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[译文]THE MAKING OF A NATION #2 - First Peoples

楼主:edxeer 日期: 回贴:0 浏览:

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THE MAKING OF A NATION #2 - First Peoples

 

By Paul Thompson

 

Broadcast: Thursday, March 06, 2003

 

(THEME)

 

VOICE ONE:

 

This is Sarah Long.

我是Sarah Long

 

VOICE TWO:

 

And this is Rich Kleinfeldt with the MAKING OF A NATION, a VOA Special English program about the history of the United States.

我是Rich Kleinfeldt,现在正在播出的是一档关于美国历史的VOA慢速英语节目“建国史话”。

 

(THEME)

 

Today, we present the first in our series of history programs. We tell about the first peoples to arrive in what would become North America.

今天我们播出我们这个历史系列节目的第一集。我们讲述第一批来到现在称为北美洲这个地方的人。

(MUSIC: MANDAREE SINGERS)

 

VOICE ONE:

 

Scientists and history experts say the first people to ever come to the western hemisphere arrived between fifteen-thousand and thirty-five-thousand years ago. They may have come in several different groups. No one is really sure who they were or where they lived before.

科学家和历史学家认为第一批人在1.5万年前至3.5万年前到达西半球。他们可能分几批到达。没有人能够真正知道他们是谁以及他们以前生活在什么地方。

 

Bering Strait

 

Experts say the best possible answer about where they came from is northern Asia. Most experts believe they crossed to the western hemisphere from the part of Russia now called Siberia. The first people came to the new world in a time of fierce cold.

专家说他们最有可能来自亚洲北部。大多数专家认为他们从现在俄罗斯境内的西伯利亚到达西半球的。第一批人是在一个相当寒冷的时期到达这个新世界的。

 

Much of the northern part of the world was covered in ice. Because of this, the oceans were hundreds of meters lower than they are now. Scientists believe this made it possible to walk across the area that is now the Bering Sea. For a moment, let us follow a family group as it begins to cross the area that is now the Bering Sea. The time is more than twenty-thousand years ago.

那时世界北部的大部分地区都被冰雪覆盖。正因为如此,那时的海平面比现在要低几百米。科学家认为正是由于这个原因,才使得当时他们徒步穿越现在的白令海地区成为可能。一会儿让我们回到过去,跟随一个家庭经历一下穿越现在的白令海地区的整个过程。时间回到了2万多年前。

(MUSIC)

 

VOICE TWO:

 

The hunter watched the small group of animals. It had been several days since he had last killed an animal for food. The hunter's family had not much left to eat. It was the responsibility of the men to provide the food. Today they must get meat or their families would not survive. The fierce cold added to the sharp hunger that the hunter felt. He was dressed from head to foot in heavy animal skins to protect against the cold.

一个猎人正盯着一小群动物。自从他上次猎食动物已经过去了好几天,他的家人已经没有什么东西可吃了。为他们提供食物是男人的责任。今天他们必须想办法弄到点肉吃,否则他们都将被饿死。刺骨的寒冷和剧烈的饥饿刺激着猎人。为了御寒,他从头到脚都穿着厚厚的动物毛皮。

 

VOICE ONE:

 

The hunter was several kilometers from the animals. The animals had moved slowly during the night toward the rising sun. They had been moving in this direction for several days. They were also looking for food. The hunter knew there was not much for them to eat in this area. He knew the animals would keep moving.

猎人距离动物几公里远。夜晚这些动物朝着太阳升级的地方缓慢移动着。它们已经朝这个方向走了几天了,也是在寻找食物。猎人知道这个地方没有什么东西可以供它们吃的,所以它们还会继续向前走。

 

The hunter's people had always followed animals for food. But they had never followed them this far toward the rising sun. The hunter looked behind him. He could see the women and children far behind. He picked up his weapon and moved forward.

他的家人为了寻找食物一直跟着这群动物。但是他们以前从来没有跟着动物朝着太阳升起的方向走过这么远的路程。猎人朝身后看了看,妇女和孩子们远远地跟在后面。他举起了武器,慢慢向前靠近。

 

VOICE TWO:

 

Later, the men killed two animals. It was enough to feed all their people for perhaps two days. That night as they cooked the meat, the hunter thought about turning back to the land behind them. The hunter knew that area well. But the hunting had been poor for a long time.

接着,猎人杀死了两只动物。这可能够他们所有人吃两天的了。那天晚上,他们正在烹食得到的猎物的时,猎人考虑着是否返回身后的那个地区,他非常熟悉这个地方,但是在这已经很长时间没有什么猎物了。

This was the first group of animals they had been able to follow any length of time. It was not a large group of animals but there were enough to follow. He decided that in the morning they could continue toward the rising sun. They would stay with this herd of animals. He knew his family had little choice. Follow them and live. Or go back and perhaps die from of a lack of food.

