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2009 年 12 月 24 日 星期四 一个民族的形成——美国历史系列:罗伯特 · E · 李的投降

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2009 12 24 星期四 一个民族的形成——美国历史系列:罗伯特 · E · 李的投降

THE MAKING OF A NATION - American History Series: Robert E. Lee's Surrender

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http://www.unsv.com/voanews/specialenglish/scripts/2009/12/24/0045/

Surrender finally came for General Robert E. Lee and the Confederacy he had served as a great soldier.

罗伯特· E ·李将军及其管辖的南部邦联最终前来投降。

It was mostly his military skill and intelligence that kept the South in the field so long. But even his extraordinary skill could not save the South from the industrial power of the North and its mighty armies -- armies that were well-fed and well-equipped.

幸亏李将军军事韬略非凡,才使南方长期独霸一方,但无论他多么雄才伟略,亦难以将南方邦联从北方的铁军中拯救出来——北方工业发达,兵强马壮,且装备精良。

The last chapter of the bitter four-year struggle came in April eighteen sixty-five. General Grant had pushed Lee's army away from Richmond and nearby Petersburg, Virginia. His Union forces had kept after the Confederates for almost a week.

四年战争艰苦卓绝,最后一战发生于 1865 年 4 月。格兰特将军紧追猛赶,将李军逐出弗吉尼亚的里士满和附近的皮兹堡,他们追赶盟军几乎(整整)一周。

Lee fled westward across Virginia. His tired, hungry soldiers tried to turn south, to reach safety in the Carolinas. But always, the Union army blocked the way.

李将军越过弗吉尼亚州西窜,手下士兵饥困交加,纷纷南逃,以求在卡罗来那州安生,哪知联军处处设防,(插翅难飞。)

Finally on Saturday, April eighth, Lee's army found it could flee no farther. A Union force at Appomattox Station blocked any further movement to the west.

最后在 4 月 8 日周六,李军再也无路可走,联军在阿波马托克斯车站彻底阻断盟军西进之路。

Early the next morning, Lee tried to break through the ring of Union soldiers that surrounded his army. But he failed. Nothing was left. Nothing but surrender.

翌日清晨,李军欲(再次)突破联军防线,但仍以失败告终。(他)手中再无王牌,只有降敌求生。

Lee sent a note to General Grant asking to meet with him to discuss surrender terms. A few hours later, General Grant rode into the crossroads village of Appomattox Court House.

李向格兰特将军发出报文,请求与之会面,商讨投降条款。数小时后,格兰特将军骑马穿过乡间小路,来到阿波马托克斯法院的一座山村。

General Lee was waiting for him at the home of a man named Wilmer McLean. Lee rose as Grant walked into the house.

李将军正在主人家翘首以待,此人名叫 Wilmer McLean 。将军徒步而入,李起身(相迎)。

Grant did not look like a great military leader, the chief of all Union armies. He was dressed simply. His clothes were the same as those worn by the lowest soldiers in his army. His boots and pants were covered with mud. His blue coat was dirty and wrinkled. But on its shoulders were the three gold stars of the Union's highest general.

格兰特并无军威,毫无统帅之相。他衣着简朴,与下等士兵并无二致,平常靴裤犹沾泥,一身戎装垢且摧。唯见肩章三星列,方知军中位最极。

Lee was dressed in his finest clothing. He wore a beautiful gray coat with a red sash tied around it. At his side, he carried an ivory and silver sword.

李却戎装耀人:身着灰色精美外套,腰系红带,佩象牙银剑,(好似上将出征。)

The two generals greeted each other and shook hands. Grant said: "I met you once before, General Lee, while we were serving in Mexico. I have always remembered your appearance. I think I would have recognized you anywhere."

两位将军寒喧握手过后,格兰特说:“昔日墨西哥服役时曾睹将军雄姿,您的丰采真是永远令人难忘,无论何处,敝人定能识出将军身影。”

Lee said: "Yes, I know I met you then. And I have often tried to remember how you looked. But I have never been able to remember a single feature."

李说:“将军言过了。在下也记得昔日相见情景,亦常回忆将军,但总难忆起您的音容笑貌。”

Grant continued to talk of their service in the Mexican War. He said later that he did so because he was finding it difficult to bring up the question of surrender.

(之后,)两人开始续旧,畅谈墨西哥战争从军时节。格兰特事后坦言,续旧实出无奈,投降二字总难开口。

Lee took part in the light talk for several minutes. Finally, he said: "I suppose, General Grant, that the purpose of our meeting is fully understood. I asked to see you to learn upon what terms you would receive the surrender of my army."

