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2009-11-5 美国的形成——美国历史系列:南方将北方反战运动视为战争突破口

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From: http://www.unsv.com/voanews/specialenglish/scripts/2009/11/05/0045/   

America 's civil war in the eighteen sixties did not have the full support of the people. Many said they did not care who won -- North or South. They just wanted to be left alone.

19 世纪 60 年代的美国内战没有得到全国人民的支持。许多人说,他们并不在乎南北双方谁赢谁输。他们只想过自己的日子。

In the North, many young men refused to be drafted into the Union army. Some of their protests turned violent.


Southern leaders were pleased with the anti-war movement in the North. Confederate General Robert E. Lee saw it as a sign of weakness in the northern war effort. He also saw it as an opening for a military victory. Lee hoped for a final, decisive blow that would bring the war to an end.

南方领导者们感到北方的反战运动正中下怀。盟军总司令罗伯特 · E · 李把它看作北方战事的一个弱点和南方军事胜利的突破口。李将军希望有一场最后的决战来结束这次战争。

Gettysburg was a small town. Many roads came together there. Robert E. Lee needed those roads to pull his army together quickly. He had seventy thousand men in all. But they were spread over a wide area of southern Pennsylvania. Some were at York, to the east. Some were at Carlisle, to the north. And most were at Chambersburg, to the west. All of them were ordered to move against the Union force at Gettysburg.

葛底斯堡是一个小镇,那里道路纵横。罗伯特 · E · 李将军需要这些道路迅速汇集军队。他手下共 7 万人,但都分散在南部宾夕法尼亚州的广大地区。有些在东部的约克郡,有些在北部的卡莱尔,还有大部分在西部的钱伯斯堡。他们都要前来抗击聚集在葛底斯堡的北方联军。

General Robert E. Lee had not planned to go to Gettysburg. He had planned to capture Harrisburg, the state capital, and then Philadelphia. If successful, he would turn south to seize Baltimore and Washington.

罗伯特 · E · 李将军原计划不去攻打葛底斯堡,而是攻克宾夕法尼亚州的首府哈里斯堡,从而收复费城。如果成功,他将以南方为据点,占领巴尔的摩和华盛顿。

Lee had not worried about the large Union Army of the Potomac. He believed it was far behind him, in Virginia. But Lee was wrong. The Union Army had followed him. And it had reached Gettysburg first.


The first group of northern soldiers formed a thin line of defense outside Gettysburg. The first group of southern soldiers attacked this line. It was the morning of July first, eighteen sixty-three.

第一个北方军团成立了保卫葛底斯堡的外部薄弱防线,被首个南方军团击破,时间是 1863 年 1 月 1 日上午。

When the guns began to roar, both sides hurried more men to the front. After hours of fighting, the Confederates had pushed the Union soldiers back through the town. The Union soldiers formed a new line along a place called Cemetery Hill.


General Robert E. Lee decided not to attack the hill immediately. He would wait for more men. But as he waited, more and more Union soldiers arrived. By sunrise the next day, Lee's seventy thousand men faced a Union army of ninety thousand men.


The Confederates attacked both sides of the Union line. They moved the Union soldiers a little. But then the Union soldiers came back again. The Confederates could not hold the line.


The fighting stopped at sunset. Union commander George Meade met with his generals. He said he was sure General Lee would attack again the next day. The next attack, Meade said, would be against the center of the Union line.

战争在落日时分停止。联军司令乔治 · 米德召集众将开会。他说,他确信李将军次日会再次进攻,而下次进攻将对准联军防线的中心。

Meade was right. Lee planned to send fifteen thousand men against the Union center. They would be under the command of General George Pickett.

米德的判断没错。李将军计划派遣 1 万 5 千人进攻联军中部防线,其将领是乔治 · 匹科特将军。

When the sun rose on July third, the Union troops were ready. They watched as the Confederate troops set up their cannon. More than one hundred thirty of these big guns were aimed at the center of the Union line.

7 月 3 日晨太阳初升,联军蓄势待发。他们看到盟军架起大炮,其中 130 门大炮瞄准了联军中心防线。

The morning passed. The day grew hotter. A little past one o’clock in the afternoon, a Confederate gun fired, once. Then again. That was the signal to attack.


