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2010年4月9日 经济报道-----网络中立和基因专利在美国面临法律障碍

楼主:sonny 日期: 回贴:1 浏览:

ECONOMICS REPORT - 'Net Neutrality,' Gene Patents Face Legal Setbacks in US

经济报道——网络中立和基因专利在美国面临法律障碍

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From: http://www.unsv.com/voanews/specialenglish/scripts/2010/04/09/0041/

This is the VOA Special English Economics Report.

Two rulings in the United States could change how information is controlled online and in our bodies.

美国的两项裁定会改变信息在网络上和在我们身上的控制程度。

On Tuesday, a federal appeals court in Washington ruled that current laws limit government power over Internet traffic.

周二,华盛顿一联邦上诉法院认定,现行法律限制了在互联网通讯方面的政府权力。

The court rejected an order against America's biggest cable company. In two thousand seven, officials ordered Comcast to stop interfering with file-sharing programs used by its Internet customers. Comcast said big files slowed its network.

法院驳回了对美国最大的有线电视公司的一项命令。在 2007 年,官方要求康卡斯特公司停止干涉其互联网用户使用文件共享项目。康卡斯特表示,大型文件降低了其网速。

All three judges agreed that the Federal Communications Commission had no legal basis to tell Comcast what to do. The F.C.C. supervises communications by radio, television, wire, satellite and cable. But its power over Internet and wireless communications has long been questioned.

全部的三位法官认定,联邦通讯委员会并无法律依据而要求康卡斯特如何行事。联邦通讯委员会通过无线电、电视、电线、卫星和电缆对通信进行监控。但其在互联网和无线通讯领域的权力已经长期受到质疑。

Now, unless Congress changes the law, network providers can slow or block services of competitors.

如今,除非国会修改法律,否则网络供应商能够减缓或者阻碍竞争者提供的服务。

The decision comes just weeks after the F.C.C. announced its National Broadband Plan. The aim is faster, lower-cost connections for almost all Americans.

该裁决的做出是在联邦通讯委员会发布国家管带计划后的几周。其目标是为几乎所有美国人提供更快、更低廉的网络连接。

The F.C.C. says the court "in no way disagreed with the importance of preserving a free and open Internet." The agency could seek new powers to regulate Internet service and enforce net neutrality. That is the idea that all content on the Web should be treated equally.

联邦通讯委员会表示,法院“无法否定拥有一个自由和开放的互联网的重要性”。联邦通讯委员会可以寻求新的权力来规范网络服务和施行网络中立主义。网络中立主义是指,互联网上的所有内容都应受到平等的对待。

In a different case, a ruling last week in New York has renewed debate about who can "own" genetic information.

另一案件中,上周在纽约的一项裁定重新阐释了谁能够拥有基因信息的讨论。

Myriad Genetics received patents for methods to identify women with genes that create a high risk of breast cancer. Patents involving the two genes made Myriad the only company able to offer the costly tests.

Myriad Genetics 公司获取了鉴别女性乳腺癌基因的专利。涉及两种基因的专利使得 Myriad 成为唯一一家提供昂贵检测的公司。

But federal Judge Robert Sweet cancelled seven of twenty-three patents related to the genes. He said they violate the law against patents for products of nature.

但联邦法官 Robert Sweet 取消了与基因有关的 23 项专利中的 7 项。他认为,他们违反了反对自然产品获得专利的法律规定。

Yet companies and universities often claim human genes as intellectual property. An estimated twenty percent of human genes have been patented in the United States.

然而,许多公司和大学一直主张人类基因是知识产权。预计在美国,有 20% 的人类基因获得了专利。

Judge Sweet said the patent office thinks DNA should be treated like any other chemical compound. The idea is that its removal from the body and purification makes it into something different that can be patented.

Sweet 法官表示,专利局考虑 DNA 应当与任何其他化合物同等对待。其主旨是,基因从体内的分离和提纯使得基因成为与众不同的产品,因此可以获得专利。

The judge said many consider this a "lawyer's trick" to avoid the ban on the direct patenting of DNA, but the result is the same.

这位法官表示,许多人认为这是 “ 律师的诡计 ” ,是为了避开对 DNA 直接申请专利的禁令。但结果是相同的。

Cancer activists and researchers fought the patents. Myriad is appealing the ruling.

癌症疾病方面的积极分子和研究人员都反对这些专利。 Myriad 公司正对这一裁定提出上诉。

And that's the VOA Special English Economics Report, written by Mario Ritter. I'm Steve Ember.

