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2010年1月3日 星期日美国人物——威廉•福克纳1897-1962:他是美国最伟大的南方作家

楼主:anna 日期: 回贴:1 浏览:

201013 星期日美国人物——威廉·福克纳1897-1962:他是美国最伟大的南方作家

PEOPLE IN AMERICA - William Faulkner, 1897-1962: He was America's Greatest Southern Writer

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William Faulkner was born at the end of the nineteenth century. It was a time when there were two Souths in the United States. The first was the South whose beliefs had existed from before the American Civil War which began in eighteen sixty-one. This South did not question rules, even when those rules did not satisfy human needs. It was a South filled with injustice for black people. It held the seeds of its own destruction.

威廉·福克纳生于19世纪末,那个时代美国有两个南方政权,第一个政权自1861年美国内战以来一直对美国充满憧憬。这个政权不挑战政府法则,即使这些法则并不满足人类需求。但这个南方政权充满了对黑人的不公,为自己埋下了毁灭的种子。

The other South was a land without any beliefs. It was a place where success was measured by self-interest. This was a South where each person had lost his place in the group. It was a place where people owned things that they did not know how to use.

另一个南方政权是一方没有任何信仰的乐土。在那里,成功以个人的利益来衡量,在这个政权中,人人失位,不知其所;在这方乐土上,人们拥有财富,却不知享乐。

Faulkner saw that the old beliefs were not right or even worth believing. And he saw that they could not provide justice because they were based on slavery. Yet he felt that even with their lies and half truths the old beliefs were better than the moral emptiness of the modern South.

福克纳看见,陈旧的信仰并非正确,也绝不值得相信。他看见,南方政权不能施行正义,是因为政权基于奴隶制度之上。然而他感到,传统信念中即使有谎言,事实也半真半假,也比现代南方的道德空虚要强。

In Faulkner's story called "The Bear" a group of men are talking after the day's hunt. One man reads from a poem by the English writer, John Keats:

在福克纳的一个叫“熊”的故事中,讲的是一群男人讲述打猎一天后的故事。一个男人在读英国诗人约翰·济慈的诗。

"'She cannot fade, though thou has not thy bliss, Forever wilt thou love, and she be fair. '

“她不可能消失,她未赐福于你;你们将永远相爱,她将永远美丽。”

"He's talking about a girl," one man says.

“他在谈论一个女孩子,”一个人说。

The other answers, 'He was talking about truth. Truth is one. It doesn't change. It covers all things which touch the heart -- honor and pity and justice and courage and love. Do you see now. '"

另一个回答道:“他在谈论真理。真理是唯一的,它永不改变。它覆盖了所有触动心扉的一切——荣耀、遗憾、正义、勇气和爱。现在你们看见了吗?”

The American writer, Robert Penn Warren says about Faulkner, "The important thing is the presence of the idea of truth. It covers all things that involve the heart and define the effort of man to rise above the mechanical process of life. "

罗伯特·佩恩·沃伦这位美国作家这样评价福克纳:“最重要的事情是真理理念的存在。它涵盖一切,一切与心有关的东西,它阐释了男人如何努力付出,来改善生活的客观过程。”

Faulkner has been accused of looking back to a time when life was better. Yet, he believes that truth belongs to all times. But it is found most often in the people who stand outside what he calls "the loud world. "

有人指责福克纳,说他总是忆旧,回味那时生活美好的日子。然而,他也相信,真理属于一切时代,但这样的时代总是存在于被他叫做“喧嚣的世界”里那些置身世外的人们当中。

One of the people in his story "Delta Autumn" says, "There are good men everywhere, at all times. "

有一个人在他的《三角秋天》的小说中说到:“世上到处有好人,时时有好人。”

Faulkner's great-grandfather accepted the old beliefs. He was one of the men who had helped build the South, but his time was gone. Now money had replaced the old order of honor. What Faulkner saw was that there could be no order at all, no idea of doing what is right, in a world that measured success in terms of money.

 福克纳的曾祖父接受了旧的信仰。他曾参与缔造南方政权,但他的时代一去不复返了。现在金钱已取代了往日秩序的荣光。福克纳看见,世上再无秩序,再无正当之举,一切皆由金钱来衡量成功。

This is the changing South that Faulkner describes in the area he created. He named it Yoknapatawpha County. He describes it as in the northern part of the state of Mississippi. It lies between sand hills covered with pine trees and rich farmland near the Mississippi River. It has fifteen-thousand-six-hundred-eleven people, living on almost four-thousand square kilometers. Its central city is Jefferson, where the storekeepers, mechanics, and professional men live.

