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2010年1月6日 星期三 探索发现——莎士比亚是一位编剧、演员,哦,对了,还是作家

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201016 星期三  探索发现——莎士比亚是一位编剧、演员,哦,对了,还是作家

EXPLORATIONS - Shakespeare Was a Producer and Actor and, Oh Yes, a Writer

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http://www.unsv.com/voanews/specialenglish/scripts/2010/01/06/0045/

Today, we tell about one of the most influential and skillful writers in the world. For more than four hundred years, people all over the world have been reading, watching and listening to the plays and poetry of the British writer William Shakespeare.

今天,我们要讲述世界上最有影、最有天赋的一位作家。四百多年以来,世界各地的人们一直都在阅读、观看并收听着英国作家威廉·莎士比亚的戏剧和诗歌。

JULIET: "Ay me!"

ROMEO: "She speaks:

O, speak again, bright angel!"

JULIET: "O Romeo, Romeo! wherefore art thou Romeo?

Deny thy father and refuse thy name;

Or, if thou wilt not, be but sworn my love,

And I'll no longer be a Capulet."

朱丽叶:“唉!”

罗密欧:“她说话了:

啊!再说下去吧,光明的天使!”

朱丽叶:“噢,罗密欧啊,罗密欧!你在哪里啊,罗密欧?

否认你的父亲,抛弃你的姓名吧;

也许你不愿意这样做,那么只要你宣誓做我的爱人,

我再也不做坎普莱特家的人。”

You just heard part of a famous scene from a movie version of "Romeo and Juliet." This tragic play remains one of the greatest, and perhaps most famous, love stories ever told. It tells about two young people who meet and fall deeply in love. But their families, the Capulets and the Montagues, are enemies and will not allow them to be together. Romeo and Juliet are surrounded by violent fighting and generational conflict. The young lovers secretly marry, but their story has a tragic ending.

你刚才听到的是《罗密欧和朱丽叶》的电影中著名的一段对白。这个悲剧至今仍是世界上最伟大、也可能是最著名的爱情故事。它讲述的是两位一见钟情的年轻情侣的故事。他们彼此深深相爱,但双方坎普莱特和蒙塔古两个家族是世仇,怎能容许他们相爱。(尽管)罗密欧和朱丽叶饱受激烈的家庭争斗和世家冲突的困扰,二人(仍然)秘密结婚,但故事(最终)却以悲剧结尾。

"Romeo and Juliet" shows how William Shakespeare's plays shine with extraordinarily rich and imaginative language. He invented thousands of words to color his works. They have become part of the English language. Shakespeare's universal stories show all the human emotions and conflicts. His works are as fresh today as they were four hundred years ago.

《罗密欧和朱丽叶》这出戏剧表明,威廉·莎士比亚的戏剧语言极为丰富华丽,且有着无以伦比的想象力。他创造了上千个词汇,使其作品显得绚丽多彩,这些词语也成为英语语言的一部分。莎士比亚的世界名著(充分)展现了人类所有的情感和冲突。虽然历时四百余年,其作品至今仍显得鲜活生动,(经久不衰。)

William Shakespeare was born in fifteen sixty-four in the town of Stratford-upon-Avon. He married Anne Hathaway at the age of eighteen. The couple had three children, two daughters and a son who died very young. Shakespeare moved to London in the late fifteen eighties to be at the center of the city's busy theater life.

威廉·莎士比亚1564年诞生于埃文河畔的斯特拉特福镇。他在18岁那年娶了安·哈瑟维,夫妻二人有一儿两女,儿子不幸夭折。莎士比亚于16世纪80年代前往伦敦,进入伦敦繁华的剧院生活。

Most people think of Shakespeare as a writer. But he was also a theater producer, a part owner of an acting company and an actor. For most of his career, he was a producer and main writer for an acting company called the King's Men.

大多数人认为莎士比亚是个作家,但他也是剧院编剧,同时还是剧团的合伙人兼演员。在他的职业的大部分生涯中,他长期担任“国王剧团”的剧团编剧和主要作家。

In fifteen ninety-nine Shakespeare's company was successful enough to build its own theater called the Globe. Public theaters during this time were usually three floor levels high and were built around a stage area where the actors performed. The Globe could hold as many as three thousand people. People from all levels of society would attend performances.

1599年,莎士比亚的剧团已经非常成功,足以开设自己的剧院了,剧院名叫“环球剧场”。这一时期的公共剧院通常高达三层,中间是环形剧场,供演员演出。“环球剧场”可容纳3000余人,社会各界人士都来观看演出。

The poorer people could buy tickets for a small amount of money to stand near the stage. Wealthier people could buy more costly tickets to sit in other areas.