这是很长时间以来他们能发现的第一群动物。虽然这群动物的数量并不算太多,但这已经没有更多的动物了。他决定第二天早上一起朝太阳升起的方向继续向前走。他们会一直跟着这群动物。他知道他们没有选择的余地。跟着这些动物就能继续生存,或者回去,那样就很可能会被饿死。

(MUSIC)

 

VOICE ONE:

 

This is just a story. But it could be true. Scientists believe such hunters followed animals east across what is now the Bering Sea. It is only about eighty kilometers from Siberia to what is now the American state of Alaska. Eighty kilometers would not be a long trip for ancient people following animal herds.

这仅仅是一个故事,但它也可能真正发生过。科学家认为这些猎人跟随者动物穿过了现在的白令海地区。从西伯利亚到现在美国的阿拉斯加地区只有80公里。80公里的路程对于古代跟随者动物的人来讲并不十分遥远。

Scientists have done new genetic tests on large populations of people. They show that about ninety-five percent of all native peoples in the western hemisphere came from the same family group. The scientists say this family may have crossed into the west about twenty-thousand years ago. This family group would have grown and divided during the next several thousand years. Over time, they would have spread out and explored most of the land that is North, Central and South America.

科学家曾对大量的人群做过一些新的遗传学实验。结果显示大约95%西半球当地的人都来自同一个家族。科学家说这个家族可能在2万年前穿越白令海来到西半球。在接下来的几千年中,这个家族慢慢壮大并逐渐分化。随着时间的流逝,他们逐渐扩展并探索了现在的北美洲、中美洲和南美洲的这个大陆的大部分地区。

VOICE TWO:

 

Many of those early peoples stayed in the far northern parts of the American continents. They were already used to living in the extreme cold. They knew how to survive.

这些早期的人很多都生活在美洲大陆遥远的北方地区。他们已经习惯了生活在这种极端寒冷的环境中,而且知道怎样在这里生存。

Today members of a tribe called the Yuit still live near the Bering Sea in Alaska. Other tribes live in the Arctic areas of northern Canada. These include several different tribes of the Inuit. Many of these people of the far North still hunt wild animals for much of their food.

今天一个称为Yuit的部族的族人仍然生活在阿拉斯加靠近白令海的地区。其他部族则生活在加拿大北部的北极地区,包括几个不同的因纽特部族。在遥远的北极地区生活的很多人仍然靠捕猎野生动物作为他们的主要食物。

VOICE ONE:

 

The early settlers in North America were not able to immediately travel south. Huge amounts of ice stopped them. Experts believe the early settlers lived in the far north for about two-thousand years before they began to move south.

早期在北美洲的定居者并不能立即向南方迁移。巨大的冰雪阻止了他们。专家认为早期在遥远的北方的定居者在开始向南方迁移之前大概已经生活了2000多年。

One expert says it could have taken only five-hundred years for the early Indians to settle all of the western hemisphere from southern Canada to the end of South America.

有一个专家称早期的印第安人在整个西半球定居,北至加拿大南部,南美洲最南端,这个过程可能仅仅用了500年的时间。

VOICE TWO:

 

Scientists say it is more likely that the movement took several thousand years. But in time these people spread out over the western hemisphere. They became thousands of different tribes with many languages...from the Inuit in the far north, to the Yahgan people near the end of South America.

科学家说这个迁移过程可以能经历了几千年的时间。但是这些人最后终于分布到了西半球的各个地方。他们发展成为有着不同的语言的几千个不同的部族,从居住在遥远的北方的因纽特人到接近南美洲最南端的Yahgan人。

One group was the Maya of Mexico. They learned to read and write their language and build huge stone buildings that can still be seen today. The Inca of Peru also built stone buildings that are extremely beautiful. Some Indians still live much the same as they always have. An example is the Bora tribe that lives deep in the Amazon area of South America.

其中有个一个就是在莫斯科的玛雅族。他们掌握了读写自己的语言以及建造相当大的留存至今的石制建筑物。在秘鲁的印加人也会建造相当壮观的石制建筑物。一些印第安人仍然保持他们古老的生活方式。一个例子就是生活在南美洲亚马逊地区深处的Bora部族。

Other native peoples settled across the land that would later become the United States.

其它一些当地的人到现在的美国所在的大陆定居。

(BRIDGE MUSIC)

 

VOICE ONE:

 

The earliest evidence of the existence of ancient Indians in North America was found in Nineteen-Twenty-Six. A worker found the bones of an animal sticking out of the ground. The bones were much larger than normal.

