even carved animals.

木料加工有很多种,每种都有其独特的传统工艺。木工工艺的创作形式包括楼房的建筑装修,家俱的设计装潢,甚至包括家中雕刻的动物模型。

For example, in Thailand, richly detailed carvings from teak and other hard woods are an important part of ancient palaces and religious buildings. Woodcarvers were a very important group of artists. A person needed many years of training with experts to be a wood carver. Wood carvings often include plant forms such as the lotus flower as well as figures taken from Hindu and Buddhist religious stories.

例如,在泰国,柚木和其它硬木制作的木雕工艺品华美精制,是古代宫殿和宗教建筑的重要组成部分。木雕师们是艺术群体中非常重要的承担者,一个木雕工需要学艺多年才能成为木雕大师。木雕制品形式多样,常模仿植物的形状,如印度佛教故事中的莲花和人物造型。

The carvings are very detailed and must be carefully planned. Usually, a carver draws out the patterns and forms on paper. Then the artist cuts holes along the outlines of the design. This paper is placed on the piece of wood then covered with chalk dust.

木雕制品图案复杂,设计时必须非常仔细。通常,木雕师先在纸上画出图案和形状,再由工匠剪出设计图案(类似剪纸),之后将剪纸放在待加工的木料上,用白色粉笔描线。

The white chalk dust goes through the holes in the paper and marks the wood so the carver has a visual guide to begin cutting. Finished woodcarvings are often painted, sometimes with gold to reflect the surrounding light. These expertly made golden carvings give an airy lightness to Thai buildings.

用白色粉笔沿着纸洞描线,在木料上作出记号,这样,木雕师就有了参考样本,开始雕刻。成品通常涂上油漆,有时涂上黄金,以映出四周的光泽。这种高超的黄金雕刻给泰国建筑赋予了一种鲜亮的色泽。

Some wood working traditions developed more recently. For example, wood artists in the state of Oaxaca in Mexico have been carving mask face coverings and toys for hundreds of years. But Manuel Jimenez became one of the most famous carvers in Oaxaca by creating a newer tradition.

有些木雕工艺在近代才开始出现。比如,墨西哥的瓦哈卡州的木雕艺术家们从事面具和玩具雕刻的历史长达几百年的时间。但 Manuel Jimenez 以制作工艺新颖的木雕制品而成为瓦哈卡最有名的一位木雕大师。

In the nineteen fifties, he saw a growing demand for traditional Mexican art that visitors wanted to buy. He decided to experiment with new kinds of wood and forms. He started carving expressive animals such as frogs, coyotes and rabbits out of copal wood.

在 20 世纪 50 年代,他看出墨西哥传统艺术市场需求量大,许多参观者都想购买木雕艺术品,决定开始试新制型木制工艺品。他开始用柯巴木制作形象逼真的动物造型,如青蛙、小狼、兔子等等。

Soon, his whole family started helping produce these lively, wooden creatures. The Jimenez men carved the creations while the women painted them with bright colors and patterns. Other wood carvers in the area also started making their own kinds of animals. Now, Oaxaca is famous for this special kind of wood art.

很快,他的全家都开始帮他制作这些造型生动的木头动物。 Jimenez 家族的男子(负责)动物的雕刻制作,女子们则给它们涂上鲜亮的颜色和图案。该地区的其他雕刻者们也开始制作自己的动物模型。现在,瓦哈卡以这种特殊的木制工艺而闻名。

Colorful paints are not the only way to finish a wood object. In countries like Japan and China there is a rich tradition of painting wooden bowls, boxes and other objects with lacquer. The first kinds of lacquer were made from resin material taken from special trees. Lacquer paint creates a very hard and smooth surface over the wood and protects it from water. Japanese and Chinese lacquer work is often red or black. Sometimes it can be decorated with pieces of silver or gold metal to create an image.