下层贫民可少量花钱购买戏票,立于台前观看;有钱人则可以昂贵票价购得其它(贵宾)席位。

Often it was not very important if wealthy people could see the stage well. It was more important that they be in a seat where everyone could see them.

通常,有钱人能否看清舞台并不十分重要,重要的是他们的座位要让每个人都能看见。

It was difficult to light large indoor spaces during this time. The Globe was an outdoor theater with no roof on top so that sunlight could stream in. Because of the open-air stage, actors had to shout very loudly and make big motions to be heard and seen by all. This acting style is quite different from play-acting today. It might also surprise you that all actors during this period were men. Young boys in women's clothing played the roles of female characters. This is because it was against the law in England for women to act onstage.

那个时代,在大型室内用灯光照明是非常困难的。“环球剧场”是一个室外剧院,没有房顶,这样阳光可以(直接)照射进来。因为舞台是露天的,演员们必须竭尽声音之能事,且须做大幅度动作,以娱观众之视听。此种演出风格与今天的戏剧表演大相径庭,而那时演员也全是男性,你也可能会大跌眼镜。男孩子男扮女装,扮演女性角色,此乃昔日英国法律之规定:女子不得登台演出。

Shakespeare's theater group also performed in other places such as the smaller indoor Blackfriars Theater. Or, they would travel around the countryside to perform. Sometimes they were asked to perform at the palace of the English ruler Queen Elizabeth, or later, King James the First.

莎士比亚剧团也在“黑衣修士剧院”这样的室内剧院表演,他们间或转到乡间巡回演出。有时,宫廷会派人叫他们到皇宫给当时的伊莉莎白王后作御前表演,后来的詹姆斯一世国王(也曾发出邀请)。

Shakespeare is best known for the thirty-nine plays that he wrote, although only thirty-eight exist today. His plays are usually divided into three groups: comedies, histories and tragedies. The comedies are playful and funny. They usually deal with marriage and the funny activities of people in love. These comedies often tell many stories at the same time, like plays within plays.

莎士比亚以其所写的39个剧作而最赋成名,而今天现存的只有38个剧作。他的戏剧通常分为三类:喜剧、历史剧和悲剧。喜剧轻快活泼,诙谐有趣,常以婚姻和恋爱中人的闹剧为题材。喜剧中常常同时出现多个故事,类似剧中剧。

"Much Ado About Nothing" is a good example of a Shakespearian comedy. It tells the story of two couples. Benedick and Beatrice each claim they will never marry. They enjoy attacking each other with funny insults. Their friends work out a plan to make the two secretly fall in love.

《无事生非》是莎士比亚喜剧的一个范例。它讲述的是两对有情人的故事。其中一对一个叫培尼狄克,一个叫贝特丽丝,双方都声称誓不结婚,但二人总喜欢相互开些无伤大雅的玩笑,并以此为乐。他们的朋友暗中牵线,使两位有情人坠入爱河。

Claudio and Hero are the other couple. They fall in love at once and plan to marry. But Claudio wrongly accuses Hero of being with another man and refuses to marry her. Hero's family decides to make Claudio believe that she is dead until her innocence can be proved. Claudio soon realizes his mistake and mourns for Hero. By the end of the play, love wins over everyone and there is a marriage ceremony for the four lovers.

克劳狄奥和希罗是另外一对有情人。他们二人坠入情网并准备秘密结婚,但男主人公克劳狄奥误以为女主角希罗与另一男子结欢,拒绝与她结婚。希罗的家人略施小计,他们让克劳狄奥以为希罗已死,直到(克劳狄奥)还她清白之身。克劳狄奥很快意识到自己错怪了希罗,他一直哀悼着心爱的人。最终,人人赢得了爱神的青睐,四位爱人如愿以偿地举行了婚礼。

Shakespeare's histories are intense explorations of actual English rulers. This was a newer kind of play that developed during Shakespeare's time. Other writers may have written historical plays, but no one could match Shakespeare's skill. Plays about rulers like Henry the Fourth and Richard the Third explore Britain's history during a time when the country was going through tense political struggles.

莎士比亚的历史剧是对当时英国统治者鲜明的刻画。这种戏剧是莎士比亚时代创作的一种新的剧作。其它作家可能也写过历史剧,但没有一人能与莎士比亚的写作天才相媲美。剧中对像亨利四世、查理三世这样的统治者的描写(深刻)再现了英国当时所经历的激烈的政治斗争的那个时代。

Many Shakespearian tragedies are about conflicting family loyalties or a character seeking to punish others for the wrongful death of a loved one. "Hamlet" tells the story of the son of the king of Denmark. When Hamlet's father unexpectedly dies, his uncle Claudius becomes ruler and marries Hamlet's mother. One night a ghostly spirit visits Hamlet and tells him that Claudius killed his father.

