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THE MAKING OF A NATION - American History Series: Lincoln Defeats McClellan in 1864 Election

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In eighteen sixty-four the Union of northern states and the Confederacy of southern states were still fighting. The Civil War began in eighteen sixty-one.

1864 年,北方联军与南方盟军仍在打仗。内战开始于 1861 年。

Each side had its own constitution. Under the Union constitution, Americans were supposed to elect a president every four years. Eighteen sixty-four was such a year. And even though a great civil war was being fought, citizens of the North prepared to choose a leader.

双方各有宪法。按联邦宪法,美国人可四年选举一位总统, 1864 年便是当选之年。即使大战继续,北方公民仍准备推选一位领袖。

Abraham Lincoln was completing his first term as president. He hoped to lead the nation for another four years. He wanted to win the war between the states. He wanted to re-build the Union.

亚拉伯罕 · 林肯第一任总统任期已满,他希望继续担任下届总统,任期四年。他想赢得(南北)各州的这场战争,统一美国。

Lincoln 's Republican Party was divided. Moderate Republicans wanted to re-build the Union as soon as the war ended. They believed southern states should be welcomed back with full rights. Radical Republicans disagreed strongly. They demanded severe punishment for the southern rebels.


For many months, President Lincoln worked to build a political majority. He formed a new group called the National Union Party. It included moderate Republicans and some Democrats. Lincoln succeeded in gaining the support of state and local political leaders. It soon became clear that Lincoln would be the party's presidential candidate in the election.


Several hundred radical Republicans held their own convention in Cleveland, Ohio. They formed a new political party called the Radical Democracy. They nominated explorer John Fremont as their candidate for the national election. Fremont had been the Republican presidential candidate eight years earlier.

在俄亥俄州克利夫兰市,几百位激进的共和派也确立了自己的公约。他们成立了新的政党——激进民主党,探险家约翰 · 弗里蒙特被提名为美国总统选举的候选人。弗里蒙特八年前曾是共和党总统候选人。

Most of the radical Republicans in Congress did not take part in the convention in Cleveland. They refused to support Fremont. They felt he had no chance to win the election. President Lincoln's new National Union Party held its convention in Baltimore, Maryland. Convention delegates quickly approved a party statement. The statement supported the Union and the war. It opposed slavery.


Delegates then were ready to nominate their candidates for president and vice president. On the first ballot, they chose Lincoln to run again. And they chose Democrat Andrew Johnson of Tennessee to run as vice president.

代表团遂提名总统及副总统候选人。第一次投票,他们选举林肯再次参加竞选,又选举田纳西州的安德鲁 · 约翰逊为副总统。

During the campaign, Lincoln was advised to begin peace talks with the South. End the war, he was told. Bring southern states back into the Union. Settle the question of slavery later. Lincoln, however, believed his policies were right for the nation. He would not surrender them, even if they meant his defeat in the election.


Lincoln hated the war. But he would not end it until military victory ended slavery and guaranteed political union.


In August, eighteen sixty-four, Lincoln wrote:

1864 年 8 月,林肯写道:

"For some days past, it seems that this administration probably will not be re-elected. Then it will be my duty to cooperate with the president-elect to save the Union. We must do this between election day and inauguration day. For he will have been elected on such ground that he cannot possibly save the Union afterwards."


The Democratic Party held its nominating convention in Chicago, Illinois. Peace Democrats were in firm control.

Peace Democrats demanded an immediate end to the Civil War. They did not care if the North and South remained apart permanently.


The party's statement contained these words: "After four years of failure to restore the Union by war...justice, humanity, liberty, and the public welfare demand that immediate efforts be made to end the fighting. Let us look to a convention of states -- or other peaceable means -- to restore the Union."


The democratic statement did not discuss slavery. It did say, however, that any state wishing to return to the Union could do so without losing any of its constitutional rights. This was believed to include the right to own slaves.


Convention delegates approved the statement. Then they nominated General George McClellan as their candidate for president.

公约代表团通过了这项声明。之后,他们提名让乔治 · 麦克莱伦作为总统候选人。

Three days after the Democratic Party convention closed, the Union won an important military victory. Union troops captured Atlanta, Georgia. Atlanta was one of the last remaining industrial cities of the South. Its loss seriously hurt the Confederacy.


Now the people of the North could understand their side was winning the war. Public opinion began to change. The Peace Democrats lost popular support. President Lincoln and his National Union Party gained popular support.


