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2009-11-5 美国的形成——美国历史系列:南方将北方反战运动视为战争突破口

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From: http://www.unsv.com/voanews/specialenglish/scripts/2009/11/05/0045/   

America 's civil war in the eighteen sixties did not have the full support of the people. Many said they did not care who won -- North or South. They just wanted to be left alone.

19 世纪 60 年代的美国内战没有得到全国人民的支持。许多人说,他们并不在乎南北双方谁赢谁输。他们只想过自己的日子。

In the North, many young men refused to be drafted into the Union army. Some of their protests turned violent.

在北方,许多年轻人拒绝征兵入伍,加入联军作战。部分士兵的反战(运动)汹涌澎湃。

Southern leaders were pleased with the anti-war movement in the North. Confederate General Robert E. Lee saw it as a sign of weakness in the northern war effort. He also saw it as an opening for a military victory. Lee hoped for a final, decisive blow that would bring the war to an end.

南方领导者们感到北方的反战运动正中下怀。盟军总司令罗伯特 · E · 李把它看作北方战事的一个弱点和南方军事胜利的突破口。李将军希望有一场最后的决战来结束这次战争。

Gettysburg was a small town. Many roads came together there. Robert E. Lee needed those roads to pull his army together quickly. He had seventy thousand men in all. But they were spread over a wide area of southern Pennsylvania. Some were at York, to the east. Some were at Carlisle, to the north. And most were at Chambersburg, to the west. All of them were ordered to move against the Union force at Gettysburg.

葛底斯堡是一个小镇,那里道路纵横。罗伯特 · E · 李将军需要这些道路迅速汇集军队。他手下共 7 万人,但都分散在南部宾夕法尼亚州的广大地区。有些在东部的约克郡,有些在北部的卡莱尔,还有大部分在西部的钱伯斯堡。他们都要前来抗击聚集在葛底斯堡的北方联军。

General Robert E. Lee had not planned to go to Gettysburg. He had planned to capture Harrisburg, the state capital, and then Philadelphia. If successful, he would turn south to seize Baltimore and Washington.

罗伯特 · E · 李将军原计划不去攻打葛底斯堡,而是攻克宾夕法尼亚州的首府哈里斯堡,从而收复费城。如果成功,他将以南方为据点,占领巴尔的摩和华盛顿。

Lee had not worried about the large Union Army of the Potomac. He believed it was far behind him, in Virginia. But Lee was wrong. The Union Army had followed him. And it had reached Gettysburg first.

李将军并不担心波多马可庞大的北方联军。他认为联军远在其后,盘旋于弗杰尼亚。但他错了,联军已跟随其后,首先到达葛底斯堡。

The first group of northern soldiers formed a thin line of defense outside Gettysburg. The first group of southern soldiers attacked this line. It was the morning of July first, eighteen sixty-three.

第一个北方军团成立了保卫葛底斯堡的外部薄弱防线,被首个南方军团击破,时间是 1863 年 1 月 1 日上午。

When the guns began to roar, both sides hurried more men to the front. After hours of fighting, the Confederates had pushed the Union soldiers back through the town. The Union soldiers formed a new line along a place called Cemetery Hill.

战争开始打响时,双方的士兵都来前线增援。经过数小时奋战,南方盟军将北方联军逼回葛底斯堡,联军在墓园山区重组防线。

General Robert E. Lee decided not to attack the hill immediately. He would wait for more men. But as he waited, more and more Union soldiers arrived. By sunrise the next day, Lee's seventy thousand men faced a Union army of ninety thousand men.

李将军决定不立即进攻墓园山,他要等候援军。但他等候期间,北方联军也在增兵。翌日黎明,李将军的七万将士(突然)面临九万名北方士兵。

The Confederates attacked both sides of the Union line. They moved the Union soldiers a little. But then the Union soldiers came back again. The Confederates could not hold the line.

盟军从首尾两翼进攻联军,将其逼退稍许距离,但联军再次反攻,盟军防线失守。

The fighting stopped at sunset. Union commander George Meade met with his generals. He said he was sure General Lee would attack again the next day. The next attack, Meade said, would be against the center of the Union line.

