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2010年1月21日 星期四 一个民族的形成——美国历史系列:安德鲁•约翰逊面临援助南方的挑战

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THE MAKING OF A NATION - American History Series: Andrew Johnson Faces a Fight Over Aiding South

2010 年 1 月 21 日 星期四 一个民族的形成——美国历史系列:安德鲁 · 约翰逊面临援助南方的挑战

In the spring of eighteen sixty-five, the American Civil War was over. And the president who had led the Union during that war was dead. Abraham Lincoln had been murdered before the final surrender of Confederate forces.

1865 年春,美国内战结束,那位在战争期间领导美国联邦的林肯总统去世了,他是在南方武装最后投降之前被害身亡的。

Now, the re-united nation had a new president, Andrew Johnson. He had been Lincoln's vice president.

现在,重新统一的美国有了一位新的总统安德鲁·约翰逊,他是林肯的副总统。

The chief justice of the United States swore Johnson into office a few hours after Lincoln's death. Most of Lincoln's cabinet was there, together with leading members of Congress. They looked to the new president with a mixture of shock and hope.

林肯去世后几个小时,美国法院院长宣誓约翰逊就职。林肯的主要内阁成员,还有主要议员都原封未动。他们期待着这位新总统(的举措),心中既感到震惊,又有所憧憬。

This week in our series, Shep O'Neal and Tony Riggs begin the story of America's seventeenth president.

在本周我们的系列, Shep O'Neal 和 Tony Riggs 开始讲述美国第十七任总统的故事。

Andrew Johnson was -- like Abraham Lincoln -- a man of the people. He was born in North Carolina. His family was poor. There was no money, or time, for young Andrew to go to school.

安德鲁·约翰逊像亚拉伯罕·林肯一样,是一位平民总统。他出生于北卡罗来那州,自幼家贫,家里既无金钱、又无时间供年轻的安德鲁上学。

When he was fourteen years old, his mother sent him to work for a tailor to learn to make clothes. Andrew worked hard. He opened his own tailoring business in the eastern part of the state of Tennessee. When he was eighteen, he married. His wife, Eliza, taught him to read and write. Andrew became active in politics.

他 14 岁时,母亲送他去一个裁缝那里学做衣服。安德鲁工作非常努力,他在田纳西州东部还开过自己的裁缝店。 18 岁时他结了婚,妻子伊莉莎教他读书写字。安德鲁在政治方面很活跃。

At the age of twenty-one, he was elected to the town council. Two years later, he became mayor of the town. At thirty-five, he won a seat in Congress, in Washington.

21 岁时,他被选为镇议会议员。两年后,他成为镇上的市长。 35 岁那年,他在华盛顿议会里获得了一个席位。

Next, he became governor of Tennessee. Then the state made him one of its two senators. The poor tailor boy was a success.

接下来,他成为田纳西州州长,此后,田纳西州两大议员,他(有幸)入选。昔日裁缝郎,今朝青云上。

Andrew Johnson was a member of the Democratic Party. In the presidential election of eighteen-sixty, he supported his party's candidate, not the candidate of the Republican Party: Abraham Lincoln. But, Lincoln won the election.

安德鲁·约翰逊是民主党成员, 1860 总统选举时,他支持本党候选人,而不是共和党人的林肯,但林肯获胜。

And, as a result, southern states carried out their earlier threat. They began leaving the Union to form their own nation.

结果,南方政权阴谋早泄,开始脱离联邦,成立独立政府。

Johnson opposed this secession. He believed the South should remain part of the United States. He decided he had no choice but to support the Republican president.

约翰逊反对这种脱离联邦的行径,他认为南方政权应成为美国的一部分。他觉得别无选择,只有支持共和党总统(林肯)。

Most of the other citizens in Tennessee disagreed with him. They decided to leave the Union. Andrew Johnson had to flee his home to save his life. He returned only after Union forces took control of Tennessee and made him military governor.

田纳西州的其他多数公民与他意见相左。他们决定脱离联邦,安德鲁·约翰逊只好弃家而走,以求安身立命。他在联邦军队掌控田纳西州之后才返回家乡,之后被任为军长。

President Lincoln noticed the man from Tennessee who supported the Union over the opposition of others. In eighteen sixty-four, Lincoln decided to run for re-election. He chose Johnson to be his vice presidential candidate.