(给木制品涂上)色泽鲜亮的油漆不是完成某件作品的唯一方法。在日本和中国,给木碗、木箱和其它木制品上漆有着悠久的历史。最早的漆来自某些特殊树木中的树脂。这种漆可使木料表面变得坚硬光滑,还可防水。日本和中国漆制作品常为红色或黑色,有时也漆上金色或银色,使外观更有光泽。

And, sometimes wood can even decorate wood. Inlay is a way of decorating wood with a pattern or image made out of small pieces of wood. The many small pieces of wood can have different colors or patterns. Some inlay experts in seventeenth century France and Spain added valuable materials like shiny mother-of-pearl or tortoise shell to the detailed wood inlay.

而且,有时木料也可装饰木料。镶嵌就是这样一种工艺,它是用小块木料制作出图案或造型,装饰在另一种木制品上。这种小型木料可制作出颜色丰富、样式繁多的作品。 17 世纪法国和西班牙的镶嵌大师们还创作出了极为珍贵的木雕作品,他们把色泽鲜亮的珍珠母或乌鱼壳镶嵌在精制的木制品上。

In the United States, the Shaker tradition of furniture making is known for its simplicity of form. The Shakers were a religious community that came to the United States in the eighteenth century from England. They practiced an intense form of spiritual observance and believed strongly in the value of hard work and keeping busy.

在美国, Shaker 家俱制作工艺以其形式简洁而闻名。 Shakers 是一个宗教团体,于 18 世纪从英国来到美国。他们奉行一种形式极端的精神操守,坚信辛勤工作和忙碌的价值。

The Shakers developed their own style of furniture. They designed it very carefully with the idea that making something well was an act of prayer. They made furniture that was as simple and useful as possible because they believed extra details and designs were unnecessary and wrong. But their furniture in its total simplicity became famous for its beauty. Chairs to sit on are probably the most well known Shaker furniture. The very fine and thin wood pieces give these chairs a clean and graceful look.

Shakers 形成了自己制作家俱的风格。他们设计严谨,秉承精心制作乃祈祷之理念。他们制作的家俱简单适用,认为复杂的图案和设计既非必需,亦非正道,这种整体的俭朴之风反因其美而得名。 Shakers 家俱中坐椅最为有名,木料质地精良,体形瘦削,为坐椅增添了干净优雅之美。

Phil Brown is an American artist who creates art with wood in a different way. He lives on a quiet street in Bethesda, Maryland, near Washington, D.C. In his workshop, he turns large pieces of wood into fine containers. Let us meet this expert wood turner whose bowls we talked about earlier and learn how he started his career.

木工大师菲尔 · 布朗是一位美国木雕艺术家,其创作之道与众不同。他住在马里兰州的贝塞斯达郊区的一条幽静的小街上,就在华盛顿附近。在他的工作室,他转动着大块的木料,把它们加工成精美的容器。我们来采访一下这位木工专家,前面我们谈过他是怎样开始创业的。

PHIL BROWN: "I'm Phil Brown. I'm a wood turner. I make bowls out of solid wood. The wood comes from our local trees and I have a shop at my home where I do the work. I've been a wood worker ever since I was a kid. And in the early seventies I wanted to get back to doing some wood work and we saw lots of interesting work in Maine on some trips there and I had a chance to get some apple wood from a friend ...what are you going to do with apple wood but maybe turn a bowl out of it. So I bought a used lathe and a book about turning and gradually taught myself to turn a bowl."

菲尔 · 布朗:“我叫菲尔 · 布朗,是个木料车工。我用结实的木料制作木碗。这些木料都来自我们当地的树木,我在家里有个店,我就在店里工作。从童年时起我就一直是个木工。早在 70 年代我就想回去做些木工活,那时我们在梅恩旅行时,看到许多有趣的工作。有一次我从朋友那里弄了些苹果树的木料 …… 你用苹果树的木料做些什么东西,但也许可以做个木碗。所以我就买了个车床,还买了一本车工的书,慢慢自学做碗。”

In the living room of his home Phil Brown has a special area where he shows his finished art. There are bowls of all shapes and sizes. Some are deep and large with reddish brown colored wood. Others are small with yellowish wood that has dark lines and shapes. Mister Brown can explain exactly where and when he found each tree that he used to make a bowl. And he can show you what all the lines and rings in the wood represent. They are like maps of the tree's life. Some lines are caused by fungus organisms while others show the area where a branch of the tree trunk used to be. But to really understand Mister Brown's wood turning art, you have to visit his workshop downstairs.

