官方APP下载:iOS版(支持iPhone/iPad/iTouch)安卓版(要求Anroid 4.0以上系统)Windows Phone版(要求8.0以上系统)
创办于2003年
UNSV记不住?那就记中文谐音“忧安思危”吧!
UNSV英语学习频道 - Slow and steady wins the race!
报名“英语口语慢成班”,现在行动起来,三年拿下口语!
手机微信学英语
打开手机微信,扫描以下二维码,即可通过我们的公众微信平台学英语。
UNSV英语学习频道公众微信服务号
UNSV英语学习频道淘宝网店
淘宝网店购买咨询
客服短信:18913948480
客服邮箱:web@unsv.com
标准VIP会员
全站资料无限下载、手机APP免费使用。
¥598元/12个月
英语口语慢成班
承诺三年拿下口语!
¥4990元/终身
分享到:

#12: A Declaration for Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness 第12集 - 北美殖民地发表《独立宣言》,争取自由、平等和幸福的权利

阅读次数:

VIP会员专享下载:(非VIP会员无权下载!如果想下载,但还不是VIP会员,请点此订购
* 2015年10月1日起,网站不再提供免费下载服务,详情请看站长公开信:坚持12年之后的一个艰难决定
下载方式:使用鼠标右键(注意是鼠标右键!)点击下面的MP3音频/MP4视频链接,然后选择“另存为…”。
MP3节目录音(英文版) MP3节目录音(英文版)  MP3节目录音(中文版) MP3节目录音(中文版)  PDF节目文稿 PDF节目文稿 
文章正文
同步字幕

VOICE ONE:

This is Rich Kleinfeldt.

VOICE TWO:

And this is Sarah Long with THE MAKING OF A NATION, a VOA Special English program about the history of the United States. Today, we continue the story of the American Revolution against Britain in the late seventeen hundreds.

(SOUND)

VOICE ONE:

Battles had been fought between Massachusetts soldiers and British military forces in the towns of Lexington and Concord. Yet, war had not been declared. Even so, citizen soldiers in each of the thirteen American colonies were ready to fight.

上次我们讲到麻萨诸塞殖民地的民兵和英国部队在列克星敦和康科德交战。那时候,双方还没有正式宣战,但是十三个殖民地的民兵们都已经做好了征战的准备。

George Washington's commission as commander-in-chief, signed by John Hancock and Charles Thompson
George Washington's commission as commander-in-chief, signed by John Hancock and Charles Thompson

This was the first question faced by the Second Continental Congress meeting in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Who was going to organize these men into an army? Delegates to the Congress decided that the man for the job was George Washington. He had experience fighting in the French and Indian War. He was thought to know more than any other colonist about being a military commander. Washington accepted the position. But he said he would not take any money for leading the new Continental Army. Washington left Philadelphia for Boston to take command of the soldiers there.

在宾夕法尼亚殖民地的费城召开的第二届大陆会议面临的第一个问题就是,应该由谁出面把这些民兵组织成一支部队。最后,会议代表一直推选参加过法印战争的乔治.华盛顿。大家觉得,他是殖民地里最适合担任军事统帅的人。华盛顿欣然接过了这一重担,但坚持要求无偿服务,并立即动身赶赴波士顿。

VOICE TWO:

Delegates to the Second Continental Congress made one more attempt to prevent war with Britain. They sent another message to King George. They asked him to consider their problems and try to find a solution. The king would not even read the message.

参加第二届大陆会议的代表们为防止跟英国交战而做出最后的努力。他们致信乔治国王,向他陈情,要求寻找解决的办法,但是乔治国王连信都不肯看。

You may wonder: Why would the delegates try to prevent war if the people were ready to fight? The answer is that most members of the Congress -- and most of the colonists -- were not yet ready to break away from Britain. They continued to believe they could have greater self-government and still be part of the British Empire. But that was not to be.

大家也许觉得奇怪,既然殖民地的民兵都已经摩拳擦掌,大陆会议的代表为什么还要尽量避免跟英国交战呢?答案很简单,当时大陆会议的成员,乃至大多数殖民者,并不想彻底脱离英国。他们仍然相信,不用宣布独立,也可以享受更多的自治。事实证明,情况并非如此。

VOICE ONE:

Detail from a drawing made shortly after the Battle of Bunker Hill by British Lieutenant Thomas Page
Detail from a drawing made shortly after the Battle of Bunker Hill by British Lieutenant Thomas Page

Two days after the Congress appointed George Washington as army commander, colonists and British troops fought the first major battle of the American Revolution. It was called the Battle of Bunker Hill, although it really involved two hills: Bunker and Breed's. Both are just across the Charles River from the city of Boston.