林肯总统注意到这个力排众议、支持联邦的田纳西州人士。 1864 年,林肯决定再次竞选总统时,选了约翰逊做他的副总统候选人。

Lincoln hoped Johnson would win the support of Union-loving Democrats. He hoped Johnson would help heal the wounds between North and South.

林肯希望约翰逊能够获得亲联邦的民主人士的支持。他希望约翰逊能够愈合南北之间的各种创伤。

Now, Lincoln was dead. And Johnson was president. It was up to this little-known former tailor to make the decisions on reconstruction -- on rebuilding the Union.

现在,林肯已去,约翰逊成为总统,该这位曾经的无名裁缝来筹划联邦重建的蓝图。

Johnson, not Lincoln, would decide if reconstruction would be easy or hard. Johnson would choose if the North would punish the defeated rebel states or be merciful to them.

约翰逊,而并非林肯,将知晓重建国家的伟业之艰难。他将做出抉择,看北方对战败的南方叛军是惩罚还是宽恕。

The radicals of Lincoln's Republican Party wanted severe reconstruction. They said the South was a defeated enemy. They demanded strong punishment for all southerners who took part in the rebellion.

林肯共和党的激进分子想严惩南方。他们说,南方是战败叛敌,需要对所有参加叛乱的南方人予以严惩。

These radicals had disliked Lincoln's plans for reconstruction. They felt he was too weak. Now, they hoped Johnson would share their ideas. They urged him to call a special session of Congress to pass strong legislation against the South.

这些激进分子不满林肯的重建计划,他们觉得他过于软弱。现在,他们希望约翰逊与他们意见一致,他们鼓励他召开特别时期议会,通过强硬的立法对付南方势力。

The radicals had reason to believe the new president agreed with them. He had called the rebels traitors. He had demanded strong action against them when the war ended.

激进分子认为新总统与其意见一致是有原因的,因为新总统曾把这些反叛者称为叛国贼。内战结束后,他要求对南方实行严厉制裁。

"The time has come," Johnson had said, "when the American people should understand what crime is. And that it should be punished."

“时机已到,” 约翰逊曾说,“美国人应该理解南方人所犯下的罪行,他们理应受到惩罚。”

But Andrew Johnson surprised the radicals. He did not call the special session of Congress. Instead, he announced his own program for the southern states.

但安德鲁·约翰逊对激进派的行为感到震惊。他没有召开特别时期议会,相反,他宣布了自己的安抚南方的计划。

Johnson declared a pardon for all former confederates who promised to support the Union and obey laws against slavery. Then, he permitted former officials of the confederacy to run for office in their states' new elections. Many of these former rebels were elected.

约翰逊宣布,(政府将)宽恕所有支持联邦政府、遵守法律的前任邦联分子。然后,他允许前任南方邦联官员参加南方各州新的选举。许多前任叛军都入选了。

The radical Republicans were angry. They saw these elections as proof that the South had not really changed. They accused Johnson of being too soft. They urged him to punish the rebels.

激进共和党人异常愤怒,他们把这些选举看作南方故态复萌的表现,指责约翰逊太过软弱,敦促他(必须)惩罚叛军。

One radical newspaper wrote: "There is only one sure and safe policy for the immediate future. The North must remain the dictator of the republic until the spirit of the North shall become the spirit of the whole country. The South's treason is still unpunished. Southerners cannot be trusted. "

一家激进派的报纸写道:“不久的将来只有一条安全可信的策略,北方应一直保留共和体制的领导地位,直到北方(战胜派的)精神成为全国的灵魂。南方叛乱未经惩罚,安可信赖。”

The radicals also worried about what would happen to the recently freed slaves. They said the new state governments of the South would not treat blacks as free and equal citizens. As proof, they pointed to new laws the southern legislatures passed.

激进派也担心新释放的农奴“兴风作浪”。他们说,南方新政府不会将黑奴当作自由平等之公民。他们以此对南方新法指手划脚。

For example, the state legislature in Mississippi said no black person could rent farmland. It said a black person needed special permission to work at any job except farming.

比如,密西西比州的立法机构声称,黑人不得租赁农场。该立法机构说,黑人未经特别许可不能务农。

Mississippi also passed a law saying a black person could be forced to work for a white man -- usually his former owner -- if he had no other job.

密西西比州也通过了一项法律声称,黑人无业者,可义务为其前任白人主雇工作。

Another way the state governments in the South acted against blacks was by refusing to give them the right to vote.

