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#13: America's Revolution With Britain Divided Families and Friends

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VOICE ONE:

This is Rich Kleinfeldt.

VOICE TWO:

And this is Ray Freeman with THE MAKING OF A NATION, a VOA Special English program about the history of the United States. Today, we continue the story of the American Revolution against Britain in the late seventeen hundreds.

(SOUND)

VOICE ONE:

George Washington and the colonists fight the British in ''Washington Midway Between the Two Armies at Princeton'' by H. van Ingen
George Washington and the colonists fight the British in ''Washington Midway Between the Two Armies at Princeton'' by H. van Ingen

Delegates to the American Continental Congress approved and signed a Declaration of Independence on July Fourth, seventeen seventy-six. The new country called the United States of America was at war with Britain. Yet, not everyone in the former colonies agreed on the decision.

大陆会议代表1776年7月4号正式批准并签署了独立宣言。独立宣言创立的新国家--美利坚合众国--跟英国开战,但是并非所有的人都赞成这样做。

No one knows for sure how many Americans remained loyal to Great Britain. The Massachusetts political leader, John Adams, thought about thirty-three percent of the colonists supported independence, thirty-three percent supported Britain, and thirty-three percent supported neither side. Most history experts today think that about twenty percent of the colonists supported Britain. They say the others were neutral or supported whichever side seemed to be winning.

直到今天,也没有人确定当时到底有多少人继续效忠英国。麻萨诸塞的政治领袖约翰·亚当斯认为,北美殖民地支持独立、效忠英国、和保持中立的人各占大约三分之一。如今,大多数历史学家都相信,当时有大约百分之二十的人支持英国,其余的人要么中立、要么站在胜利者一边。

VOICE TWO:

As many as thirty thousand Americans fought for the British during the war. Others helped Britain by reporting the movements of American rebel troops.

在独立战争中,北美殖民地有多达三万人加入了英军的阵营,还有一些人向英军泄漏大陆军的动向。

Who supported Britain? They included people appointed to their jobs by the king, religious leaders of the Anglican Church, and people with close business connections in Britain.

支持英国的都是些什么人呢?他们包括英国国王任命的人、圣公会的宗教领袖,以及跟英国有密切往来的商人。

Many members of minority groups remained loyal to the king because they needed his protection against local majority groups. Other people were loyal because they did not want change or because they believed that independence would not improve their lives. Some thought the actions of the British government were not bad enough to make a rebellion necessary. Others did not believe that the rebels could win a war against such a powerful nation as Britain.

一些少数群体继续效忠英国国王,因为他们希望得到保护,不受当地多数族群的欺压;另外一些人保持效忠是因为他们不希望看到变革,或是不相信独立会让自己的生活有所改善;还有一些人觉得英国政府的所作所为还没有恶劣到需要奋起反抗的地步,当然了,也有一些人不相信殖民地能打败强大的英国。

VOICE ONE:

Native American Indians did not agree among themselves about the revolution. Congress knew it had to make peace with the Indians as soon as the war started, or American troops might have to fight them and the British at the same time. To prevent trouble, American officials tried to stop settlers from moving onto Indian lands.

美洲印第安人对北美独立战争的态度也存在分歧。大陆会议的代表们知道,在战争期间,他们必须跟印第安人和睦相处,否则就会腹背受敌。为了防止麻烦,美国官员设法制止定居者侵占印第安人的领地。

In some places, the Indians joined the Americans, but generally they supported the British. They expected the British to win. They saw the war as a chance to force the Americans to leave their lands. At times, the Indians fought on the side of the British, but left when the British seemed to be losing the battle. Choosing to fight for the British proved to be a mistake. When the war was over, the Americans felt they owed the Indians nothing.

有些地方的印第安人跟美国人同仇敌忾,但更多的印第安人还是站在英国一边,因为他们觉得最终的胜利将属于英国。在他们看来,这场战争可以迫使北美殖民者离开他们的土地。印第安人有时跟英军并肩战斗,但是英国人打败仗的时候,又会抛弃他们。事实证明,印第安人选择站在英国一边是错误的,因为独立战争结束后,美国人觉得,自己不欠印第安人的情。

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

Black slaves in the colonies also were divided about what side to join during the American Revolution.

在北美独立战争期间,殖民地里的黑奴在立场上也出现了分歧。

Thousands fought for the British, because that side offered them freedom if they served in the army or navy. Some American states also offered to free slaves who served, and hundreds of free blacks fought on the American side. Many slaves, however, felt their chances for freedom were better with the British. Details are not exact, but history experts say more blacks probably joined the British in the North than in the South.

