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2009年12月8日 星期二 新闻科学——九位研究人员如何获得诺贝尔奖

楼主:anna 日期: 回贴:1 浏览:

2009128 星期二 新闻科学——九位研究人员如何获得诺贝尔奖SCIENCE IN THE NEWS - How Nine Researchers Won Their Nobel Prizes

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http://www.unsv.com/voanews/specialenglish/scripts/2009/12/08/0045/

Today, we will tell about the two thousand nine Nobel Prizes for discoveries in science. We also will tell about progress against acquired immune deficiency syndrome, better known as AIDS.

今天,我们将讲述2009年度诺贝尔奖(获得者)在科学方面的发现。我们也将讲述人类在抵抗“获得性免疫缺陷综合症”(简称“艾滋病”)方面的进展。

The Nobel Prizes for Chemistry, Physics and Physiology or Medicine are to be presented in Sweden this week. The winners were chosen by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. They will receive their prizes at ceremonies in Stockholm on December tenth. The winners in each area of science will share a prize valued at one million four hundred thousand dollars.

诺贝尔化学奖、物理学奖、生理学奖(或医学奖)将于本周在瑞典举行。获奖者是由瑞典皇家科学院选送的。1210日他们将在斯达哥尔摩(译者注:瑞典首都)的典礼上接受颁奖。每个科学领域的获奖者都将获得价值140万美元的奖金。

Nobel week is a busy time in the Swedish capital. The winners make speeches, meet with reporters and attend parties. But the most important event is when the King of Sweden presents the honorees with their awards.

诺贝尔周在瑞典首都是繁忙的时节。获奖者要发表讲话,接见记者,还要出席晚会。但最重要的事件是瑞典国王将为获奖者颁奖。

Among those expected to accept their prizes are Elizabeth Blackburn, Carol Greider and Jack Szostak. They share the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. This year, it is presented for solving a problem in biology.

预定的获奖者中有Elizabeth BlackburnCarol GreiderJack Szostak三位科学家。他们将得到诺贝尔生理学奖(也叫医学奖)。今年颁发这个奖项是因为(他们)解决了一个生物学方面的问题。

The three honorees are working in the United States. Elizabeth Blackburn does her research at the University of California in San Francisco. Carol Greider works at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in Maryland. Jack Szostak works from the Harvard University Medical School, the Massachusetts General Hospital and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute.

这三位获奖者在美国工作。Elizabeth Blackburn在三藩市的加州大学从事研究工作。Carol Greider在马里兰州的霍普斯金医学院工作,而Jack Szostak则在哈佛大学医学院、麻萨诸塞总医院和霍华德·休斯医学研究所三所机构任职。

The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences says it is honoring the researchers for showing how telomeres and the enzyme that makes them protect chromosomes.

瑞典皇家科学院说,给研究人员颁发这个奖项,是为了让世人了解端粒以及构成端粒的酶是如何保护染色体的。

A telomere is a structure of genetic material. Telomerase is the enzyme in the body that builds the telomeres. A chromosome contains molecules of deoxyribonucleic acid, better known as DNA. This material carries the genetic information that makes us who we are. A telomere is at each end of a chromosome. Telomeres are necessary for a cell to divide.

端粒是一种基因物质的结构。端粒酶是体内构筑端粒的酶。染色体包含脱氧核糖核酸,即所谓的DNA。这种物质携带一种基因信息,它构成了我们人类。端粒位于每个染色体的末端,对细胞的分裂是必需的。

The identification of telomeres about twenty years ago helped scientists understand how cells operate. But it was a finding that did not at first seem important to everyday life. Scientists now know that telomeres are involved in two subjects of widespread interest – aging and cancer.

对端粒的认识开始于20年前,它帮助科学家弄清了细胞是如何运行的。但这种发现最初似乎对日常生活无关紧要。现在,科学家了解到,端粒与两个主题密切相关,它引起了人们的广泛兴趣——这两个主题就是衰老和癌症。

The winners of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine were involved in the findings. Elizabeth Blackburn and Jack Szostak discovered the exact order of genetic information that protects chromosomes from ruin. They found that cells age if telomeres are shortened. For example, the first genetic copy of a sheep had shortened telomeres. The cloned animal started to suffer from arthritis at an age that some experts thought was unusually early for a sheep.