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最佳回复 该帖于2010年4月13日被版主推荐为精华帖。

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  第1楼 作者:Nancy Zhu 创建: <编辑>  <引用>

ECONOMICS REPORT - 'Net Neutrality,' Gene Patents Face Legal Setbacks in US

经济报导-在美国,网络中立性和基因专利面临法律驳回

Broadcast date: 4-9-2010 / Written by Mario Ritter

From http://www.unsv.com/voanews/specialenglish/

This is the VOA Special English Economics Report.

Two rulings in the United States could change how information is controlled online and in our bodies.

美国的两项裁决将影响网络信息及人体信息的控制方式。

On Tuesday, a federal appeals court in Washington ruled that current laws limit government power over Internet traffic.

周二,华盛顿的一个联邦上诉法院裁决:当前法律限制了政府对网络通讯的权力。

The court rejected an order against America's biggest cable company. In two

thousand seven, officials ordered Comcast to stop interfering with file -sharing programs used by its Internet customers. Comcast said big files slowed its network.

法庭驳回了对美国最大的电信公司的诉讼请求。 2007 年,官方命美国康卡斯特电信公司停止干扰其网络用户使用文件共享程序。康卡斯特公司则表示较大的文件会减慢其网速。

All three judges agreed that the Federal Communications Commission had no legal basis to tell Comcast what to do. The F.C.C. supervises communications by radio, television, wire, satellite and cable. But its power over Internet and wireless communications has long been questioned.

三名法官统一认为,美国联邦通信委员会没有法律依据来干涉康卡斯斯特的行为。美国联邦通信委员会监管各种通讯,包括无线电,电视,电缆,卫星及电报,但是他对网络和无线通信的权力长久以来遭受质疑。

Now, unless Congress changes the law, network providers can slow or block services of competitors.

如今,除非国会修改法律,否则网络供应商可以随意减慢或阻塞其竞争对手的服务。

The decision comes just weeks after the F.C.C. announced its National Broadband Plan. The aim is faster, lower-cost connections for almost all Americans.

这项决定产生于美国联邦通信委员会发布它的国家宽带计划的几周之后,其目标是实现全美更高速度,更低成本的网络通信。

The F.C.C. says the court "in no way disagreed with the importance of preserving a free and open Internet." The agency could seek new powers to regulate Internet service and enforce net neutrality. That is the idea that all content on the Web should be treated equally.

美国联邦通信委员会称法庭“没有任何理由反对保持开放网络的重要性。”代理商可以寻求新的权力部门来管理网络服务,强制实施网络的中立性。这是一种公平对待网络上所有内容的观点。

In a different case, a ruling last week in New York has renewed debate about who can "own" genetic information.

另外,纽约上周一个案件的裁决,重新燃起了谁“拥有”基因信息的争论。

Myriad Genetics received patents for methods to identify women with genes that create a high risk of breast cancer. Patents involving the two genes made Myriad the only company able to offer the costly tests.

Myriad 遗传学公司在女性基因乳腺癌患病机率判断方法方面得到了专利。专利中的两种基因,使 Myriad 成为唯一能提供此项昂贵测试的公司。

But federal Judge Robert Sweet cancelled seven of twenty-three patents related to the genes. He said they violate the law against patents for products of nature.

但是联邦法官罗伯特 . 斯威特取消了有关那两种基因的 23 项专利中的 7 项。 他说这些专利违背了反自然产品专利的法律( not certain )

Yet companies and universities often claim human genes as intellectual property. An estimated twenty percent of human genes have been patented in the United States.

现在还有众多的公司和大学一直主张人类基因属于知识产权。据估计在美国有 20 %的人类基因已列为专利。

Judge Sweet said the patent office thinks DNA should be treated like any other chemical compound. The idea is that its removal from the body and purification makes it into something different that can be patented.

斯威特法官称专利办公室认为 DNA 应该与其他化合物同等对待。这种观点表示,基因从人体移除并且提纯之后,就变成了另一种完全不同的东西,可以申请专利。

The judge said many consider this a "lawyer's trick" to avoid the ban on the direct patenting of DNA, but the result is the same.

法官说很多人认为这是“律师的惯用伎俩”,以阻止对 DNA 专利的立法,但是结果都是一样的。

Cancer activists and researchers fought the patents. Myriad is appealing the ruling.

癌症患者( help )和研究者均为专利而战。 Myriad 正在上诉当前裁决。

And that's the VOA Special English Economics Report, written by Mario Ritter. I'm Steve Ember.

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