李畅谈数分钟后,终于切入正题:“格兰特将军,我想会谈再明显不过,敬请告知贵军接受我军投降条款之事。”

Grant answered: "The terms I propose are those I offered in my earlier note to you. That is, the officers and men surrendered will not take up arms again. And all your weapons and supplies will become captured property."

格兰特(终于松了一口气),说道:“投降条款俱列入文中,已呈给将军。投降官兵不得再战,贵军武器物资俱为没收。”

Lee said those were the conditions he had expected. He asked Grant to put the terms in writing so he could sign them. "Very well," said Grant. "I will write them out." It took him several minutes to write the surrender agreement. Only once did he look up.

李说:“一切如我所愿。”他请格兰特将军将条款写成文件,以便签字。 “再好不过,”格兰特说:“我立即写出来。”数分钟后,投降协议书写完毕。将军奋笔疾书时,只有一次抬头扫视李将军。

He had just written the sentence: "The arms, artillery and public property will be given over to the Union army." Grant stopped writing and looked over at the sword the old general wore.

他刚写完 “军火、大炮及公用财产上缴联军(各部)。”便停了下来,向须发皆白的李将军所带的佩剑看了一眼。

He decided there was no need to hurt Lee's pride by taking away his sword. So he added:

为了不伤害李将军的自尊,他决定不没收他的佩剑。于是接着写道:

'This will not include the side arms of the officers nor their horses or other private property. Each officer and man shall be allowed to return to his home. He will not be disturbed by United States authorities as long as he honors this agreement and obeys the laws where he lives.'

‘此处公共财产不包括军官佩带之物及其战马或其它个人财产;每位军官和士兵皆可获释返乡,若遵此协议,服从所居之处法规,美国当局不得予以干涉。’

Grant gave the paper to Lee. Lee read it slowly. When he finished, Grant asked if the Confederate general wished to propose any changes. Lee was silent for a moment. "There is one thing," he said. "The cavalrymen and artillerymen in our army own their own horses. I would like to understand if these men will be allowed to keep their horses."

格兰特将协议递给李将军过目。李看得很慢,(似乎在看有无遗漏之处)。他看完之后,格兰特将军问他是否还有其它修改建议。李将军沉默片刻,说道:“还有一处:我军骑兵和炮兵是否可保留个人马匹?”

"You will find," Grant said, "that the terms as written do not allow it. Only the officers are permitted to take their private property."

“恕我冒昧,协议是禁止的,您可(再次)过目:条款中仅允许军官保留个人财产。”

"You are correct," said Lee. "I see the terms do not allow it. That is clear."

“谨遵此令,”李将军说道。“条款禁止骑兵炮兵拥有个人马匹,这是一清二楚的。”

Until now, Lee's face had shown no emotion. But for a moment, his self-control weakened. Grant could see how badly Lee wanted this.

直到现在,李将军的脸色才复归平静。可是不久,他又忍耐不住(想提出问题)。格兰特看得出他对此(想法)是多么急不可待。

"Well," said Grant, "I did not know that any private soldiers owned their horses. But I think that this will be the last battle of the war. I sincerely hope so. I think that the surrender of this army will be followed soon by that of all the others.

“呃,”格兰特将军说道:“我对士兵个人拥有马匹并不知情,但敝人真切希望,此战乃最后一战,并认为此时贵军解甲之后,余部将会很快效仿。”

"I take it that most of your soldiers are small farmers and will need the horses to put in a crop that will carry themselves and their families through the next winter. I will not change the terms as they are written. But I will tell my officers to let all the men who claim to own a horse or mule take the animals home with them to work their little farms."

格兰特说:“不知贵军士兵是否务农居多,若此,则需马匹运载庄稼,以济来年冬日举家上下不时之需。在下对所写条款不作更改,但会通令我军,对贵军中所有拥有骡马的士兵,都可将骡马携带回乡,以之务农。”

Lee was pleased with this. He told Grant: "This will have the best possible effect upon the men. It will be very gratifying and will do much to help our people."

李对此欣喜不已。他对格兰特说:“这将大大有利于我军(返乡归田),敝人对此深为感佩,亦将鼎力相助,以安抚民众。”

While waiting for the surrender papers to be copied, Grant presented Lee to the other Union officers in the room. Lee had known some of them before the war.

