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Everglades National Park - One of the World's Great Biological Wonders世界上最伟大的生物奇观之一,沼泽国家公园

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Everglades National Park - One of the World's Great Biological Wonders

世界上最伟大的生物奇观之一,沼泽国家公园

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From: http://www.unsv.com/voanews/specialenglish/scripts/2010/09/21/0045/

FAITH LAPIDUS: And I'm Faith Lapidus. This week, we tell about Everglades National Park in the American state of Florida.
本周,我们将谈论美国佛罗里达的湿地国家公园

STEVE EMBER: When many people think of Florida, images of sandy coastlines or fun theme park rides come to mind. Yet about an hour south of Miami lies a natural wilderness different from anywhere else in the United States.
当人们想起佛罗里达时,跃入脑海的是海滩和开心的主题公园的画面。然而大约一小时里程可来到一个天然野生园,它位于迈阿密南部,在美国也仅此一处。

Everglades National Park is the largest subtropical wilderness in the country. The park is home to several rare and endangered species. It is also the third largest national park in the lower forty-eight states, after Death Valley and Yellowstone. Each year, more than one million people visit the Everglades.
湿地国家公园是该国最大亚热带原始生态园,它是几个稀有和濒临灭绝物种的家园,它也是本土48个州之内继死亡谷、黄石后第三大国家公园,至此观光者年年愈百万。

FAITH LAPIDUS: In nineteen forty-seven, President Harry Truman spoke at the  official opening of Everglades National Park. He said the goal of creating the park was to protect forever a wild area that could never be replaced.
1947年杜鲁门总统在该园的首放典礼上发表讲话,他说,建设公园旨在永远保护一个永久的野生区,它将无可替代。

The Everglades is considered one of the great biological wonders of the world. The expansive wetlands stretch across more than six hundred thousand hectares. It is a place where plants and animals from the Caribbean Sea share an ecosystem with native North American species.
湿地被认为是世界上生物学最大的的奇观之一,的沼泽广布可达六十多万公顷,在此产生了一个来自加勒比海的动植物和北美本土物种共容的生态系统

Nine different environments exist within the Everglades. They include mangrove and cypress swamps, estuaries and coastal marshes.

在此包括红树群落、柏树沼泽区、江河湾和海滨沼泽在内的九种不同的生态系统并存。

STEVE EMBER: In the nineteen-forties, Marjory Stoneman Douglas wrote a book called, "The Everglades: River of Grass." She described the area as, "the liquid heart of Florida."
20世纪四十年代,道哥拉斯写了一本书叫“湿地,草原之河”,她称此地是“佛罗里达的流动心脏”。

Unlike most other national parks, Everglades National Park was created to protect an ecosystem from damage. The Everglades is home to about fifteen species that federal officials say are threatened and endangered. They include the Florida panther, the American crocodile and the West Indian manatee.
它与其它国家公园不同的是它旨在保护被破坏的生态系统,湿地成了联邦政要声称的正在灭绝或将要灭绝的十四类物种的栖息地,其中有佛罗里达黑豹,美洲鳄鱼和西印度群岛的海牛。

In addition, more than three hundred fifty bird species and three hundred species of fresh and saltwater fish live within the park. The Everglades is also home to forty species of mammals and fifty reptile species.
除此之外还有鸟类三百五十多种和淡水和咸水鱼类三百多种 。湿地也是四十种哺乳动物和五十种爬行动物的家园。

FAITH LAPIDUS: Visitors to the Everglades will see many exotic plants. They include what is said to be the largest growth of mangrove trees in the western world. Gumbo-limbo trees, known for their peeling red skin, strangler figs and royal palms are also among the area's plant life. The country's largest living mahogany tree also lives in the Everglades.
游客会看到许多奇异的植物,有据说是西半球长得最大的红树,以剥落红色著称的摇摆不定的秋葵树,以及相互缠绕的无花果树和王棕,还有目前存活面积最大的红木树。

Sawgrass grows in some areas of the park. Be careful - sawgrass is very sharp, with teeth just like a saw. It can grow up to four meters tall.
公园里的锯草也随处可见,要当心啊,锯草锋利无比,名如其形,真象一把带齿的锯,它能窜到四火米高。