大陆会议任命乔治.华盛顿担任大陆军统帅的两天后,殖民者和英国部队打响了美国独立战争第一场重大战役--邦克山战役。邦克山战役其实包括两座山,一个是邦克山,另一个是布里德山,两座山都座落在波士顿对面,中间隔着查尔斯河。

Massachusetts soldiers dug positions on Breed's Hill one night in June, seventeen seventy-five. By morning, the hill was filled with troops. The British started to attack from across the river. The Americans had very little gunpowder. They were forced to wait until the British had crossed the river and were almost on top of them before they fired their guns. Their commander reportedly told them: Do not fire until you see the whites of the British soldiers' eyes.

1775年6月的一个晚上,麻萨诸塞殖民地的士兵在布里德山连夜挖战壕,修工事,到凌晨的时候,山上已经布满了士兵。英国人从河对岸发起进攻。殖民地的士兵因为缺少弹药,所以不得不等英国人跨过查尔斯河,快攻到跟前的时候再开火。据说,当时指挥官的命令是,一直要等看见英军士兵的眼白,才能开枪。

VOICE TWO:

The British climbed the hill. The Americans fired. A second group climbed the hill. The Americans fired again. The third time, the British reached the top, but the Americans were gone. They had left because they had no more gunpowder. The British captured Breed's Hill. More than one thousand had been killed or wounded in the attempt. The Americans lost about four hundred.

英军第一次进攻,被殖民地的民兵击退,第二次进攻,又被击退,第三次她们顺利攻上了山头,但是殖民地的民兵已经杳无踪影,因为他们没有弹药了。英军部队因此占领了布里德山。在邦克山战役中,英军被打死一千多人,殖民地的民兵损失了大约四百人。

That battle greatly reduced whatever hope was left for a negotiated settlement. King George declared the colonies to be in open rebellion. And the Continental Congress approved a declaration condemning everything the British had done since seventeen sixty-three.

这场战役打消了和解的任何希望。英国国王乔治宣布殖民地反叛,北美殖民地则发表宣言,谴责英国1763年以来的所作所为。

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

General George Washington in 'The Prayer at Valley Forge,' painted by H. Brueckner
General George Washington in 'The Prayer at Valley Forge,' painted by H. Brueckner

The American colonists fought several battles against British troops during seventeen seventy-five. Yet the colonies were still not ready to declare war. Then, the following year, the British decided to use Hessian soldiers to fight against the colonists. Hessians were mostly German mercenaries who fought for anyone who paid them. The colonists feared these soldiers and hated Britain for using them.

1775年,北美殖民地跟英国军队打了好几场战役,但是殖民地依旧没有正式宣战。次年,英国决定花钱招募德国的黑森雇佣兵来对付北美殖民地。北美殖民地很害怕黑森雇佣兵,对英国人的这种做法深恶痛绝。

At about the same time, Thomas Paine published a little document that had a great effect on the citizens of America. He named it, "Common Sense." It attacked King George, as well as the idea of government by kings. It called for independence.

大约同一时间,托马斯.潘恩发表了一份对北美殖民地人民产生了巨大影响的文件,叫《常识》(Common Sense)。 这份文件抨击乔治国王和王权统治,号召人们争取独立。

About one hundred fifty thousand copies of "Common Sense" were sold in America. Everyone talked about it. As a result, the Continental Congress began to act. It opened American ports to foreign shipping. It urged colonists to establish state governments and to write constitutions. On June seventh, delegate Richard Henry Lee of Virginia proposed a resolution for independence.

Common Sense 在美洲热销十五万份,成了街头巷尾议论的话题。大陆会议因此开始行动,向外国航运开放美洲港口,并敦促殖民地建立州政府,拟订宪法。参加大陆会议的维吉尼亚代表理查德.亨利.李提出了独立的议案。

VOICE TWO:

The resolution was not approved immediately. Declaring independence was an extremely serious step. Signing such a document would make delegates to the Continental Congress traitors to Britain. They would be killed if captured by the British.

这项议案没有立即得到通过。宣布独立是极其重大的决定,在这种文件上签字的大陆会议代表都将被英国视为叛徒,如果被俘,就是死罪。

The delegates wanted the world to understand what they were doing, and why. So they appointed a committee to write a document giving the reasons for their actions.

大陆会议的代表们希望让全世界都知道,他们为什么要宣布独立,因此专门指定了一个委员会去撰写一份文件,说明他们选择独立的原因。

One member of the committee was the Virginian, Thomas Jefferson. He had already written a report criticizing the British form of government. So the other committee members asked him to prepare the new document. They said he was the best writer in the group. They were right. It took him seventeen days to complete the document that the delegates approved on July fourth, seventeen seventy-six. It was America's Declaration of Independence.