在菲尔 · 布朗家的客厅有一个特别之处,在那里他给我们看了他完成的作品,那儿有形状各异、大小不一的各种碗盆。有的深而大,上面带有红棕色的色彩。其它的小而略带黄色,上面有深色木纹和图样。布朗先生能够准确说出他用来作这些碗盆的每种树木的产地和时间,他也可以向你展示木头上的那些纹路所代表的含义。它们就像树的年轮。有些纹路是菌类组织造成的,而有些则显示了树枝过去所在的方位。但要真正理解布朗先生的木制艺术品,你就得参观他楼下的工作间。

The workshop is filled with many tools and machine parts. On one wall there are shelves filled with roughly cut wooden bowls that are drying out. Allowing the wood to dry helps guarantee that it will not change shape later on. Before "turning the bowl thin" Mister Brown puts a layer of epoxy paint material over the roughly cut bowl. This hardens areas of the wood that might be softer or contain fungus. Then, Mister Brown places the bowl on his lathe.

这个工作间有许多工具和零件。在一面墙上,壁橱里放满了正待晾干的毛坯木制碗盆。让木制碗盆自然变干可以保证它们日后不会变形。切削之前,布朗先生在碗盆毛坯上面涂上一层环保漆,它可使木料可能较软或有菌类的地方变得硬一些。然后,布朗先生把碗放在他的车床上。

The lathe turns the wood quickly. Using a long metal tool called a gouge, Mister Brown slowly cuts away at the wooden form. With great skill he slowly keeps cutting away until the bowl has the right thinness and form. Then, Mister Brown uses rough sandpaper to smooth the gouge marks in the wood. As the wood becomes smoother, he uses finer and finer kinds of sandpaper. He sometimes fills any holes or cracks with a mixture of epoxy glue, sanding dust, and brown paint. Finished bowls are so smooth and perfect they do not even feel like wood.

车床快速转动木件,使用的是一种叫凿的长形金属工具。布朗先生细心地雕凿这件木制品。凭着高超的技艺,他精雕细凿,木碗终于有了合适的厚度和形状。然后,布朗先生使用砂纸打磨木碗上的凿痕。木碗开始变得光滑起来,他又用质地更好的砂纸打磨表面。有时他用环保胶、砂灰和棕色漆的混合物填补洞纹。成品木碗光滑圆润,完美无

缺,几乎不像是木头做的。

Phil Brown shows his beautiful bowls at several fine craft stores and in art shows. He even has a bowl at the Renwick Gallery of the Smithsonian American Art Museum in Washington, D.C. Sometimes he sells works directly from his workshop. His turned wood bowls cost hundreds of dollars. Many people have collections of his bowls in their homes.

菲尔 · 布朗给我们看了他在几家手工店和艺术展览馆中展出的漂亮的木碗,他甚至在华盛顿特区的伦威克画廊史密森尼美国艺术博物馆中都有一只木碗。有时他直接从工作室中售出自己的作品。他用车床车木制碗盆的成本需要几百美元。许多人家中都收藏有他的木制碗盆。

Mister Brown says he is influenced by the work of sculptors like Henry Moore and Isamu Noguchi. He says he likes to make bowls that have smooth surfaces and that bring out the natural color of wood. His finely made art is a celebration of the life of a tree and the endless possibilities of wood.

布朗先生说,他是受了雕刻家亨利 · 莫尔和伊萨姆 · 那古基二人雕塑作品的影响。他说,他喜欢制作表面光滑的木制碗盆,(因为)它们能够显现木料的自然颜色。他精心制作的艺术品阐示了树的年轮,展示了木料无穷无尽的潜能。 (完)

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