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2009-11-12 美国的形成——美国历史系列:林肯在葛底斯堡

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THE MAKING OF A NATION - American History Series: Lincoln at Gettysburg

2009-11-12  美国的形成——美国历史系列:林肯在葛底斯堡

http://www.unsv.com/voanews/specialenglish/scripts/2009/11/12/0045/

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In November of eighteen sixty-three, President Abraham Lincoln traveled to Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. He went there to make a speech at a ceremony establishing a military burial ground.

186311月,林肯总统来到宾夕法尼亚州的葛底斯堡。他前往该地,为当地军队墓地的建墓仪式发表演讲,

Five months earlier, Confederate General Robert E. Lee had marched his army up from Virginia to invade the North. The Union Army of the Potomac went after him. They met at Gettysburg in the bloodiest battle of the Civil War.

5个月前,盟军司令罗伯特·E·李将军挥师北上,从弗吉尼亚入侵北方。波拖马可(该河流经白宫华盛顿)的联军尾随其后。两军交战于葛底斯堡,开始了美国内战中最为血腥的战役。

The battle of Gettysburg lasted three days. General Lee threw his men against the Union Army. The northern soldiers refused to break. Lee, at last, had to stop fighting. Badly hurt, his army went back to Virginia.

葛底斯堡战役持续了三天。李将军调兵遣将,迎战联军。北军似铜墙铁壁,难以攻破。李将军最终不得不停止作战。因伤亡惨重,南军撤回弗吉尼亚。

Lee left behind a battlefield covered with Confederate dead. More than three thousand Confederate soldiers had been killed. Union losses were almost as heavy. Two thousand five hundred Union soldiers had been killed.

李将军身后战场(一片狼籍),南军尸横遍野,阵亡士兵多达3000。北军亦伤亡惨重,损失2500余人。

The terrible job of clearing the battlefield fell to the Union soldiers who had won the battle. Many thousands on both sides had been wounded. The wounded were moved to medical centers for treatment. The dead were buried.

清扫战场的工作落在赢得胜利的北方士兵身上。双方数千士兵受伤,伤兵移往医疗中心进行治疗,阵亡者被埋葬。

Most of the bodies were buried where they fell. The Confederate dead generally were buried together in large, shallow graves. Union troops who fell were buried in separate graves all over the battlefield.

大多数阵亡者是就地埋葬的。南军通常合葬,墓地很浅。北军则在各地战场单独埋葬,

A few weeks after the battle, the governor of Pennsylvania visited Gettysburg. As he walked over the battlefield, he saw where rains had washed away the earth covering many of the fallen soldiers. He said men who died so bravely should have a better resting place than that.

葛底斯堡战役几周后,宾夕法尼亚州州长访问葛底斯堡镇。他经过战场时,看见阵亡士兵尸横疆野,被雨水冲刷而去。他说,这些英勇献身的战士们理应得到更好的安葬之所。

The governor said a new cemetery should be built for the bodies of the Union soldiers. He asked the governors of other northern states to help raise money for the cemetery.

州长说,应该建造一处新的墓地,安葬阵亡战士的遗体。他请求北方其他各州州长帮助筹集建造墓地的资金。

Within a month, there was money enough to buy a large area of the battlefield for a military cemetery. Work began almost immediately. The human remains were moved from other places on the battlefield and put into graves in the new cemetery.

一月之内,资金筹措完备,足以购买一大块场地,建造军队公墓。工程旋即开始,将士的遗骸从葛底斯堡战场各处迁移过来,安放于这座新的公墓之中。

The governor planned a ceremony in November, eighteen sixty-three, to dedicate the Gettysburg cemetery. He invited governors and congressmen from each state in the Union. He asked a former senator and governor of Massachusetts, Edward Everett, to give the dedication speech.

宾夕法尼亚州州长计划于186311月举行公墓落成典礼,谨此献给葛底斯堡公墓。他邀请了北方联军所在的各州州长和议员,还邀请了前马赛诸萨州参议员兼州长爱德华·爱维莱特,给公墓落成仪式致开幕词。

An invitation was sent to the White House, too. The governor asked President Lincoln to come to the ceremony. He asked Lincoln to say a few words.