诺贝尔生理学奖(即医学奖)获得者正在参与这些研究。Elizabeth BlackburnJack Szostak发现了基因信息的确切排列顺序,它可使染色体免受破坏。他们二人还发现,细胞在端粒委缩时会老化,第一代基因克隆羊的端粒就已缩短。这只克隆羊得了关节炎,专家认为,这种病对一只羊来说为时过早。

Miz Blackburn and Carol Greider identified the enzyme telomerase. Cells do not die as fast if a lot of telomerase is produced, so aging is slowed. But studies suggest that cancer cells may use telomerase to divide in abnormal ways.

Blackburn女士和Carol Greider识别出了端粒酶。(他们发现),如果产生大量的端粒酶,细胞死亡得并不那么快,衰老便会得以延缓。但研究表明,癌症细胞可能会以异常的方式进行分裂,从而消耗端粒酶。

The winners of the Nobel Prize in medicine are all American citizens. Mister Szostak came to the United States from England. Miz Blackburn was born in Australia and is also an Australian citizen.

诺贝尔医学奖获得者皆为美国公民。Szostak先生是从英国来到美国的,Blackburn女士出生于澳大利亚,现也是美国公民。

Another woman, an Israeli, is a winner of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. She is Ada Yonath of the Weitzmann Institute of Science in Rehovot, Israel. She is sharing the prize with two male researchers. They are Venkatraman Ramakrishnan of the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology at Cambridge University in England, and Thomas Steitz of Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut. Mister Ramakrishnan is a British citizen, and Mister Steitz is an American.

另外一位女性是以色列人,是诺贝尔化学奖的得主。她叫Ada Yonath,来自以色列雷霍沃特市的魏茨曼科学研究所。她将与另外两位男性研究者共享此奖:一位是Venkatraman Ramakrishnan,来自英国剑桥大学MRC分子生物实验室;Thomas Steitz,来自美国康浬狄格州(南部)纽海文市的耶鲁大学。Ramakrishnan是一位英国公民,Steitz女士是一位美国人。

The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences is honoring all three researchers for studies of the structure and operation of a kind of cell called a ribosome. The Academy said the three were chosen for having shown what a ribosome looks like and how it operates at the atomic level.

瑞典皇家科学研究院也将给另三位研究人员颁奖,他们研究的是一种叫核糖体的细胞的结构和运行。研究院说,这三位人员被选中,是因为他们在原子的状态下展示了核糖体的形状,以及核糖体的运作情形。

The researchers demonstrated how information in pieces of DNA is translated into the thousands of proteins contained in living matter.

这几位研究者演示了DNA片断上的信息是如何被转化成生物体内成千上万种蛋白质的。

Each researcher worked independently. They made maps that placed hundreds of thousands of atoms in the ribosomes. Some of their work involved X-rays produced by particle accelerators, devices that bring atomic particles into high energies.

每位研究者都是独立工作的。他们研制出许多图片,将核糖体内成百上千个原子置于图片上。有的研究要借助于粒子加速器产生的X射线,这种加速器可使原子微粒产生极高的能量。

The Royal Swedish Academy says the DNA in cells contains the designs for how people, plants and bacteria look and operate. But if there were nothing beyond the DNA in cells, life could not exist.

瑞典皇家科学研究院说,细胞中的DNA包含人类、植物以及细菌的形状和运行的程式。如果细胞中的DNA外围没有任何物质,生命便不可能存在。

Ribosomes change the design into living matter of all kinds. They make proteins including oxygen-carrying blood substances, antibodies to protect against disease, and substances that break down sugar.

核糖体改变了所有生物种类的程式。它们使许多蛋白质(如血红蛋白、抗体等)(能够)抵御各种疾病,防止分解糖类的各种物质(威胁生物体)。

Many antibiotic medicines currently in use block bacterial ribosomes from action. Bacteria cannot survive without bacterial ribosomes. Each Nobel Prize winner showed how ribosomes tie or bind with antibiotics. The Academy says new medicines could result from the work of the Nobel Prize winners in chemistry.