约克纳帕塔法郡是福克纳所描述的密西西比州北部的一片乐土。它位于松山之间,田地肥沃,密西西比河就在附近。该郡人口15611人,居住面积约为4千平方公里。中心城市是杰斐逊,那里居住着许多店员、机械师和职业人士。

The rest of the people of Yoknapatawpha County are farmers or men who cut trees. Their only crops are wood and cotton. A few live in big farmhouses, left from an earlier time. Most of them do not even own the land they farm.

余下的便是约克纳帕塔法郡乡下的农夫和伐木工。他们唯一的庄稼就是木材和棉花。一些人住在农场的大房子里,这些房子是早期留下来的,而大部分人(终年在)土地上劳作,却没有一片土地。

The critic Malcolm Cowley says, "Others might say that Faulkner was not so much writing stories for the public as telling them to himself. It is what a lonely child might do, or a great writer. "

评论家马尔科姆·考利说:“其他人可能会说,福克纳不怎么写作公众的小说,给他们讲故事,就像讲给自己听一样。而这是孤单的孩童所做的事情,也是一位伟大作家的工作。”

William Faulkner was born in New Albany, Mississippi, in eighteen-ninety-seven. His father worked for the railroad. William's great-grandfather had built it. His grandfather owned it. When the grandfather decided to sell the railroad, William's father moved his family thirty-five miles west to the city of Oxford.

威廉·福克纳1897年出生于密西西比河的新阿尔巴尼。他的父亲在铁路上工作,那铁路是他的曾祖父建造的,为他的祖父所拥有。当他的祖父决定卖掉铁路的时候,威廉的父亲将全家搬到牛津市西部35里远的一个地方。

Growing up in Oxford, William Faulkner heard stories of the past from his grandmother and from a black woman who worked for his family. He heard more stories from old men in front of the courthouse, and from poor farmers sitting in front of a country store.

在牛津长大的威廉·福克纳(自幼)便从祖母和家中一位黑人女仆那里听说了过去的故事。从(居住在当地)法院前的老人们那里,以及坐在乡村店铺前那些贫苦的农民口中,他听说了更多关于(以往)的故事。

You learn the stories, Faulkner says, without speech somehow from having been born and living beside them, with them, as children will and do.

福克纳说,一个人可以不通过演讲来学习讲故事,生活在某些人身边天生就可以讲的,就像孩子们一样。

Faulkner was a good student. Yet by the time he was fifteen he had left school. Except for a year at the University of Mississippi at the end of World War One, that was the last of his official education.

福克纳学习成绩优异,但在15岁时就缀学了。一战末,他在密西西比大学上过一年的学,这是他最后的正规教育。

He took a number of jobs in Oxford, but did not stay with any of them. He began to think that he was a writer. Then in nineteen-eighteen the woman he loved married another man. Faulkner left Mississippi and joined the British Royal Flying Corps. He was sent to Canada to train to fight in World War One.

在牛津,他做过各种工作,但没有一个能长时间做下来。他开始认为自己是一个作家。而在1918年,他爱的一个女子另嫁他人。后来,福克纳离开密西西比州,加入了英国皇家飞行公司。他被派往加拿大,参加一战的飞行训练工作。

The war ended before he could be sent to Europe. He returned to Oxford, walking with difficulty because of what he said was a "war wound. "

他还没被派到欧洲一战便结束了,于是返回牛津,此时他已行走不便,据他说是由于“战伤”。

At home Faulkner again moved from one job to the next. He wrote bad poetry, drew pictures that looked like other men's pictures, and wrote uninteresting stories. A book of his poetry, The Marble Faun, was published in nineteen-twenty-four.

回到家乡,福克纳再次一份又一份地更换工作。他写过蹩脚的诗歌,模仿他人画过画,也写过毫无吸引力的小说。《云石林神》是他的一本诗集,出版于1924年。

A year later he went to the Southern city of New Orleans, Louisiana. There he met the American writer, Sherwood Anderson. They became friends. Anderson told Faulkner to develop his own way of writing, and to use material from his own part of the country. He also told Faulkner he would find a publisher for the novel Faulkner was writing. But Anderson also told Faulkner that he would not read the book.

一年后他去了南方路易斯安那州的新奥尔良市。在那里,他遇见了美国作家舍伍德·安德森,二人成为朋友。安德森让福克纳以自己的方式来写作,(尽量)使用本土素材。他还告诉福克纳将为他找一位出版商,出版福克纳写作的小说。但安德森也告诉福克纳,自己不会去读他写的书。

The book was called "Soldier's Pay." It would not be remembered today if it were not for Faulkner's later work. The same could be said of Faulkner's next book, "Mosquitoes."