邀请函还寄到了白宫。宾夕法尼亚州州长邀请林肯总统出席公墓落成典礼,他请求林肯总统在典礼上致辞。

Lincoln agreed to do so. He felt it was his duty to go. He wanted to honor the brave men who had died at Gettysburg. Lincoln hoped his words might ease the sorrow over the loss of these men and lift the spirit of the nation.

林肯同意了,他认为出席落成典礼责无旁贷。他想表彰那些献身于葛底斯堡战役中的勇士们。林肯希望自己的演说词能够减轻(人们对那些)阵亡将士的悲痛,从而鼓舞整个民族的士气。

Lincoln was advised to talk about democracy. He recently had received a letter from a man in Massachusetts. The man had just returned from a visit to Europe.

林肯应邀出席典礼,他将谈论民主问题。先前,他曾收到马赛诸萨州一位先生的来信,这位先生刚从欧洲旅游回来。

The man told Lincoln that Europeans saw the war more clearly than Americans, who were in the middle of it. He said they saw it as a war between the people and an aristocracy. The South, he said, was ruled by a small group of aristocrats. He said once the people understood that it was a war for democracy, they would win it quickly.

这位先生说,欧洲人比身处战争的美国人对战争看得更为清楚。他说,欧洲人认为,此次战争是美国人民与贵族阶级的战争,(因为)南方一直受少数贵族统治。一旦美国人民明白是为民主而战,他们将会很快获得胜利。

The man urged Lincoln to explain to the common people that the war was not the North against the South, but democracy against the enemies of democracy.

他鼓励林肯总统对民众晓之以理,告诉他们美国内战不是南北之争,而是民主与专制之争。

Lincoln was busy during the two weeks before the ceremony at Gettysburg. He did not have much time to work on his speech. He decided what to say. But he did not choose the exact words he would use.

林肯在葛底斯堡战役的前两周一直忙于(公务),没有太多时间准备讲辞。他准备了演讲的内容,但对具体要用词未加斟酌。

Lincoln left Washington November eighteenth for the train ride to Gettysburg. The train stopped in Baltimore. A crowd waited to see him.

林肯于1118日离开华盛顿,乘火车前往葛底斯堡镇。火车在巴尔的摩市(短暂)停留,人们群聚于此,欲一睹总统风采。

An old man came up and shook Lincoln's hand. He told the president that he had lost a son in the fighting at Gettysburg. Lincoln said he understood the man's sorrow.

一位老者走上前来,与林肯总统握手。他告诉林肯总统,他的儿子在葛底斯堡战役中牺牲。林肯坦言,他理解老人的丧子之痛。

Lincoln said to the old man: "When I think of the sacrifices of life still to be offered, and the hearts and homes to be made lonely before this terrible war is over, my heart is like lead. I feel at times like hiding in a deep darkness."

林肯对老人说:“每当我想起生命还将继续做出牺牲时,每当我想起战争结束之前,(我们的人民)还要奉献一颗颗火热的心,一个个温暖的家的时候,我的心就像铅一样沉重。我不时感到,自己就像藏在黑暗中一样。”

Lincoln arrived at Gettysburg at sundown. He had dinner. Then he went to his room to complete the speech he would give the next day. He worked for several hours. Finally, it was done.

林肯于日落时分抵达葛底斯堡。他就餐完毕,去楼上准备翌日要发表的讲词。他准备了好几个小时,终于准备就绪。

The next morning, Lincoln -- on horseback -- led a slow parade to the new cemetery. A huge crowd waited before the place where Lincoln and the other important visitors would sit. Military bands played. Soldiers saluted.

翌日清晨,林肯骑马,缓缓带队而行,前往新建的公墓。公墓前观者云集,恭候林肯及其他(政界)要员入席就座。军乐鸣奏,卫兵行礼。

The ceremonies began with a prayer. Then Edward Everett rose to speak.

典礼以祷告开始,爱德华·爱维莱特州长起身讲话。

Everett stood silent for a moment. He looked out across the battlefield and the crowds that now covered it. He began to talk about the Civil War and what had caused it. He spoke about Lee's invasion of the North. He told how northern cities would have fallen had Lee not been stopped at Gettysburg. He praised the men who had given their lives in the great battle.