战争在落日时分停止。联军司令乔治 · 米德召集众将开会。他说,他确信李将军次日会再次进攻,而下次进攻将对准联军防线的中心。

Meade was right. Lee planned to send fifteen thousand men against the Union center. They would be under the command of General George Pickett.

米德的判断没错。李将军计划派遣 1 万 5 千人进攻联军中部防线,其将领是乔治 · 匹科特将军。

When the sun rose on July third, the Union troops were ready. They watched as the Confederate troops set up their cannon. More than one hundred thirty of these big guns were aimed at the center of the Union line.

7 月 3 日晨太阳初升,联军蓄势待发。他们看到盟军架起大炮,其中 130 门大炮瞄准了联军中心防线。

The morning passed. The day grew hotter. A little past one o’clock in the afternoon, a Confederate gun fired, once. Then again. That was the signal to attack.

上午已过,白天愈热。下午一点刚过,盟军枪响,再次燃起进攻的信号。

All at once, the Confederate artillery thundered with a deafening roar. The cannon sent iron and smoke into the Union soldiers on Cemetery Hill. Within minutes, hundreds lay dead or dying.

俄顷,盟军大炮轰炸,炮声震耳欲聋。大炮铁屑纷飞,硝烟弥漫,瞬时,墓园山联军士兵倒地伤亡者多以百计。

Union artillery on the hill answered the Confederate cannon. Men lay flat on the ground. They prayed for the shelling to stop. Finally, it did. And the smoke of battle began to clear.

联军炮兵对盟军大炮的轰炸作出了回应。人们直直地躺在地上,心中祈祷轰炸快点结束。最后,轰炸果真结束,战火的硝烟开始消散。

Now the Union soldiers could see across the valley. They watched as the Confederate soldiers formed a long line. It was a sight to take your breath away.

现在,联军士兵可看见山谷对面。他们看到盟军士兵组成了一道长长的防线。此情此景,令人倒吸冷气。

Facing Cemetery Hill, the Confederates stood shoulder to shoulder in a line almost two kilometers long. Sunlight shone from their guns. Their battle flags waved. Slowly, the line began to move. It seemed more like a parade than an attack. Shouts went up and down the Union line. “Here they come! Here come the rebels!”

面对墓园山,盟军肩并肩成直线而立,长达两公里。阳光下,士兵的枪支闪闪发光,旗帜飘扬。防线开始缓慢移动,与其说看起来像是进攻,不如说是列队游行。联军防线中呐喊声此起彼伏:“他们来了!叛军来了!”

Thousands of Confederate soldiers moved across the valley outside Gettysburg. Union artillery opened fire. The guns tore open big holes in the Confederate battle line. But the southerners kept moving forward up the hill.

几千盟军从葛底斯堡外的山谷围了上来。联军大炮首先开火,枪炮将盟军战线打开缺口,但南军仍蜂涌而至。

Union soldiers rose up from behind stone walls and fallen trees. They poured even more gunfire into the Confederate line. More and more bodies fell to the ground. Still, the line moved forward.

联军从石墙和倒塌的树木后面悄然而至,他们向盟军不断开火,盟军不断有士兵倒下,但仍向前进攻。

A few Confederates reached the Union line, but not enough to seize it. They were shot down. Suddenly, the Confederates began racing down the hill. Many raised their hands in surrender. Fifteen thousand began the attack. Only half returned. The battle of Gettysburg was over.

一些盟军到达联军防线,但不足以形成围攻之势。很多盟军士兵被射倒。突然,盟军开始往山下逃跑,许多人举手投降。联军 1 万 5 千人开始进攻,盟军仅有半数回撤。葛底斯堡之战结束。

The Union commander, General Meade, was told that the Confederate attack had been broken. He said, simply: “Thank God.” The Confederate commander, General Lee, said: “This has been a sad day for us, a sad day.”

