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浅谈英语委婉语

楼主:红枫呓语 日期: 回贴:1 浏览:

摘自英语沙龙
英语Euphemism(委婉)源于语言禁忌.人们由于种种原因常常用到委婉语来表达某些特定的语言禁忌.委婉语不仅是一种修辞方式,更是一种语义手段,是人们用来表达思想的一种普遍方式.   英语委婉语经常运用各种表现手法以达到"委婉"这一目的.   借用各种修辞格表达委婉 1.运用“换喻”(Metonymy)手法可将不便直接说明的词汇隐去,以达到避讳。如: A.借原材料代替成品 英语中poppy原指提制鸦片的"罂粟",用来代指"鸦片",bamboo(竹)则指竹制的"鸦片烟杆".汉语"居丧"为"披麻戴孝",其中"麻"也代指"服丧". B.借专有名词代事物 napoleon(拿破仑)是一种印有拿破仑头像的法国金币,"袁大头"则是指印有袁世凯头像的银元. C.借容器代指所容之物 英语说to be fond of the bottle(贪瓶),汉语说"贪杯",都婉指"爱喝酒";但都是避开了"酒",而分别代之以盛酒的容器the bottle和"杯". 2.委婉语也经常潜伏在"隐喻"(Metaphor)中. 用"火"比喻"愤怒": What he said really made her burn. 他的话确实让她冒火. Her anger suddenly flamed. 她突然间发火了. He was born with a hot temper. 他生来脾气火暴. 又如:用副词来描述心理状态: A."快乐"为"上/高";"悲伤"为"下/低" His spirits went up. 他的情绪提起来了. He seems in high/low spirits. 他似乎情绪很高/很低. B."多"为"深";"少"为"浅": This is a deep maths problem. 这是一道深奥的数学题. His arguments seemed shallow and tedious. 他的论点显得浅薄而令人生厌. 例1.用动物名词来比喻人的行为: fox(狐狸)——用诡计欺骗 monkey(猴子)——胡闹,捣乱 dog(狗)——尾随,追踪 snail(蜗牛)——缓慢的爬行 例2.用水果、植物名词来表现人的特征: peach——“桃子”,后来指“特别讨人喜欢的面容姣好的女子”; small potato——“小土豆”,婉指“无足轻重的小人物”; lemon——“柠檬”,指“讨厌的家伙”、“无聊的人”、“次品”等; daisy——“雏菊”,指“山村中的淳朴女孩”。 3.还可以运用迂回陈述(Perphrasis)来表达委婉.所谓"迂回陈述",即拐弯抹角地说话,也就是不直说其事,而只道出其相关行为. 汉语中"孩子他爹"是中国妇女对丈夫的婉称.英语中也有很多类似说法. 例如:英语中常用unwaged,between jobs等来表达"失业";而defensive measures为"轰炸"(bombraids)的婉称,"误伤"转说成friendly fires;to eat for tow(吃双份饭)指"怀孕";"妓院"婉称为licensed house(持有执照的房子)或red light house(红灯房子);'妓女"为trading girl(贸易女孩)或business girl(商业女孩)等等. 有时也借助俚语来迂回陈述以达到委婉,如:Tom girl(汤姆女孩}指"有男性化性格或行为的女人;女同性恋者";Angelia(天使)指具有甜美温柔或活泼莽撞性格的、美丽娇小的女孩. 4.用抽象起首的大写字母来表示实在的含义. Big C 或 C 或 Ca用来指癌症cancer; TB(tuberculosis)用来指"肺结核"; WC(Water Closet)用来指"厕所"; JC(Jesus Christ)用来指"耶酥基督" G-d(god)用来指"上帝"; d-(damn该死的) son of a-(son of a bitch,狗娘养的) 利用词汇转化来表达委婉 可用其他词来代替原来刺耳的词语以表达委婉,如:mentally challenged代替retarded指弱智者;disabled代替crippled指残疾;sightless代替blind指失明;the disadvantaged代指因贫困上不起学的孩子;用"story"来代替"谎言",如: Don't tell stories. 别撒谎. She storied her age. 她虚报了自己的年龄. She has a story. 她隐瞒了自己的身世. 用一些含蓄、礼貌的句型来表达委婉 She might have missed the train.(既是虚拟语气,也表委婉) Why not call me next weekend?(有礼貌的建议) Can/May/Could/Might I suggest that...?(使受话人容易接受) It would be better if you copy that again.(假设条件句,容易使人接受) I wonder if Imight make the suggestion that... If I were you, I'd buy another car without hesitation.(含蓄的表达劝告目的) 利用词义引申来表达委婉 例1.choice The famous school was intended for the fit and designed to produce a choice type. 这所大学是为了培养出优秀的合格的人才而开办的. 例2.boss Charles was told by his train conductor,when he frist went to Chicago,that he was entering "the boss city of the universe". 查尔斯初次去芝加哥时,列车员告诉他说他要去的城市被誉为"世界第一城". 例3.consume Tears welled up uncontrollable in his eyes, and he was consumed by a rush of sadness. 他泪水止不住涌上双眼,心中充满了一阵突如其来的悲伤. They are consumed with curiosity. 他们充满了好奇心. 例4.at odds Overnight her anger evaporated.How could she remain at odds with her husband? 过了一夜她的怒气消了.她怎么能长久和她丈夫不和睦呢? 例5.row The children had a row over the bicycle. 孩子们为自行车发生了争吵. 例6.get to (reach) first base (在棒球比赛中)棒球击球手跑到第一垒;(喻)获得初步成功;真正的开始;达到第一阶段. Someone who has plans that never seem to get startednever to first base. 有计划而不实施者永远不能取得成功. You're not going to get to first base if you do it that way. 你那样做会连起码的成绩都得不到. 例7.be home free 稳操胜券,遥遥领先,(在经过相当努力后)已达到相当不错的地位的 He was home free in a national election. 在全国性的选举中,他遥遥领先. 例8.out in left field(俚)完全错误;发疯;不适宜;不可能 She was really out in left field and to go to a hospital. 她 真的疯了,必须上医院. 例9.change one's base He changed his base from teaching to writing. 他放弃教学而从事写作. 例10.on the ball 提高警觉;机灵;干练;效率高;活跃 Her typing is on the ball. 她打字很熟练. 例11.go to bat for 代为求情,支持帮助 You need a really important figure to go to bat for you. 你需要一个真正重要的人物为你求情. 例12.in the / a family way 不拘礼节
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I think your English grammer is vrey good,do you ?
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