爱维莱特州长站在台前沉默了片刻,目光眺望战场,彼时战场已成今日会场,观众云集。他开始讲话,讲内战及内战起因。他慷慨陈词,斥责李将军入侵北方——如果李将军不在葛底斯堡停止(进攻),北方各州定将陷落。州长还赞扬了在这场伟大的战役中献出生命的将士们。

Everett spoke for almost two hours. He closed his speech with the hope that the nation would come out of the war with greater unity than ever before.

爱维莱特州长滔滔不绝,讲了大约两个小时,(最后),他结束演讲,满怀希望地说,美国将走出战争(创伤),以前所未有之精诚团结,(迎接新的时期。)

Then Lincoln stood up. He looked out over the valley, then down at the papers in his hand. He began to read:

随后,林肯总统起身,发表讲话。他也向山谷眺望,(那里曾是昔日战场。)然后,他将目光转回讲稿,开始朗读:

"Four score and seven years ago, our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.

“八十七前,我们的先父开拓了这片大陆,建立了一个崭新的民族。他们构想出自由之蓝图,为人人生而平等之理念殚精竭虑。

"Now we are engaged in a great civil war testing whether that nation or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battlefield of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this.

“当前,我们正经历着一场伟大的国内战争,这场战争是在检验我们的民族,或任何其它民族,其构想草图,其献身精神,是否能够得以延续。今天,我们相聚在刚刚结束的这场战争的辽阔战场上,我们前来(祭奠英灵),把这昔日战场的一部分,作为那些为民族生存而献身的勇士们的最后安身之地。(英魂已去,活者追缅,)实属当然。

"But, in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate -- we cannot consecrate -- we cannot hallow this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract.

“然而,大处去讲,我们不能奉献什么——我们无法祭奠——我们空有其行。勇士们,无论活着的和牺牲的,都曾在此奋起抗争,他们早已祭奠过烈士的英灵,我等微薄之力,无论如何增减,又何能补之?

"The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work for which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced.

“这个世界不会注意、也会很快遗忘此时此地的泛泛之语,然而,它将永远铭记烈士们的英勇事迹。而活着的人们更应献身,(去完成)那些曾在此英勇作战、豪迈前进过的先烈们未竟的事业。

It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us - that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion - that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain - that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom - and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth."

此时此刻,我们更应献身于面前亟待解决的伟大使命;英烈们奋勇献身,我们应当继承遗志,奋勇前进;此时此刻,我们庄严承诺:烈士的鲜血不会白流;我们的国家,在上帝的指引之下,必将获得新生和自由;一个民主、民治、民享的政府,将永远不会从地球上消失。”

The crowd applauded for several minutes. Then the people began to leave.

(林肯演讲完毕,)观众鼓掌数分钟之久,其后,人们开始离开会场。

Lincoln turned to a friend. He said he feared his speech had been a failure. He said he should have prepared it more carefully.

林肯总统转身对一个朋友说,他担心自己的演讲不会成功,说自己本应准备得更为仔细的。

Edward Everett did not agree with Lincoln. He said the president's speech was perfect. He said the president had said more in two minutes than he, Everett, had said in two hours.

爱德华·爱维莱特州长不同意林肯这样说。他说,林肯总统的演讲(非常成功,)完美无缺。他(幽默地)说,总统只用两分多钟就说完了,而自己却说了两个小时。

Newspapers and other publications praised Lincoln's Gettysburg address. Said one: "The few words of the president were from the heart, to the heart. They cannot be read without emotion."

报纸和其他杂志赞扬了林肯总统葛底斯堡的演说。一家报纸说:“总统惜金之言发自肺腑,正中民心,读之不得不满怀热情。”

Abraham Lincoln went back to Washington that night. He was very tired. Within a week, his secretary announced that the president was sick. He was suffering from smallpox.

亚拉伯罕·林肯当夜返回华盛顿。他旅途劳顿,极为疲惫。一周之后,秘书宣称总统患病,得了天花。

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最佳回复 该帖于2009年11月13日被版主推荐为精华帖。

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