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建国史话——美国历史:1864年选举林肯击败麦克莱伦

楼主:anna 日期: 回贴:1 浏览:

建国史话——美国历史:1864年选举林肯击败麦克莱伦

THE MAKING OF A NATION - American History Series: Lincoln Defeats McClellan in 1864 Election

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http://www.unsv.com/voanews/specialenglish/scripts/2009/12/10/0045/

In eighteen sixty-four the Union of northern states and the Confederacy of southern states were still fighting. The Civil War began in eighteen sixty-one.

1864 年,北方联军与南方盟军仍在打仗。内战开始于 1861 年。

Each side had its own constitution. Under the Union constitution, Americans were supposed to elect a president every four years. Eighteen sixty-four was such a year. And even though a great civil war was being fought, citizens of the North prepared to choose a leader.

双方各有宪法。按联邦宪法,美国人可四年选举一位总统, 1864 年便是当选之年。即使大战继续,北方公民仍准备推选一位领袖。

Abraham Lincoln was completing his first term as president. He hoped to lead the nation for another four years. He wanted to win the war between the states. He wanted to re-build the Union.

亚拉伯罕 · 林肯第一任总统任期已满,他希望继续担任下届总统,任期四年。他想赢得(南北)各州的这场战争,统一美国。

Lincoln 's Republican Party was divided. Moderate Republicans wanted to re-build the Union as soon as the war ended. They believed southern states should be welcomed back with full rights. Radical Republicans disagreed strongly. They demanded severe punishment for the southern rebels.

林肯的共和党意见分歧。温和的共和党派欲在战争结束之后,立即重建政府。他们认为应倡导南方各州重获充分人权。而激进的共和党派则强烈反对(这一观点),他们要求对南方叛军严惩不贷。

For many months, President Lincoln worked to build a political majority. He formed a new group called the National Union Party. It included moderate Republicans and some Democrats. Lincoln succeeded in gaining the support of state and local political leaders. It soon became clear that Lincoln would be the party's presidential candidate in the election.

数月以来,林肯总统力图建立一个政治上的多数派。他成立了一个国家联合党,吸收了中间派共和党人和一些民主人士。林肯成功地获得了一个州的支持和当地政治领袖的拥护。很快,林肯将成为国家联合党的总统候选人。

Several hundred radical Republicans held their own convention in Cleveland, Ohio. They formed a new political party called the Radical Democracy. They nominated explorer John Fremont as their candidate for the national election. Fremont had been the Republican presidential candidate eight years earlier.

在俄亥俄州克利夫兰市,几百位激进的共和派也确立了自己的公约。他们成立了新的政党——激进民主党,探险家约翰 · 弗里蒙特被提名为美国总统选举的候选人。弗里蒙特八年前曾是共和党总统候选人。

Most of the radical Republicans in Congress did not take part in the convention in Cleveland. They refused to support Fremont. They felt he had no chance to win the election. President Lincoln's new National Union Party held its convention in Baltimore, Maryland. Convention delegates quickly approved a party statement. The statement supported the Union and the war. It opposed slavery.

大多数激进民主党人没有参与签订克利夫兰市的公约。他们拒绝支持弗里蒙特,觉得他没有机会获选。林肯总统的新国家联合党在马里兰州提出了自己的政党公约。公约代表团很快通过了一个政党声明:本党支持北军,拥护战争,反对奴隶制。

Delegates then were ready to nominate their candidates for president and vice president. On the first ballot, they chose Lincoln to run again. And they chose Democrat Andrew Johnson of Tennessee to run as vice president.

代表团遂提名总统及副总统候选人。第一次投票,他们选举林肯再次参加竞选,又选举田纳西州的安德鲁 · 约翰逊为副总统。

During the campaign, Lincoln was advised to begin peace talks with the South. End the war, he was told. Bring southern states back into the Union. Settle the question of slavery later. Lincoln, however, believed his policies were right for the nation. He would not surrender them, even if they meant his defeat in the election.

竞选期间,顾问建议林肯与南方开始和谈,结束战争,使南方各州重回联邦,而奴隶制问题可暂后解决。而林肯认为他的策略对整个国家是正确的,即使意味着选举失败,他也决不向反对派屈服。

Lincoln hated the war. But he would not end it until military victory ended slavery and guaranteed political union.