莎士比亚的许多悲剧描写的是家族荣耀的纷争,或是某位主人公因自己所爱之人含冤而死,(不惜)寻求偿还之道。《哈姆雷特》讲述的是丹麦王子哈姆雷特的故事。当哈姆雷特的父亲意外死亡之后,他的叔叔克劳狄成为国王,并娶哈姆雷特的母亲为妻。深夜,老国王的幽灵现身给王子哈姆雷特,告诉他,克劳狄杀害了他的父亲。

Hamlet decides to pretend that he is crazy to learn if this is true. This intense play captures the conflicted inner life of Hamlet. This young man must struggle between his moral beliefs and his desire to seek punishment for his father's death. Here is a famous speech from a movie version of "Hamlet." The actor Laurence Olivier shines in this difficult role.

哈姆雷特决定装疯,以探知事情真相。戏剧以高度紧张气氛烘托王子的矛盾的内心世界。年轻的王子必须在他的道德观念和惩罚杀父仇人的欲念中权衡利弊,做出抉择。下面是电影“哈姆雷特”中的著名独白,演员劳伦斯·奥利佛在这个极具挑战性的角色中有着出色的表演。

HAMLET: "To be, or not to be: that is the question:

Whether 'tis nobler in the mind to suffer

The slings and arrows of outrageous fortune,

Or to take arms against a sea of troubles,

And by opposing end them?"

哈姆雷特:“生存,还是死亡:问题就在这里:

究竟哪样更高贵

去忍受那狂暴的命运无情的摧残

还是挺身去反抗那无边的烦恼

把它扫个一干二净。”

Shakespeare also wrote one of greatest collections of poems in English literature. He wrote several long poems, but is best known for his one hundred and fifty-four short poems, or sonnets. The English sonnet has a very exact structure. It must have fourteen lines, with three groups of four lines that set up the subject or problem of the poem. The sonnet is resolved in the last two lines of the poem.

莎士比亚也创作了诗集,在英国文学史上相当可观。他写了几首长诗,但最为有名的还是他的154首短诗,或者叫十四行诗。这种英式短诗有十分苛刻的文体,每首诗必须有十四行,共有三段,每段四行,且须选立题材,或提出问题,并在最后两段作答。

If that requirement seems demanding, Shakespeare's sonnets are also written in iambic pentameter. This is a kind of structure in which each line has ten syllables or beats with a stress on every second beat.

如果说这种文体的要求似乎近于苛刻,那么莎士比亚的十四行诗也有以抑扬格写成的五步格诗。这是一种稍为灵活的结构,每行有十个音节或节拍,每个第二拍上有一个重音。

Even with these restrictive rules, the sonnets seem effortless. They have the most creative language and imaginative comparisons of any other poems. Most of the sonnets are love poems. Some of them are attacks while others are celebrations. The sonnets express everything from pain and death to desire, wisdom, and happiness.

即使有如此严格的要求,十四行诗也写得浑然天成。与其它十四行诗相比,它们的语言极为独特,想象力无比丰富。大多数十四行诗是爱情诗,有些是针砭(时弊)的,有的则是欢庆(胜利)的,这些诗行表达了世间万象,有伤痛,有死亡,有欲望,有智慧,还有幸福。

Here is one of Shakespeare's most famous poems. Sonnet Eighteen tells about the lasting nature of poetry. The speaker describes how the person he loves will remain forever young and beautiful in the lines of this poem.

下面是莎士比亚最著名的一首诗。这首十四行诗表达了诗歌的永恒之美,诗人描述了自己的爱人将永远保持诗歌中的青春美丽。

Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?

Thou art more lovely and more temperate:

Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May,

And summer's lease hath all too short a date:

Sometimes too hot the eye of heaven shines,

And often is his gold complexion dimmed;

And every fair from fair sometimes declines,

By chance or nature's changing course untrimmed;

But thy eternal summer shall not fade,

Nor lose possession of that fair thou ow'st;

Nor shall death brag thou wander'st in his shade,

When in eternal lines to time thou grow'st:

So long as men can breathe, or eyes can see,

So long lives this, and this gives life to thee.

我能否将你比作夏天?
你比夏天更美丽温婉。
狂风将五月的蓓蕾凋残,
夏日的勾留何其短暂。
休恋那丽日当空,
转眼会云雾迷蒙。
休叹那百花飘零,
催折于无常的天命。
唯有你永恒的夏日常新,
你的美貌亦毫发无损。
死神也无缘将你幽禁,
你在我永恒的诗中长存。
只要世间尚有人吟诵我的诗篇,
这诗就将不朽,永葆你的芳颜。

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最佳回复 该帖于2010年1月7日被版主推荐为精华帖。

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