这个委员会的成员之一就是维吉尼亚州的托马斯.杰斐逊,他曾经发表过一篇批判英国统治制度的报告,所以委员会的其他成员要求他来准备这份新文件,说他是委员会里文笔最好的作家。杰斐逊不负众望,仅仅用了17天的时间就完成了任务。这份文件1776年7月4号得到大陆委员会代表的批准,这就是美国的《独立宣言》。

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

From Thomas Jefferson's first attempt at writing the Declaration of Independence
From Thomas Jefferson's first attempt at writing the Declaration of Independence

Jefferson's document was divided into two parts. The first part explained the right of any people to revolt. It also described the ideas the Americans used to create a new, republican form of government. The Declaration of Independence begins this way:

杰斐逊撰写的独立宣言分为两部分,第一部分解释说,人人都有反叛的权利,并描述了北美殖民地创建一个新的、共和体制的理念。独立宣言一上来说:

ANNOUNCER:

When in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them to another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the laws of nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.

"在人类事务的发展过程中,当一个民族必须解除同另一个民族的关系,并按照自然法则和上帝的旨意,以独立平等的身份立于世界列国之林时,出于对人类舆论的尊重,必须把驱使他们独立的原因予以宣布。"

VOICE ONE:

Jefferson continued by saying that all people are equal in the eyes of God. Therefore, governments can exist only by permission of the people they govern. He wrote:

ANNOUNCER:

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal and that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed.

"我们认为下述真理是不言而喻的:人人生而平等,造物主赋予他们若干不可让与的权利,其中包括生存权、自由权和追求幸福的权利。为了保障这些权利,人类才在他们中间建立政府,而政府的正当权力,则是经被统治者同意所授予的。"

VOICE ONE:

The next part states why the American colonies decided to separate from Britain:

独立宣言接下来阐述了北美殖民地决定独立的原因。

ANNOUNCER:

That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or abolish it.

那就是,任何形式的政府一旦对这些目标的实现起破坏作用时,人民便有权予以更换或废除。

VOICE ONE:

This is why the Americans were rebelling against England. The British believed the Americans were violating their law. Jefferson rejected this idea. He claimed that the British treatment of the American colonies violated the natural laws of God. He and others believed a natural law exists that is more powerful than a king.

这就是美洲殖民地反叛的原因。英国认为殖民地违反了英国的法律。杰斐逊驳回了这种指控。他宣称,英国对待美洲殖民地的做法违背了自然规则。杰斐逊等人相信,自然法规高于王权。

The idea of a natural law had been developed by British and French philosophers more than one hundred years earlier. Jefferson had studied these philosophers in school. In later years, however, he said he did not re-read these ideas while he was writing the Declaration. He said the words came straight from his heart.

英国和法国哲学家一百年前提出了自然法的概念,杰斐逊上学时就曾研习过。但是他后来表示,他撰写独立宣言时并没有回去温习这些概念,独立宣言里的话都是他的肺腑之言。

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

The second part of the Declaration lists twenty-seven complaints by the American colonies against the British government. The major ones concerned British taxes on Americans and the presence of British troops in the colonies. After the list of complaints, Jefferson wrote this strong statement of independence:

独立宣言的第二部分列举了美洲殖民地对英国政府的27条控诉,重要内容涉及英国对美洲征税和英国军队在殖民地的驻扎。杰斐逊在宣言最后写道:

ANNOUNCER:

That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States; that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States they have the full Power to levy War, conduct Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and do all other Acts and Things which Independent States may of right do.

"我们这些联合起来的殖民地现在是,而且按公理也应该是,独立自由的国家。我们取消对英国王室效忠的一切义务,我们与大不列颠王国之间的一切政治联系从此全部断绝,而且必须断绝;作为一个独立自由的国家,我们完全有权宣战、缔和、结盟、通商和采取独立国家有权采取的一切行动。

VOICE TWO:

The last statement of the Declaration of Independence was meant to influence the delegates into giving strong support for that most serious step -- revolution:

ANNOUNCER:

And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of divine Providence we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our sacred Honor.

我们坚定地信赖神明上帝的保佑,同时以我们的生命、财产和神圣的名誉彼此宣誓来支援这一宣言。"

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

Today's MAKING OF A NATION program was written by Nancy Steinbach. Shep O'Neal read the Declaration of Independence. This is Rich Kleinfeldt.

VOICE TWO:

And this is Sarah Long. Join us again next week for another VOA Special English program about the history of the United States.

网友的学习评论(2条):
作者:华晨
The Declaration of Independence : we hold these truths to be self-evident , that all men are created equal and they are endowed by the Creator with certain Rights , that among these are Life ,Liberty and the Pursuit of happiness. These ideas and issues have shpaed the United States .
作者:Melody
We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal and that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed.
作者:朱宏文
留i 哦 v 饿this
版权所有©2003-2015 南京通享科技有限公司,保留所有权利。未经书面许可,严禁转载本站内容,违者追究法律责任。 中国互联网经营ICP证:苏B2-20120186
广播台