北美洲印第安人存在的证据最早在1926年被发现。一个工作人员发现了一些突出地面的动物骨头。这些骨头比一般的都要大很多。

Experts were called. The experts learned that the bones were from an animal that is no longer found in North America. The experts also found the stone points of weapons that were used to kill this animal. Since then experts have found many similar areas with animal bones and weapon points. The experts believe most of these finds are between ten-thousand and eleven-thousand-five-hundred years old.

专家们都被召集起来。他们发现这是一种动物的骨头,但是这种动物从来没有在北美洲发现过。专家们同时也发现用来猎杀这种动物的一种尖状的石制武器。后来他们又发现很多相似的地区,在这些地区动物骨头和尖状的武器都堆积在一起。专家们认为大多数发现的这些东西都有10000年到11500年的历史了。

VOICE TWO:

 

The experts agree that these stone weapon points are very similar to weapons that have been found in the far northern parts of Siberia. They say this helps prove the idea that the first settlers in North America came from North Eastern Asia.

专家们认为这些尖状的石制武器与在遥远的西伯利亚北部地区发现的武器是类似的。他们说这有助于证明在北美洲的第一批定居者来自于东北亚。

Near the small town of Clovis in the western state of New Mexico, experts found a new kind of stone weapon point. They named it the Clovis point. These points have been made very sharp by cutting away some of the stone from the sides. Experts say this kind of stone point is only found in America. The earliest ones were made about eleven-thousand-five hundred years ago. Experts say at the time, this kind of stone point was the most modern weapon of its time. They were a great improvement over the older kind of stone point.

在靠近西部新莫斯科州一个叫克洛维斯的小镇附近,专家们发现了一种新的尖状的石制武器。他们将其称为“克洛维斯尖状投掷器”。这些武器侧面被切去,尖端做得非常锋利。专家们说这种石制武器只在美洲发现过。这种武器最早大约是11500年前创造的。专家们说这种石制尖端武器在当时已经是最先进的武器了。这对于老式的石制武器是一个相当大的改进。

VOICE ONE:

Many of the larger animals that were hunted by the early Indians began to die off with the end of the ice age. The Indians were forced to hunt smaller animals. In a period of several thousand years, the first peoples moved and settled across the land that would become the United States.

在冰河世纪末期,早期的印第安人猎杀的很多大型动物陆续灭亡。他们被迫猎杀小一点的动物。在好几千年的一个时期内,第一批人迁移到一个大陆并在这里定居,这个大陆成为了后来的美国。

Some settled in the forest land of the east, like the Iroquois. Some lived in the southern desert like the Apache. Some settled in the open country of middle America like the Lakota. And others settled in the American northwest like the Nez Perce.

易洛魁族人一样,一些人在东部的丛林里定居。另外有一些人住到了南部的沙漠里,例如阿帕切族人。像Lakota一样,一些人定居在美国中部的一些空旷区域。还有一些人定居在美国的西北部,例如Nez Perce

 

These tribes and several hundred others had lived in the western part of the world many thousands of years before the first Europeans arrived. Christopher Columbus landed on the island of San Salvador in Fourteen-Ninety-Two. People in Europe did not know at that time that this land existed.

在第一批欧洲人到来之前,这些部族和几百个其它部族已经在这个世界的西方生活了几千年。1492年,克里斯托弗·哥伦布在圣萨尔瓦多岛登陆。在此之前欧洲人并不知道这个大陆的存在。

VOICE TWO:

When Columbus landed, several million people lived in the area between the far norths of North America to the end of land in South America. These included large groups and small. Most had their own culture, language and religion. Many were extremely fierce. Some were very peaceful. Some were hunters. Others were farmers. Some built huge cities of stone. Others lived in simple homes made from animal skins or wood from trees. Their ways of living would change forever when European explorers found their land. The story of these explorers -- next week.

当哥伦布登陆的时候,已经有几百万人生活在这个地方,从北美洲遥远的北方直到南美洲边缘。这些部族有的人多一些,而有的人则比较少。大多数人都有他们自己的文化、语言以及宗教信仰。很多人相当野蛮,也有一些人非常和善。有一些人是猎人,其他的是农民。一些人建造巨大的石城。还有一些人仅仅住在简易的用兽皮或者木头建造的房子里,自从欧洲人探索这个大陆开始,他们的生活方式注定要发生不可逆转的变化。这些探险者的故事----这是我们下周要讲的内容。

(THEME)

 

VOICE ONE:

 

This MAKING OF A NATION program was written and produced by Paul Thompson. This is Sarah Long.

这个VOA慢速英语节目“建国史话”作者是保罗·汤姆森。我是Sarah Long

VOICE TWO:

And this is Rich Kleinfeldt. Join us again next week for another VOA Special English program about the history of the United States.

我是Rich Kleinfeldt。下周的VOA慢速英语节目“建国史话”节目继续讲述美国历史,再见。

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