目前使用的许多抗体药品阻碍了细菌核糖体的运行。没有细菌核糖体,细菌便不能存活。每位诺贝尔获奖者都阐明了核糖体与抗体的联系。皇家研究院说,许多新药的诞生将归功于诺贝尔化学获奖者的研究。

The Nobel Prize in Physics is going to three scientists who brought the light of knowledge to the subject of light. Half the prize money will go to Charles K. Kao. He did his award-winning work at the Chinese University of Hong Kong, China and at the Standard Telecommunication Laboratories in Britain.

诺贝尔物理学奖将授予三位光学领域的科学家。(其中)一半的奖金将授予查尔斯·K·高锟。他是在中国香港大学和英国标准电信实验室进行他的诺贝尔奖研究的。

The other two winners are Willard Boyle and George Smith. They did their research at Bell Laboratories in Murray Hill, New Jersey. Mister Boyle and Mister Smith will share the remaining prize money equally.

另外两位得主是Willard BoyleGeorge Smith。他们是在美国新泽西州缪勒山区的贝尔实验室进行研究的,Boyle先生和Smith先生将获得余下的同等金额的奖金。

Mister Kao discovered how to transmit, or send, light signals over long distances through optical glass fibers. He learned to get light to go far enough down a glass fiber to pass on signals. The signals can travel great distances. His work has made possible the development of communications carried around the world by the Internet.

高锟发现,光信号可通过玻璃光纤进行长途传输。他研究出如何通过玻璃纤维使光无限制传输信号,这些信号能够传输到很远的距离。他的发现使通信的发展通过互联网在全世界传播成为可能。

When Mister Kao began his research twenty years ago, fiber optic materials already existed. But they were short by comparison with today. Mister Kao's work helped result in the fact that, if lined up, the current optical cables would make a fiber more than nine hundred sixty-five million kilometers long.

当高锟先生20年前开始他的研究时,世上已经有了光纤材料。但与今天相比,这些光纤材料都太短。高锟先生的研究得出一个结论:如果把当今所有的光缆都连接起来,将会连成一个长达9亿6500万公里的光纤。

Mister Boyle and Mister Smith invented the charge-coupled device, or CCD. The device can turn light into electrical signals. It provided technology for telescopes, medical images and digital cameras. The Royal Swedish Academy says the researchers' work has made possible great developments in those areas. For example, doctors are able to use better instruments to examine organs in the body. And, many people now use cameras that do not require film.

Boyle先生和Smith先生发明了电荷藕合器,即CCD。这种装置可将光转化成电信号,为望远镜、医学图片及数字相机等科技发展提供了(道路)。皇家学院说,二位研究者的工作使得(科学)在上述领域的巨大发展成为可能。比如,医生可借助(这些)先进的医疗设备(更好地)检查患者体内的器官。还有,许多人现在使用的相机都不需要胶卷。

Mister Kao was born in Shanghai, China. He is a citizen of the United States and Britain. Mister Boyle was born in Canada and is a citizen of Canada and the United States. Mister Smith is an American.

高锟先生生于中国上海,现在是美国和英国的公民。Boyle先生生于加拿大,拥有加拿大和美国国籍,Smith先生是美国人。

December first was World AIDS Day. A new report about AIDS and the virus responsible for the disease provided some reason to celebrate.

121日是世界艾滋病日。一项新的艾滋病和引起艾滋病病毒的报告提供了某些令人振奋的原因。

Experts say the number of new H.I.V. infections has fallen by seventeen percent since two thousand one. H.I.V. is short for the human immunodeficiency virus. The experts say estimates of new H.I.V. infections are down by about fifteen percent in Africa, south of the Sahara Desert. And, new infections have decreased almost twenty-five percent in East Asia. In Eastern Europe, the number of new H.I.V. infections has leveled off. But new infections appear to be rising again in some countries.

