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2009年12月17日 星期四 一个民族的形成——美国历史系列:邦联首都陷落

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2009 12 17 星期四 一个民族的形成——美国历史系列:邦联首都陷落

THE MAKING OF A NATION - American History Series: Confederate Capital Falls

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On March fourth, eighteen sixty-five, Abraham Lincoln was sworn-in as president after winning a second term. The election had taken place in the Union of northern states. The Union still followed the United States Constitution. The Confederacy of southern states had left the Union. The South had its own Constitution.

1865 年 3 月 4 日,亚拉伯罕 · 林肯宣誓就职为第二任总统。选举在北方各州的联邦举行,联邦仍旧奉行美国宪法,而南部诸州邦联脱离联邦,另立邦联宪法。

On the evening of Inauguration Day, the White House was opened to the public. The party ended near midnight. Thousands of people went to see President Lincoln.

就职典礼完毕后的当晚,白宫之门向美国民众开放,成千上万的人前来拜见林肯总统,狂欢直至午夜。

This week in our series, Kay Gallant and Harry Monroe continue the story of President Lincoln and the American Civil War.

本周的美国历史系列中, Kay Gallant 和 Harry Monroe 将继续向大家讲述林肯总统和美国内战的故事。

Lincoln was glad the celebrations were over. Now he could get back to the urgent problems that faced him. He hoped that during his second four-year term he could end the Civil War. He hoped he could ease the bitterness and hatred the war had brought.

庆典(终于)结束,林肯顿感轻松。现在他要处理面前的许多紧急事务。他希望这次四年的任期能够结束内战,并消除内战带来的苦难和仇恨。

Lincoln hoped for an easy peace. He wanted no hangings or other brutal acts against the losers. He wanted to see Confederate soldiers go back to their homes to become peaceful citizens of a united country. Lincoln wanted the nation to grow together again. The war could not last much longer. The South already was defeated. But Confederate leaders refused to accept defeat.

林肯希望国家维持和平,对战败方不再施以绞刑,或进行残忍的报复。他想看见邦联士兵重返家园,成为合众国的和平公民。他想让国家重新统一,因为战争再也不能持续下去:南方已经战败,只是邦联领导拒不认输。

General Robert E. Lee's army still held the area around Richmond, Virginia. Richmond was the Confederate capital. Lee did not believe, however, that he could hold the city much longer.

罗伯特 · E · 李将军的军队仍然占据着弗吉尼亚里士满及附近区域。里士满是邦联首都,然而李将军认为他再也无力守住城门了。

His once mighty army now had less than fifty thousand men. These men were tired and hungry. And they had to defend a line almost sixty kilometers long, from Richmond to the city of Petersburg.

他的军队曾经坚不可摧,现在却不到 5 万人马,且饥困不堪,何能抵抗(北军)从里士满到皮兹堡 60 公里长的战线?

There just were not enough Confederate soldiers left to fight. Lee decided that his only hope was to give up the two cities. He would march south and join General Joe Johnston's army in North Carolina. Perhaps the two armies could defeat Union forces moving up through the state. Then they could turn to meet the army of General Ulysses Grant.

南军兵力不足,所剩廖廖无几。李将军认为,他唯一的希望就是放弃里士满和皮兹堡两座城市,南进与北卡罗来那州的乔 · 约翰逊大军汇合。两军合力,共击北军进攻,转而与尤利西斯 · 格兰特将军之师进行会战。

This plan had little chance of success. But it would keep the Confederate armies active for a few more weeks or months.

此计毫无胜算,但仍可使盟军维持数周乃至数月。

Lee soon discovered that it would not be easy to break out of the trap that Richmond and Petersburg had become. Grant's army seemed to be everywhere. Lee put eleven thousand of his men into position near Grant's line. They waited for the enemy to attack.

李将军发现,欲突破里士满和皮兹堡之围并非易事,格兰特的军队似乎无处不在。

At first, the Confederates received some help from the weather. Heavy rains fell for more than a day. Many roads and fields were flooded. The Union army could not move forward. When it did, the Confederates were ready. They pushed back the attackers.