林肯痛恨战争,但如果军事上的胜利不将奴隶制结束,并保障政治上的统一,他便不会结束战争。

In August, eighteen sixty-four, Lincoln wrote:

1864 年 8 月,林肯写道:

"For some days past, it seems that this administration probably will not be re-elected. Then it will be my duty to cooperate with the president-elect to save the Union. We must do this between election day and inauguration day. For he will have been elected on such ground that he cannot possibly save the Union afterwards."

“从过去数月来看,似乎再也不可能重新选举一个新的政府,(因此,)我的责任就是与未来总统合作,一道拯救联邦。我们必须在选举之日和就职之日作出抉择,因为如果这位新总统将在此背景下选举产生,将来不可能拯救这个国家。”

The Democratic Party held its nominating convention in Chicago, Illinois. Peace Democrats were in firm control.

Peace Democrats demanded an immediate end to the Civil War. They did not care if the North and South remained apart permanently.

伊利诺伊州芝加哥民主党(坚持)维护其既定公约,和平民主党在其全力掌控之下。和平民主党派要求立即结束内战。而他们对南北双方是否长期分裂并不关心。

The party's statement contained these words: "After four years of failure to restore the Union by war...justice, humanity, liberty, and the public welfare demand that immediate efforts be made to end the fighting. Let us look to a convention of states -- or other peaceable means -- to restore the Union."

民主党的声明陈辞如下:“战争恢复联邦,宏愿四年未遂……正义人道之心,自由福利之念,要求(我等做出努力,)立即停止争战。此举有赖于各州新立公约,或(诉诸)其它和平之举,以统一吾邦。”

The democratic statement did not discuss slavery. It did say, however, that any state wishing to return to the Union could do so without losing any of its constitutional rights. This was believed to include the right to own slaves.

民主党的声明未讨论奴隶制问题,然而,声明中“回归联邦各州皆有保留其宪法(规定之)权利”之说,却使公众认为其中包含蓄奴权(这个条款)。

Convention delegates approved the statement. Then they nominated General George McClellan as their candidate for president.

公约代表团通过了这项声明。之后,他们提名让乔治 · 麦克莱伦作为总统候选人。

Three days after the Democratic Party convention closed, the Union won an important military victory. Union troops captured Atlanta, Georgia. Atlanta was one of the last remaining industrial cities of the South. Its loss seriously hurt the Confederacy.

民主党公约结束三天之后,北方联邦军队获得了一次重要的胜利。联军攻占了佐治亚州的亚特兰大。亚特兰大是南方最后一个未攻占的工业城市之一,此次败绩重创南军。

Now the people of the North could understand their side was winning the war. Public opinion began to change. The Peace Democrats lost popular support. President Lincoln and his National Union Party gained popular support.

北方军民能够理解为何他们正在赢得这场战争。公众言论开始改变。和平民主党派失去了众人的拥护。林肯总统和他的国家联合党获得广泛支持。

Even some supporters of Radical Republican candidate John Fremont turned to Lincoln. Fremont withdrew from the race. When the people voted in November, their choice was between Abraham Lincoln and George McClellan.

即使是激进的共和党候选人约翰 · 弗里蒙特也转向了林肯,他(主动)退出总统选举。 12 月全国公众选举之时,只有亚拉伯罕 · 林肯和乔治 · 麦克莱伦二人进行(总统角逐)。

A vote for Lincoln meant a vote for continuing the Civil War until it was won. Until the Union was saved. A vote for McClellan meant a vote for stopping the war. Stopping short of victory.

若投林肯一票,就意味着有一票支持继续内战,直至一方获胜,使整个联邦摆脱危机;若投麦克莱伦一票,则意味着停止内战,停止短暂的胜利。

By midnight of election day, it was clear that Lincoln had won. He got only about a half-million more popular votes than McClellan. But when electoral votes were counted, he got two hundred twelve to McClellan's twenty-one.

到选举之日子夜时分,林肯获胜再明显不过。他只比麦克莱伦多得 50 多万张公众选票,但清点选票时,他与麦克莱伦(的得票比分)为 212 : 21 。

Before Lincoln's second inaugural, he agreed to hold peace talks with representatives of the Confederacy. The talks would be held at a Union fort on the Chesapeake Bay.

林肯再次就职之前,同意与南方盟军代表进行和谈,和谈将在切萨皮克湾上联军的一个堡垒中举行。

Lincoln was very firm in one demand. The talks, he said, must discuss peace for "our one common country." There could be no talk, he said, of Confederate independence.