在等待投降文件复印期间,格兰特带李将军与诸位军官会晤。李在内战前就认识其中部分军官。

After a few minutes, Lee turned to Grant. He told him that his army held about one thousand Union soldiers as war prisoners. He said that for the past few days, he had no food but cracked corn to give them. He said he had nothing to give his own men to eat.

几分钟后,李又对格兰特正言相告:“敝人军中尚滞留一千联军战俘。过去数月,军中缺粮,俘获士兵仅能以残剩玉米为食,(您知道)敝军亦无粮草。”

Grant called in his supply officer and ordered him to feed the Confederate army. He told him to send to Lee's army enough food for twenty-five thousand men.

格兰特(马上)召来军需官,命他(速)给盟军配送粮食。他命军需官给李部 25,000 士兵发放足够食物。

Finally, the surrender papers were ready. Grant and Lee signed them. Lee shook hands with Grant and walked out of the house.

最后,降文准备完毕。格兰特与李二人签字,李与格兰特握手之后,走出民宅。

Lee got on his horse and rode slowly back to his army. As he entered Confederate lines, men began to cheer. But the cheering died when the soldiers saw the pain and sorrow in Lee's face. Tears filled the old man's eyes. He could not speak. Soldiers removed their hats and watched silently as Lee rode past. Many wept.

李骑上马,缓缓跟在盟军队后。骑到盟军队伍中时,士兵开始欢呼,但看见李将军脸上痛苦伤悲的样子,欢呼声又沉寂下来。老人双眼盈满泪水,无法开口说话。士兵们脱帽致礼,目送将军骑马从身旁经过。许多人在流泪。

A crowd of soldiers waited at Lee's headquarters. They pushed close around him trying to touch him, trying to shake his hand.

将军营帐早有士兵等候。他们争相挤到将军跟前,要和他亲近,跟他握手。

Lee began to speak. "Boys, I have done the best I could for you. Go home now. And if you make as good citizens as you have soldiers, you will do well. I shall always be proud of you. Goodbye. And God bless you all."

李将军开始说话。“孩子们,为救大家我已经尽了全力,现在回家吧。你们以前是好战士,也还会是好公民,你们会做得很好的。我永远为你们感到自豪。再见,上帝保佑你们。”

From the crowd came a loud cry. "Farewell, General Lee! I wish for your sake and mine that every damned Yankee on earth was sunk ten miles in hell!"

人群中(顿时)一片欢腾。“再会了,李将军!看在你我的份上,让世界上所有的北方佬都下十层地狱去吧!”

On the other side of the lines, Union soldiers began to celebrate. Artillerymen fired their guns to salute the victory over Lee.

除了李将军的队伍,联军士兵也开始欢呼:炮兵鸣枪,以示胜利。

Grant heard the artillery booming and sent orders that it should stop. "The rebels are our countrymen again," he said. "We can best show our joy by refusing to celebrate their downfall."

格兰特听见炮响,便下令停止。“叛兵现在是我们自己人了,”他说:“对他们的失败我们不幸灾乐祸,就是最好的庆祝。”

General Grant left Appomattox Court House to return to his headquarters a few kilometers away. Suddenly, he stopped his horse. He had forgotten to tell President Lincoln or War Secretary Stanton that Lee had surrendered. He sat down at the side of the road and wrote a telegram to Secretary Stanton.

(之后,)格兰特将军(也)离开阿波马托克斯法院,回到数公里外的营地。突然,他伫马而立,(想起)竟然忘记告诉林肯总统或是战时秘书斯坦顿:罗伯特 · 李已经投降了!他迅速下马,在路边坐下,给斯坦顿写了份电报。

News of the surrender reached Washington late on Sunday. Most citizens in the capital did not learn of it until early the next morning. Then cannons began to boom out over the city. Crowds rushed to the White House to cheer the president. They asked Lincoln to make a victory speech.

投降消息周日傍晚就传到了华盛顿。首都居民大多直到翌日上午才得知这一胜利消息。城中大炮轰鸣,人们纷纷跑到白宫,在总统身边欢呼。他们请求总统致捷辞。

Lincoln said he had not prepared a statement. He wished to wait until the next night. He asked the people to come back then and he would have something to say.

林肯说他还没有准备好陈词,要等到第二天晚上。他请众人重聚白宫,届时发表演说。

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最佳回复 该帖于2009年12月28日被版主推荐为精华帖。

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