联军司令米德将军得知盟军进攻已被击破,他只说了句:“感谢上帝!”盟军司令李将军说:“这对我们来说是悲惨的一天,真是悲惨。”

Lee’s invasion of the North had failed. There was only one thing he could do now: retreat. He must get his army back to Virginia. He could only hope that the Union Army was hurt too badly to chase him.

李将军对北方的入侵遭到失败。现在,他别无选择,只有撤退。他必须将南军撤回弗吉尼亚,心中唯愿北军伤亡惨重,无力追赶。

The line of wagons carrying wounded soldiers was twenty-five kilometers long. Many of the wounded needed treatment. But the wagons were not permitted to stop for any reason.

军队辎重携带伤军(前行),队伍长达 25 公里。许多伤兵需要治疗,但队伍必须前行,不得无故停留。

Suffering was terrible. An officer who led the wagon train said he learned more about the horrors of war on that one trip than he had learned in all of his battles. Twenty thousand Confederate soldiers were killed, wounded, or listed as missing in the battle of Gettysburg. Twenty-three thousand Union soldiers were killed, wounded or missing.

双方军队伤亡惨重。北军中带队军官叹言,仅他所带的一支队伍中的遭受战争蹂躏的惨象,就比他经历所有战役中的景象还要惨重得多。南军在葛底斯堡战役中有 2 万士兵或死或伤,下落不明。北军伤亡失踪人数也达 2 万 3 千人。

General Meade lost so many men that he was in no hurry to chase General Lee. He believed it might be best to let Lee escape than to take a chance on losing what remained of the Army of the Potomac. Meade waited for a week until his army was stronger. But by then, Lee and his men had crossed safely back into Virginia.

米德将军部下损失惨重,无力追赶李将军的残部。他认为,最好让李将军逃脱,冒险追赶会丧失波多马可军的余部力量。米德将军等候一周,直到军队实力增强。但此时此刻,李将军及其残部已安全抵达弗吉尼亚。

President Abraham Lincoln was angry. He had told General Meade that driving the Confederates out of the North was not enough. The southern army must be destroyed. “We had them,” Lincoln said. “We had only to stretch out our hands and take them. And nothing I could do or say could make the army move.”

亚拉伯罕林肯总统异常震怒。他曾经告诫米德将军说,仅将南部盟军赶出北方是不够的。必须(彻底)摧毁南军。“我们已手到擒来,”林肯说。“我们只须伸出手去,将其擒获。北军按兵不动,我无话可说,爱莫能助。”

President Lincoln believed that General Meade had made a mistake. But he felt that the general had ability. Lincoln was thankful for what Meade had done at Gettysburg. He said Meade would continue to command the Army of the Potomac.

林肯认为,米德将军决策失误,但他深信米德将军完全胜任。林肯对米德葛底斯堡之战感佩不已,他说,米德将军应连任统帅波多马可军队之职。

In November of eighteen sixty-three, President Lincoln went to Gettysburg. He attended the opening of a new burial place for the Union soldiers who had died in the great battle there.

1863 年 11 月,林肯总统前往葛底斯堡。他出席了北军葛底斯堡战役阵亡士兵在新墓地的追悼会。

The governor of Pennsylvania had asked the president to say a few words at the ceremony. Lincoln agreed. He felt it was his duty to go to honor the brave men who lost their lives to save the Union. Lincoln hoped his words might help lift the spirit of the nation.

宾夕法尼亚的州长邀请林肯总统在追悼会上作致辞。林肯同意了。他认为,他有责任表彰那些为拯救北方联军而英勇献身的战士们。林肯希望自己的演说能够鼓舞全国人民的士气。

Lincoln did not have much time to prepare his speech. He wrote it down the night before the ceremony. Lincoln was sure the speech was not a good one. But it came to be one of the most famous speeches in American history.

林肯没有太多时间准备演说词。他在追悼会前夜草拟致辞,他认为致辞欠佳,而后来却成为美国历史上最著名的一篇演说词。

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最佳回复 该帖于2009年11月9日被版主推荐为精华帖。

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