All at once, the Confederate artillery thundered with a deafening roar. The cannon sent iron and smoke into the Union soldiers on Cemetery Hill. Within minutes, hundreds lay dead or dying.


Union artillery on the hill answered the Confederate cannon. Men lay flat on the ground. They prayed for the shelling to stop. Finally, it did. And the smoke of battle began to clear.


Now the Union soldiers could see across the valley. They watched as the Confederate soldiers formed a long line. It was a sight to take your breath away.


Facing Cemetery Hill, the Confederates stood shoulder to shoulder in a line almost two kilometers long. Sunlight shone from their guns. Their battle flags waved. Slowly, the line began to move. It seemed more like a parade than an attack. Shouts went up and down the Union line. “Here they come! Here come the rebels!”


Thousands of Confederate soldiers moved across the valley outside Gettysburg. Union artillery opened fire. The guns tore open big holes in the Confederate battle line. But the southerners kept moving forward up the hill.


Union soldiers rose up from behind stone walls and fallen trees. They poured even more gunfire into the Confederate line. More and more bodies fell to the ground. Still, the line moved forward.


A few Confederates reached the Union line, but not enough to seize it. They were shot down. Suddenly, the Confederates began racing down the hill. Many raised their hands in surrender. Fifteen thousand began the attack. Only half returned. The battle of Gettysburg was over.

一些盟军到达联军防线,但不足以形成围攻之势。很多盟军士兵被射倒。突然,盟军开始往山下逃跑,许多人举手投降。联军 1 万 5 千人开始进攻,盟军仅有半数回撤。葛底斯堡之战结束。

The Union commander, General Meade, was told that the Confederate attack had been broken. He said, simply: “Thank God.” The Confederate commander, General Lee, said: “This has been a sad day for us, a sad day.”


Lee’s invasion of the North had failed. There was only one thing he could do now: retreat. He must get his army back to Virginia. He could only hope that the Union Army was hurt too badly to chase him.


The line of wagons carrying wounded soldiers was twenty-five kilometers long. Many of the wounded needed treatment. But the wagons were not permitted to stop for any reason.

军队辎重携带伤军(前行),队伍长达 25 公里。许多伤兵需要治疗,但队伍必须前行,不得无故停留。

Suffering was terrible. An officer who led the wagon train said he learned more about the horrors of war on that one trip than he had learned in all of his battles. Twenty thousand Confederate soldiers were killed, wounded, or listed as missing in the battle of Gettysburg. Twenty-three thousand Union soldiers were killed, wounded or missing.

双方军队伤亡惨重。北军中带队军官叹言,仅他所带的一支队伍中的遭受战争蹂躏的惨象,就比他经历所有战役中的景象还要惨重得多。南军在葛底斯堡战役中有 2 万士兵或死或伤,下落不明。北军伤亡失踪人数也达 2 万 3 千人。

General Meade lost so many men that he was in no hurry to chase General Lee. He believed it might be best to let Lee escape than to take a chance on losing what remained of the Army of the Potomac. Meade waited for a week until his army was stronger. But by then, Lee and his men had crossed safely back into Virginia.


President Abraham Lincoln was angry. He had told General Meade that driving the Confederates out of the North was not enough. The southern army must be destroyed. “We had them,” Lincoln said. “We had only to stretch out our hands and take them. And nothing I could do or say could make the army move.”


President Lincoln believed that General Meade had made a mistake. But he felt that the general had ability. Lincoln was thankful for what Meade had done at Gettysburg. He said Meade would continue to command the Army of the Potomac.


In November of eighteen sixty-three, President Lincoln went to Gettysburg. He attended the opening of a new burial place for the Union soldiers who had died in the great battle there.

1863 年 11 月,林肯总统前往葛底斯堡。他出席了北军葛底斯堡战役阵亡士兵在新墓地的追悼会。

The governor of Pennsylvania had asked the president to say a few words at the ceremony. Lincoln agreed. He felt it was his duty to go to honor the brave men who lost their lives to save the Union. Lincoln hoped his words might help lift the spirit of the nation.


Lincoln did not have much time to prepare his speech. He wrote it down the night before the ceremony. Lincoln was sure the speech was not a good one. But it came to be one of the most famous speeches in American history.


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