最初,天气似乎帮了盟军的忙。暴雨持续了一日,道路积水,田野涝渍,北军无法向前推进。及至向前,盟军已蓄势待发,联军被击退。

The victory did not last long. There were five times more Union soldiers than Confederate soldiers. The Confederates fought hard, but could not stop them. They were forced to withdraw.

胜利并未持续多久,联军五倍于盟军,无论如何奋战,都无法阻止联军。盟军被迫撤退。

The Confederates moved slowly, then more quickly as Union troops chased them. They began to flee wildly. About half of them were captured.

盟军(最初)慢速撤退,被联军追赶,便迅速四处逃散,俘者过半。

Grant ordered an immediate attack all along Lee's line. He was sure the line was weak. He was sure he could break it. A Union army doctor watched the battle from a distance. He said he could see the flash of light from Confederate guns along a line a kilometer long.

格兰特命令部下立即出击李将军部队,他确信防线薄弱,可以击破。一名联军医生远观战场,他说能看见千里之外的盟军枪弹火花。

After a while, part of the line went dark. Then another part. And another. Flashes of gunfire became fewer. Finally, all of the line was dark. The doctor said he knew then that the Confederate line had fallen.

不久,战线(渐渐)陷入沉寂,一个接着一个。枪声火花渐趋沉寂,最终所有战线变成一片黑暗,医生说盟军战线已经陷落。

General Grant had been trying to break General Lee's line for almost a year. Now he had done it. His troops raced forward to seize the railroad. Lee no longer had a way to supply his troops in Petersburg. He no longer had a quick way to move his army south. He would have to move west first, then turn south. This meant he would have to give up Richmond.

将近一年以来,格兰特将军一直想突破李将军的战线,现在,终于如愿以偿。北军突进,攫取铁路,李军再无皮兹堡的军事供应,南撤亦无速退之路,他本打算先向西退,后向南撤,但这样一来,里士满将不再保。

The government of the Confederacy would have to go with him or be captured. Confederate President Jefferson Davis gave the order to go.

盟军首府在劫难逃:要么随军,要么被占。盟军总统杰斐逊 · 戴维斯命令首府随军(南撤)。

Southern soldiers began to burn military supplies they could not take from Richmond. Huge amounts of shells and gunpowder were exploded. The fires got out of control. Many buildings burned to the ground. The streets were filled with refugees trying to escape the burning city. Mobs broke into stores looking for food.

首府里士满带不走的各种军资,南军全部烧毁,大量火器弹药全部引爆,火势蔓延,无法控制,建筑焚毁,(火光冲天,)街道难民(纷纷)逃生,劫匪入店抢粮。

Union troops quickly moved into Richmond. Then they raised the United States flag over the once proud capital of the Confederacy.

联军很快占领里士满,将美国国旗挂在盟军首府,昔日叛军不可一世,(如今却城毁人亡)。

President Lincoln visited Richmond on April fourth. He visited the Confederate state house where the rebel Congress had met. He had lunch in the Confederate White House where Confederate President Jefferson Davis had lived.

林肯总统访问于 3 月 4 日访问里士满,他前往盟军首府议会厅,并在盟军总统杰斐逊 · 戴维斯居所午餐。

Everywhere Lincoln went, hundreds of people crowded around him. Blacks, especially, wanted to get near him. They wanted to touch the man who had made them free. At no time was any kind of hostile act made against the president.

林肯所到之处,总有上百人围观,尤其是黑人,更想向他靠近,他们总想亲手触摸这位使他们重获自由的人。总统决未面临任何敌意。

In the next few days, Lincoln followed carefully Grant's campaign against Lee's withdrawing army. By telegraph and messenger, he was informed of every move.

接下来数日,格兰特将军发动最后反击,击退李的退军,林肯仔细听取军事汇报,电报电文不断,敌军每步动向他都一清二楚。

Lee's men marched without food. They did not have time to search for it. They could not stop. The Union army was only a day behind them.

李军长途跋涉,军队断炊,败军(逃命要紧),岂顾得抢粮充饥。停顿无异送命,联军仅有一日之程,紧紧追随其后。

On and on they marched. Many of them -- weak from hunger and tired beyond belief -- could go no farther. They left the road to sleep. Most never got back. Others continued to March. But many threw down their guns and equipment.