Even some supporters of Radical Republican candidate John Fremont turned to Lincoln. Fremont withdrew from the race. When the people voted in November, their choice was between Abraham Lincoln and George McClellan.

即使是激进的共和党候选人约翰 · 弗里蒙特也转向了林肯,他(主动)退出总统选举。 12 月全国公众选举之时,只有亚拉伯罕 · 林肯和乔治 · 麦克莱伦二人进行(总统角逐)。

A vote for Lincoln meant a vote for continuing the Civil War until it was won. Until the Union was saved. A vote for McClellan meant a vote for stopping the war. Stopping short of victory.


By midnight of election day, it was clear that Lincoln had won. He got only about a half-million more popular votes than McClellan. But when electoral votes were counted, he got two hundred twelve to McClellan's twenty-one.

到选举之日子夜时分,林肯获胜再明显不过。他只比麦克莱伦多得 50 多万张公众选票,但清点选票时,他与麦克莱伦(的得票比分)为 212 : 21 。

Before Lincoln's second inaugural, he agreed to hold peace talks with representatives of the Confederacy. The talks would be held at a Union fort on the Chesapeake Bay.


Lincoln was very firm in one demand. The talks, he said, must discuss peace for "our one common country." There could be no talk, he said, of Confederate independence.


The Confederate representatives said they could not accept those terms. The peace talks ended in failure.


Lincoln returned to Washington. He prepared a message that he wished to send to Congress. It contained a program he felt could end the war within a few weeks.


Lincoln proposed four hundred million dollars in economic aid to the southern states. The money could be used to pay slave owners for freeing their slaves. Half the money would be paid if the southern states gave up their struggle by April first. The other half would be paid if they approved -- by July first -- a constitutional amendment ending slavery.

林肯拟支 4 亿美元作为经济援助发放给南部各州,若奴隶主释放其奴隶,这笔巨款可作为补偿:若南军 4 月 1 日前放弃抵抗,可先支出其中半数;若在 6 月 1 日前通过草案结束奴隶制,可将获得另一半。

As part of the program, Lincoln would pardon all political crimes resulting from the southern rebellion. He also would return all property seized by Union forces.


Lincoln 's cabinet officers rejected the program. They urged him not to send it to Congress. They said it would be seen as a sign of weakness.


Lincoln was surprised by the reaction. He thought his cabinet would gladly end the war...a war that was costing the government three million dollars a day and the lives of the nation's young men. But he accepted the cabinet's advice. He did not send his message to Congress.


On March fourth, eighteen sixty-five, Abraham Lincoln was sworn-in as president for a second term. This is part of what he said:

1965 年 3 月 4 日,林肯宣誓就任第二任总统。以下是他就职演说的一部分:

"On this occasion four years ago, all thoughts were directed to a coming Civil War. All feared it. All tried to prevent it. Both parties opposed war. But one of them would make war rather than let the nation live. And the other would accept war, rather than let it die. And the war came.


"We hope -- and we pray -- that this terrible war may pass away quickly. But God may wish it otherwise. He may have it continue until the riches earned from two hundred fifty years of slavery are gone. It may continue until every drop of blood made by the slaveowner's whip is paid for by another made by the soldier's sword.

“我们希望——我们祈祷——这场可恶的战争能尽快结束,而上帝却有别念。他愿战争继续,让战争将南方富庶的庄主 250 年来搜括的民脂民膏全部带走;而战争仍将继续,直至庄主鞭下的每一滳鲜血都用士兵的利刃进行偿还。”

"With malice toward none; with charity for all; with firmness in the right -- as God gives us to see the right -- let us strive on to finish the work we are in. Let us heal the nation's wounds. Let us do all possible to get and keep a just and lasting peace among ourselves and with all nations."


That night, the White House was open to the public. Thousands of people went to see the President. Poet Walt Whitman gave this description:" I saw Mr. Lincoln, dressed all in black. He was shaking hands...looking very sad...as if he would give anything to be somewhere else."

此言正确,白宫之门向公众敞开。成千上万的美国民众拥向白宫,欲一睹总统风采。诗人瓦特 · 惠特曼有如下描述:“我见到林肯先生,身着黑色礼服,他与众人握手……表情极为哀伤……似乎任何索求,无论何方,皆愿补偿。”( - 完 - )

最佳回复 该帖于2009年12月11日被版主推荐为精华帖。

1楼 作者:wujing695 创建: <编辑>  <引用>
very goods.
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