其中一个条款林肯(的态度)异常坚决:“何为和谈?和谈乃‘一国之内’之和平商谈。盟军若欲独立,根本勿须和谈!”

The Confederate representatives said they could not accept those terms. The peace talks ended in failure.

南军代表声称,他们不会接受这些条款。和谈以失败告终。

Lincoln returned to Washington. He prepared a message that he wished to send to Congress. It contained a program he felt could end the war within a few weeks.

林肯回到华盛顿后,准备了一份报文,希望在国会发表。文中列有一项方案,他认为可在数周之内结束战争。

Lincoln proposed four hundred million dollars in economic aid to the southern states. The money could be used to pay slave owners for freeing their slaves. Half the money would be paid if the southern states gave up their struggle by April first. The other half would be paid if they approved -- by July first -- a constitutional amendment ending slavery.

林肯拟支 4 亿美元作为经济援助发放给南部各州,若奴隶主释放其奴隶,这笔巨款可作为补偿:若南军 4 月 1 日前放弃抵抗,可先支出其中半数;若在 6 月 1 日前通过草案结束奴隶制,可将获得另一半。

As part of the program, Lincoln would pardon all political crimes resulting from the southern rebellion. He also would return all property seized by Union forces.

除此计划之外,林肯还将赦免南部叛乱诸州所有战犯,并将归还所有联军缴获财产。

Lincoln 's cabinet officers rejected the program. They urged him not to send it to Congress. They said it would be seen as a sign of weakness.

林肯内阁官员反对这项方案。他们谆告林肯不要向国会发表此案,说此举有向南方示弱之嫌。

Lincoln was surprised by the reaction. He thought his cabinet would gladly end the war...a war that was costing the government three million dollars a day and the lives of the nation's young men. But he accepted the cabinet's advice. He did not send his message to Congress.

林肯对内阁成员的反应感到吃惊,他本以为内阁会对结束战争感到欣慰……四年战争征南北,日耗美金三百万,痛哉吾国失青年!但他还是接受了内阁的建议,未将报文公之于国会。

On March fourth, eighteen sixty-five, Abraham Lincoln was sworn-in as president for a second term. This is part of what he said:

1965 年 3 月 4 日,林肯宣誓就任第二任总统。以下是他就职演说的一部分:

"On this occasion four years ago, all thoughts were directed to a coming Civil War. All feared it. All tried to prevent it. Both parties opposed war. But one of them would make war rather than let the nation live. And the other would accept war, rather than let it die. And the war came.

“四年前的今天,众调不一,直指战争,人人自危,将欲阻之。(南北)双方或战或和,战则欲国亡,和则求国生,于是战争来临。”

"We hope -- and we pray -- that this terrible war may pass away quickly. But God may wish it otherwise. He may have it continue until the riches earned from two hundred fifty years of slavery are gone. It may continue until every drop of blood made by the slaveowner's whip is paid for by another made by the soldier's sword.

“我们希望——我们祈祷——这场可恶的战争能尽快结束,而上帝却有别念。他愿战争继续,让战争将南方富庶的庄主 250 年来搜括的民脂民膏全部带走;而战争仍将继续,直至庄主鞭下的每一滳鲜血都用士兵的利刃进行偿还。”

"With malice toward none; with charity for all; with firmness in the right -- as God gives us to see the right -- let us strive on to finish the work we are in. Let us heal the nation's wounds. Let us do all possible to get and keep a just and lasting peace among ourselves and with all nations."

“收敛邪恶,播种怜悯;上帝教人一切皆向善,故众人皆须坚信正义——让我们齐心合力,毕今日之功;让我们并肩奋战,借他国之力,弥合吾国之创伤,共同缔造公正持久之和平。”

That night, the White House was open to the public. Thousands of people went to see the President. Poet Walt Whitman gave this description:" I saw Mr. Lincoln, dressed all in black. He was shaking hands...looking very sad...as if he would give anything to be somewhere else."

此言正确,白宫之门向公众敞开。成千上万的美国民众拥向白宫,欲一睹总统风采。诗人瓦特 · 惠特曼有如下描述:“我见到林肯先生,身着黑色礼服,他与众人握手……表情极为哀伤……似乎任何索求,无论何方,皆愿补偿。”( - 完 - )

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1楼 作者:wujing695 创建: <编辑>  <引用>
very goods.
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