专家声称,H.I.V.感染者的数量2001年已降至17%H.I.V.是人类免役缺陷病毒的简称。专家称,估计非洲和撒哈拉沙漠南部新的H.I.V.感染者已降至15%,东亚新增感染者也已降至大约25%,在东欧,新的H.I.V.感染者数量也有回落,但在有些国家,新增感染者又有所抬升。

The numbers come from a report by the UNAIDS program and the World Health Organization. It says H.I.V.-related deaths appear to have reached their highest level in two thousand four. Since then, deaths have fallen by around ten percent as more people have received treatment.

上述数字来自联合国艾滋病专署和世卫组织的一份报告。这份报告说,H.I.V.及相关死亡案例在2004年达到最高水平,此后,越来越多的人已接受治疗,死亡人数降至10%

Experts credit the good news in the report, at least in part, to prevention programs. Yet treatments and population growth mean that more people than ever are living with H.I.V. The latest estimates say almost thirty-three million five hundred thousand have the virus. There were two million AIDS-related deaths last year, and two million seven hundred thousand new infections.

专家对预防措施的某些方面予以了赞扬,称此为报告中的好消息,但治疗(的受限)和人口的增长将使更多的人与H.I.V.携带者共同生活。据最新预测,约有3350万人携带人类免役缺陷病毒。去年有200万艾滋病相关死亡案例,另外有270万新的感染者。

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最佳回复 该帖于2009年12月9日被版主推荐为精华帖。

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1楼 作者:zhuxing@mail.bnu.edu.cn 创建: <编辑>  <引用>

The Nobel Prizes for Chemistry, Physics and Physiology or Medicine are to be presented in Sweden this week 这句中 The Nobel Prizes for Physiology or Medicine 一般都译作诺贝尔生理学或医学奖,而不是文中的 “ 诺贝尔生理学奖(或医学奖) ” 以及下文的 “ 诺贝尔生理学奖(也叫医学奖) ” 。 present 应该译作颁发或授予。

University of California in San Francisco 译为加州大学旧金山分校。

The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences says it is honoring the researchers for showing how telomeres and the enzyme that makes them protect chromosomes 后面译作 “ 端粒和端粒酶 ” 较好,而不是 “ 端粒以及构成端粒的酶 ” 。

A telomere is a structure of genetic material 中的 genetic material 应该是遗传物质。

Scientists now know that telomeres are involved in two subjects of widespread interest – aging and cancer 译作 ” 现在科学家已经知道端粒参与两个人们广泛关注的问题 —— 衰老和癌症 “ 较好。

genetic information 还是遗传信息。

They found that cells age if telomeres are shortened 端粒缩短时细胞衰老。

The cloned animal started to suffer from arthritis at an age that some experts thought was unusually early for a sheep 克隆的羊过早(即专家认为对羊来说还不应该得关节炎的年龄)就得了关节炎。

Miz Blackburn and Carol Greider identified the enzyme telomerase 这里 identify 一般译作鉴定。

But studies suggest that cancer cells may use telomerase to divide in abnormal ways 这句理解有误:研究表明,癌细胞可能利用端粒酶进行异常分裂。

the structure and operation of a kind of cell called a ribosome 应该是原文就有误, ribosome 不是 cell ,而是其中的一种细胞器。

atomic level 原子水平

The researchers demonstrated ... 研究者 “ 证实 ” 了

They made maps that placed hundreds of thousands of atoms in the ribosomes 他们作出了核糖体的原子结构图。

But if there were nothing beyond the DNA in cells, life could not exist 但是细胞中如果除了 DNA 没有其它物质 ...

Ribosomes change the design into living matter of all kinds 这句翻译有误:核糖体将这种设计图(或是上文译作的程式)转变为生命物质。

They make proteins including oxygen-carrying blood substances, antibodies to protect against disease, and substances that break down sugar. 这句翻译有误:它们制造各种蛋白质,包括血液中运载氧气的物质(即血红蛋白)、抵抗疾病的抗体和消化糖类的物质(即各种酶)。

anti"biotic" medicines 是抗生素药物,和 anti"body" 不同。

Each Nobel Prize winner showed how ribosomes tie or bind with antibioticsz 这里不是指核糖体和 “ 抗生素 ” 的联系而是抗生素如何阻碍了核糖体(的功能)。

好了,后面不专业,就到这吧。

有争论可发邮件至 zhuxing@mail.bnu.edu.cn

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