南方各州政府还以禁止黑人投票权的方式反对黑人(的正当人权)。

The radical Republicans decided that President Johnson's reconstruction program must be stopped. They began working to get control of Congress to pass their own program. Only by gaining political power could they punish the South and guarantee full political rights to former slaves.

激进共和党认为,约翰逊总统的重建计划必须加以阻止。他们开始阴谋掌控议会,设立自己的议案。只有掌权之后,他们才能惩罚南方,并保证过去农奴充分的政治权利。

The radicals tried to take control in two ways.

激进派阴谋两日后篡权。

First, they refused to let many of the recently elected southern congressmen take their seats when Congress opened.

首先,他们禁止新入选的南方议员在议会开始时就座。

Then they formed their own joint committee on reconstruction. This committee -- not the Senate or the House of Representatives -- would make many of the decisions about reconstruction.

其后,他们成立了自己的建国联合委员会。该委员会既不包括参议院,也众议院参加,许多重建决议都自行决定。

Radical lawmakers took other steps to seize control of reconstruction efforts in the South.

激进派的立法者们紧锣密鼓,多方设计,力图掌控南方重建大局。

Congress had established a government agency to take care of black refugees in the South. The agency gave food and clothing to former slaves who had no food, money, or jobs. It began to teach them to read and write.

议会建立了一个政府机构,专门处理南方黑人难民问题。战时农奴钱粮匮乏,无业维持生计,该政府机构给他们配备了食物和衣物,(甚至)还教他们读书写字。

Republicans in Congress moved to extend the life of the agency and increase its powers. They passed a bill and sent it to the White House for the president's approval.

(激进派的)议会共和党人大张旗鼓,使该机构继续发生效力,并扩大了它的权力。他们还通过一项法案,提交白宫总统审核。

President Johnson vetoed the bill. He said it would create false hopes among former slaves. He also said it was unconstitutional. The radicals tried to overturn Johnson's veto. However, they failed to get the necessary votes.

约翰逊总统否决了这项议案。他说,这项议案将给以前的农奴造成错觉。他还说,这样做是违反宪法的。激进分子力图推翻约翰逊的否决。然而,他们选票不够,未能推翻。

Congress passed several other bills giving the federal government power to protect the rights of blacks in the southern states. President Johnson vetoed these bills, too. He said they interfered with the rights of the states.

政府议会又通过其它几项法案,赋予联邦政府保护南方各州黑奴的权利。约翰逊总统再次否决了这些法案,说它们干涉了南方各州的权利。

These defeats made the radicals even more angry. Their newspapers began a steady attack against the president and his policy toward the South. Some even accused him of treason.

屡屡败局使激进党派更为恼怒。激进报纸开始轮番攻击新总统及其对南方的政策,甚至有人辱骂总统叛国。

Many Americans agreed with this criticism of President Johnson. They gave the radicals a big victory in congressional elections of eighteen sixty-six.

许多美国人同意他们对约翰逊总统的这种攻击,这就给了激进党人一次契机,使其在 1866 年的议会选举中获胜。

Radical leaders gained the power to pass any bill they wished, even over the president's veto. And they wasted no time doing just that. Time after time, they voted to overturn Andrew Johnson's vetoes.

激进派领导者再次获得权利,随心所欲地通过任何法案,甚至对总统的否决也置之不理。他们不惜耗时费力,草立各种法案,从而推翻安德鲁·约翰逊的否决议案。

The atmosphere in Washington became very tense. Relations between Congress and the White House sank to their lowest level in history. The political skies darkened. Soon, the storm broke. The radicals tried something that had never been tried before. They tried to remove the president from office.

白宫气氛变得异常紧张。议会与白宫的关系陷入有史以来的最低靡时期。政治变得黑暗,风暴不久来临。激进党人欲行不轨,手段残忍,前所未闻。他们欲将总统逐出白宫。

The conflict between the radicals and Andrew Johnson would provide some of the most historic and intense moments in American history. That will be our story in the next program of THE MAKING OF A NATION.

激进分子与安德鲁·约翰逊之间冲突白热化,成为美国历史上最经典的紧张局面之一。这将是我们下周的《一个民族的形成》栏目中的故事。

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最佳回复 该帖于2010年1月22日被版主推荐为精华帖。

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