该书名叫《兵饷》。如果不是福克纳后期的作品出现,这本书今天就不会被人提起。福克纳的下一本书《蚊群》也是如此。

Money from these books made it possible for him to travel to Europe. He educated himself by reading a large number of modern writers. Among them was the Irish writer James Joyce. From him, Faulkner learned to write about people's inner thoughts. He also read the books of the Austrian doctor, Sigmund Freud. From him, Faulkner learned some of the reasons people act in the strange way they often do.

写书的稿酬使福克纳能够到欧洲旅行。他(开始)自学,阅读了大量的现代著作。其中有爱尔兰作家詹姆斯·乔伊斯。从乔伊斯那里,福克纳学会了刻画人物的内心。他也阅读了奥地利医生西格蒙德·弗洛伊德的作品,从他那里明白了为什么人们有时会有异常之举。

Instead of remaining in Paris, as many American writers did, Faulkner returned to Mississippi and began his serious writing. "I was trying," he said, "to put the history of mankind in one sentence. " Later he said, "I am still trying to do it, but now I want to put it all on the head of a pin. " He created Yoknapatawpha County and its people, and gave them a meaning far beyond their place and lives.

与多数美国作家不同的是,福克纳没有留在巴黎,而是回到密西西比,开始了他的严肃创作。他曾说:“过去我试图将人类的历史放在一句话中。”后来他又说:“我还在尝试,但现在我想将人类所有的历史集中放在一枚大头针帽上。”于是,他创作了约克纳帕塔法郡和郡中的人们,并赋与他们一种(特殊的)意义,这在他们居住和生活的地方是异乎寻常的。

In nineteen-twenty-nine Faulkner married Estelle Oldham, the woman he had loved since they were in school together. Her earlier marriage had failed. She had returned to Oxford with her two children.

1929年福克纳与伊斯德拉·奥尔德姆结婚,她是二人学生时代起福克纳就热爱着的女子。奥尔德姆的以前的婚姻并不幸福。她带着两个孩子回到了牛津。

They bought an old ruined house and began the costly work of repairing it. Faulkner also took on the job of supporting the rest of his family. His letters from this time on are often full of talk about what he must do to support his family and to continue the repairs to his house.

夫妻二人买下了一栋破败不堪的房子,并开始了昂贵的修复工程。福克纳也承担起养家糊口的工作。从这一时期开始的信件尽是他要养家修房的话题。

Faulkner's next book, "Sartoris," presents almost all the ideas that he develops during the rest of his life. First, however, the book Faulkner wrote had to be cut by about twenty-five percent.

福克纳的下一本书《萨托里斯》代表了他余生几乎所有的观点,然而,他写的这本书有25%都要删掉。

Faulkner resisted. He said, if you grow a vegetable, you can cut it to look like something else, but it will be dead. Yet, when Faulkner read the book after his editor cut it, he approved. He even cooperated in more re-shaping of the book.

福克纳开始不同意删减。他说,如果你种了菜,可以修剪菜的枝叶,使它看起来像另一种样子,但菜却会死掉。然而,当福克纳读了编辑删减的书后,却同意了删减。他甚至还对此书重新作了更多修改。

In "Sartoris," Faulkner found his subject, his voice, and his area. He writes about the connection between an important Southern family and the local community. He describes how the Sartoris family seems to help in its own destruction.

在《萨托里斯》中,福克纳找到了他的主题,他的声音,以及他的位置。书中,他对一个南方望族和当地社区之间的纠葛作了(细致入微的)描述,小说里的萨托里斯家族似乎在自掘坟墓。

In the next seven years, between nineteen-twenty-nine and nineteen-thirty-six, he seemed to re-invent the novel with every book he wrote. "Get it down," he said. "Take chances. It may be bad, but that's the only way you can do anything good. "

在接下来的七年中,即19291936年,他欲将以前写过的每本书中的小说重新进行改写。他说:“开始写作,抓住机会。也许会交恶运,但也是你能有所作为的唯一出路。”

At that time, most novels about the South described a land that never existed. After Faulkner, few northerners were brave enough to write about a South they did not know. And no serious Southern writer was willing to describe a South that did not exist.

那时,大多数南方小说描写的都是虚构的境界,福克纳之后,很少有北方作家能够勇于尝试他们未知的南方世界,也没有一位南方作家愿意描写一个事实上不存在的南方王国。

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最佳回复 该帖于2010年1月5日被版主推荐为精华帖。

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1楼 作者:Frank Sun 创建: <编辑>  <引用>

"She cannot fade, though thou hast not thy bliss, Forever wilt thou love, and she be fair."----这句诗选自约翰·济慈的《希腊古瓮颂》(Ode on a Grecian Urn),hast 原文误作has。这句诗可翻译为“她不会老,虽然你不能如愿以偿,你将永远爱下去,她也永远秀丽!”(查良铮)Anna的翻译有误。

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