With about one and one-half meters of rainfall each year, plants and trees never stop growing in the Everglades. That is why it is hard to tell that a storm, Hurricane Andrew, caused severe damage to the area in nineteen ninety-two.湿地年降水量大约100厘米,树林植被四季长个不停,因此1992年安得鲁飓风造成严重损失的程度难以说清楚了。

STEVE EMBER: The dry, winter season is the favorite of most visitors, when insects like mosquitoes are less of a problem. The rainy season lasts from June to November. There are many ways to explore the Everglades. Visitors can see alligators while hiking the Anhinga Trail.
干燥的冬季是大多数游客的所爱,少了些蚊虫的烦恼,雨季集中在6月到11月, 探索沼泽公园途径众多,当你健行在俺很看他这儿时,你可能有幸一睹短吻鳄。

The Everglades is one of the only places on Earth where freshwater alligators and saltwater crocodiles live in the same area. Visitors using canoes or airboats are likely to see large groups of wading birds like the wood stork or the great blue heron. It is even possible to see flamingos in the Everglades.
沼泽公园也是地球上仅有的淡水和咸水鳄共处的地区之一,划独木船和坐喷气船的游客可能会看到成群的木鹳或大蓝鹭等水禽,甚至难睹芳容的红鹳。

Some visitors might enjoy riding bicycles through Shark Valley. Others may want to move slowly through shallow waters where they can see insects and wildlife up-close. Park guides also lead visitors on tram rides.
一些游客可能喜欢乘自行车穿过鲨鱼公园,一些或许想缓缓地涉水而过,会更近距离地看到昆虫和野生的鸟禽,公园导游也游客推荐游园台车。

FAITH LAPIDUS: Experts say changes to the Everglades are threatening several different kinds of wildlife. They say the threats are a result of actions the United States government began more than fifty years ago, and settlers began even earlier.
专家说沼泽的改造已经威胁到很多类不同鸟禽的生存,这些影响始于五十年前的美国政府甚至更早的殖民者。

The National Park Service says that early colonial settlers and land developers believed the Everglades had little value. The settlers had plans to remove water from the area. In the eighteen eighties, developers began digging canals to reduce water levels.
国家公园服务中心说早期的殖民扩张者和拓荒者深信沼泽毫无价值,他们计划把水抽掉,在19世纪80年代开始挖运河来降低水位。

At the time, they did not understand the complexity of the Everglades' ecosystem. As a result, they were not prepared for all the work and caused environmental problems. The ecosystem, however, was able to survive.
当时,他们理解不到湿地生态系统的整体性,,他们的努力没有全面长远的规划,结果造成了环境问题,然而,生态系统是能够改造恢复的。

STEVE EMBER: Even larger efforts to drain the wetlands continued between nineteen oh five and nineteen ten. Farms were built on large pieces of land. This led to increased development, with more people moving to the Everglades and also more visitors.
大规模的沼泽抽水直到1905至1910年之间,开垦出大片农田,外来迁民游客的增大了这里的开发力度。

More changes came in nineteen forty-eight. At that time, Congress approved the Central and South Florida Project. As part of the plan, the Army Corps of Engineers built roads, canals and water-control systems throughout South Florida.
1948年变化更显著了,那时,国会通过了佛罗里达中南部的开发项目,作为该项目的一部分,工程军队在南加州修建道路,河道和水利调控系统。

The aim of the project was to provide water and flood protection for developed areas and agriculture. Workers built a huge system of waterways and pumping stations to control the overflow of Lake Okeechobee, north of the Everglades.项目旨在为地区及其农业防洪和灌溉服务,为控制湿地公园北部 Okeechobee湖水外溢工人修建了大型水渠和排水站。

FAITH LAPIDUS: Today, fifty percent of South Florida's early wetland areas no longer exist. Populations of wading birds have been reduced by ninety percent. Whole populations of animals are in danger of disappearing. The endangered creatures include the manatee, the Miami blackhead snake, the wood stork and the Florida panther.
目前,南加州的50%早期沼泽地已有水鸟的数目已经低于90%的递减率,所有的动物数处于下降的危险之中,濒危动物包括海牛、迈阿密黑首蛇、木鹳和佛罗里达黑豹。