败军日夜兼程,众多饥困之士疲惫不堪,再无余力迈步,随地而倒,亡于他乡。余部继续前行,兵士丢盔弃甲。

Union forces attacked the moving line when they could. There were battles at such places as Amelia Court House, Sayler's Creek, High Bridge and Farmville. Lee's army fought off each attack. But it was slowly bleeding and starving to death.

联军时时袭击盟军,两军在爱米丽亚法院、赛拉小溪、高桥以及法姆维尔多处作战。李部军队成功击退每次进攻,但伤亡渐重,以至饿死。

Lee asked one of his officers to report on the situation. "There is no situation," the officer said. "Nothing remains, General Lee, but to put your poor soldiers on their poor horses and send them home in time to plant the spring crops." Lee answered: "What would the country think of me, if I did that."

李将军请部下军官汇报战况。“没有战况,”军官回答说。“再没有什么东西可以留下啦,李将军,让您可怜的士兵及时骑马回家种庄稼吧。”李答道:“如果我那样做,国家会怎样看待我呢?”

"Country." the officer cried. "There is no country. You are the country to these men. They have fought for you. Without pay or food. There are still thousands of us who will die for you."

“国家,”军官叫道。“没有国家!您就是这些人的国家!他们为您作战,虽然没有军饷,没有食物,但仍有成千上万的士兵愿意为您牺牲生命。”

On April seventh, General Grant sent a message to General Lee. He said it was hopeless to continue the struggle. He asked for the surrender of Lee's army.

4 月 7 日,格兰特将军向李将军发出电文。电文说继续作战毫无希望,他让李将军率部投降。

Lee did not agree that the situation was hopeless. He believed there was still one small chance to escape. He wanted to reach a place called Appomattox Station. There his men could get food. Then they could march to Lynchburg where a railroad would carry them south to safety. But the Union Army reached Appomattox Station first.

李认为形势并非毫无希望,相信仍然有机可乘,他想去阿托克马斯车站,那里手下士兵可以弄来粮食,然后转向林奇堡,那里的铁路可将他们安全转入南方。但联军抢先到达阿托克马斯车站。

Lee and his officers decided to make a final effort to break out of the circle of Union forces. If their plan failed, Lee would have no other choice. He would have to surrender.

李将军和部下决定作最后一搏,以突破联军主力的包围圈。如果计划失败,李再无其他选择,只有投降。

Lee rose early on the appointed day. He put on a new gray coat and a bright red sash. He looked as if he were going to a parade. His officers wondered. Then Lee explained: "I probably will be General Grant's prisoner. I thought I should look my best."

李将军翌日早起,穿上新的灰外套,系上鲜红的腰带,部下以为他要参加阅兵式,于是李将军解释到:“我可能会成为格兰特将军的战俘,(穿上这身衣服)会显得更精神。”

At sunrise, Lee arrived on a hill outside the town of Appomattox Court House. He looked down on what was to be his final battlefield.

太阳升起时,李将军到达阿托克马斯法院所在的城镇外的小山上。他俯瞰山下,决战会在此处进行。

His men fought hard and well. But they could not break through the Union line. Finally, Lee said: "There is nothing left me but to go see General Grant. And I would rather die a thousand deaths."

他的士兵还是那么骁勇善战,但再也无力突破联军战线。最后,李将军说:“我一无所有,只有去见格兰特将军了。我万死不辞别。”

Lee was sure Grant would not demand unconditional surrender. He said: "Grant will give us good terms -- as good as we have the right to demand. I can surrender this army on the condition that its members will never fight again."

李确信格兰特不会要求无条件投降,他说:“格兰特会给予我们优待,我们也有权提出要求。如果所有幸存将士不再作战,我便率部投降。”

Lee turned his horse toward the enemy lines behind his army. He sent a message to General Grant. It said: "I now request to meet with you at such time and place as you may name to discuss the terms of the surrender of this army."

李调转马头,朝他身后的敌军战线走去。他给格兰特将军发报,报文上说:“我现请求与您相见,时间及地点由您定夺,以商讨我军投降条款。”

The place would be a home in a town called Appomattox Court House. That will be our story next week.

投降地点是阿托克马斯法院所在的小镇上的一所房中进行。这将是我们下周要讲的内容。

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最佳回复 该帖于2009年12月23日被版主推荐为精华帖。

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