In recent years, environmental experts have learned about the damage to the Everglades. They say the balance of nature there has been destroyed.
近年来,环保专家已认识到了对湿地公园的破坏,他们说,自然界的平衡已遭到了破坏。

STEVE EMBER: About ten years ago, Congress approved a plan to restore and improve the Everglades. Federal, state and other organizations are partners in the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan. The project is expected to cost about twelve billion five hundred million dollars.
十年前国会通过了旨在恢复和提高湿地的计划,联邦政府,各州及自发组织者在综合湿地恢复计划中共同携手,该项目预计投入12 .5亿美元。

Early in two thousand ten,work began on the Picayune Strand Restoration Project. A goal of the project is to re-establish natural water flow across more than twenty-two thousand hectares of land. Workers removed water from that area in the early nineteen sixties. At the time, the goal was to develop the land of Picayune Strand for homes. However, the development harmed healthy wetlands.
2010年初, Picayune Strand 恢复计划已实施,目标之一是重建2万2千公顷的天然覆盖水域,工人们重新抽回20世纪60年代初抽出的水,另一目标是开发Picayune Strand 陆地的别墅,然而这一开发有损于原本健康的沼泽环境。

FAITH LAPIDUS: Project organizers hope to re-create wetlands in Picayune Strand and nearby lands by redirecting the flow of water in that area. At the same time, they are seeking to re-establish natural water flow to the Ten Thousand Islands National Wildlife refuge.
项目比组织者希望在Picayune Strand和再次改变流水的陆地附近重建沼泽,同时,他们正谋求重建一个通向万岛群岛的天然水域。

Goals of the project are to make major additions to the size and improve wetland ecosystems in nearby lands. The area includes the Collier Seminole State Park and the Florida Panther National Wildlife Refuge. If the goals are met, the project should help threatened and endangered animals.
项目的宗旨是在田地附近扩大规模和提高沼泽的生态体系,包括Collier Seminole State Park 和佛罗里达黑豹国家野生公园庇护中心,如果这些目标实现,该项目对动物的威胁和伤害会更加严重。 

STEVE EMBER: For example, the population of one big cat has been falling in recent years. Panthers once existed in much greater numbers. But too much hunting, loss of panther homelands and vehicle strikes have reduced their population. Fewer than one hundred of the animals now live in Florida. Earlier this year, however, a mother panther and her two kittens were seen as they walked along a road.
例如,有一种大猫的数目已经下降,美洲黑豹一度数量众多,但过度捕猎,居住地的破坏,运输的干扰使它们数目大減,目前的该地不足100只,今年初,有人目睹了一只母豹带两个孩子在路边散步。

FAITH LAPIDUS: Wildlife experts are working to increase the number of panthers and other animals at risk. At the same time, biologists are attempting to remove Burmese pythons. Officials believe there are as many as one hundred fifty thousand ofthese large snakes in the Everglades.
野生生物专家政致力增加濒临灭绝的美洲黑豹及其它动物的数目,同时,生物专家也正试图清除缅甸大 蟒蛇,管理人员该公园还有多达15万条这样的大蛇,

However, the snakes are a foreign species, native to Southeast Asia. Owners of pythons left their unwanted snakes in the Everglades years ago. Biologists say adult pythons are able to eat small deer and bobcats. When pythons are found in the Everglades, they are often killed. In two thousand eight, the National Park Service removed and destroyed three hundred eleven of the snakes.
然而大蛇是外来物种,其老家是东南亚,一些年前蛇的引进者已经知此危害了,生物学家说成年蛇已对小鹿和山猫构成危害,在湿地公园一经发现,通常除掉,2008年国家公园管理中心已经处理了311条大蛇。

Scientists are now experimenting with other ways to remove the snakes, including use of traps and offering payments to hunters.
科学家也在想办法例如,使用夹子与给捕捉者多发工资的办法,

STEVE EMBER: The future of the Everglades is not clear. However, efforts to protect the area are continuing so people from all over the world may continue visiting this biological treasure.
湿地公园的前景还是个未知数,但只要保护的努力依旧,全世界的观光者就有机会看到这个生物学的宝库。

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最佳回复 该帖于2010年9月29日被版主推荐为精华帖。

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