数以千计的黑奴替英军效力,因为如果他们加入英国陆军或海军,就能获得自由。美国的一些州也同意给参军的黑奴自由,因此不少黑奴加入了大陆军的队伍。不过,更多的奴隶觉得站在英国一边获得自由的可能性更大。历史学家说,北方加入英军的黑人要比南方多。

VOICE ONE:

At least five thousand African-Americans served with the colonial American forces. Most had no choice. They were slaves, and their owners took them to war or sent them to replace their sons. Others felt that a nation built on freedom might share some of that freedom with them.

独立战争期间,至少有五千名非洲裔美国人加入了大陆军,大多数人是因为没办法,他们毕竟是奴隶,奴隶主让他们去打仗,他们身不由己。也有一些人觉得,一个建立在自由基础上的国家可能也会让他们享受自由。

In the South, many slave owners kept their slaves at home. Later in the war, every man was needed, although most slaves did not fight. Instead, they drove wagons and carried supplies. Many African-Americans also served in the American navy. Blacks who served in the colonial army and navy were not separated from whites. Black and white men fought side by side during the American Revolution.

在南方,很多奴隶主把奴隶留在农场上。独立战争后期,大陆军急需兵源,即使是在这种情况下,大多数奴隶也没有真正参战,而是负责赶车或是运送供给物资。不少非洲裔美国人还加入了美国海军。在陆军和海军里,黑人和白人并没有分开,他们在独立战争中并肩作战。

History experts say, however, that most black slaves spent the war as they had always lived: working on their owners' farms.

不过,历史学家说,大多数黑奴始终没有离开农场。

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

The American rebels called themselves patriots. They called British supporters Tories. Patriots often seized Tories' property to help pay for the war. They also kidnapped Tories' slaves to be used as laborers for the army. Many Tories were forced from towns in which they had lived all their lives. Some were tortured or hanged. In New Jersey, Tories and patriots fought one another with guns, and sometimes burned each other's houses and farms.

这些人自称爱国者,把支持英国人叫做 Tories, 效忠派。爱国者经常会夺取效忠派的财物,用做战争经费。他们还会劫持效忠派的奴隶,让他们去充军。很多效忠派被迫离开家乡,有些人还遭到折磨,或是被吊死。在新泽西州, 效忠派和爱国者交战,有时还会烧毁彼此的房屋和农场。

VOICE ONE:

A painting of Benjamin Franklin by Joseph-Siffrede Duplissis.
A painting of Benjamin Franklin by Joseph-Siffrede Duplissis.

Some history experts say the American Revolution was really the nation's first civil war. The revolution divided many families. Perhaps the most famous example was the family of Benjamin Franklin. Ben Franklin signed the Declaration of Independence. His son William was governor of the colony of New Jersey. He supported the king. Political disagreement about the war tore apart this father and son for the rest of their lives.

有些历史学家说,独立战争其实是美国的第一场内战,造成了很多家庭的分裂,最著名的恐怕要算是本杰明·富兰克林一家了。富兰克林本人在独立宣言上签了名,但是他的儿子是新泽西的总督,效忠于英国国王。政治上的分歧在父子间筑就了一道难以跨越的鸿沟。

VOICE TWO:

Different ideas about the war existed among the patriots, too. That is because the colonies did not really think of themselves as one nation. They saw themselves as independent states trying to work together toward a goal. People from Massachusetts, for example, thought Pennsylvania was a strange place filled with strange people. Southerners did not like people from the North. And people who lived in farm areas did not communicate easily with people who lived in coastal towns and cities.

爱国者对这场战争也有不同的主张,主要是因为13个殖民地并不把自己看做是一个国家,而是13个各自为营的州,为一个共同目标而奋斗。比如说,麻萨诸塞殖民地的人就觉得宾夕法尼亚是一个很奇怪的地方,住着一些很奇怪的人;还有:南方殖民地的人不喜欢北方人;住在农场地区的人又跟沿海城镇和大城市的人谈不来。

This meant that the Continental Congress could not order the states to do anything they did not want to do. Congress could not demand that the states provide money for the war. It could only ask for their help.

这就意味着大陆会议无法对各州发号施令,不能让他们缴纳战争经费,只能请求他们的帮助。

George Washington, the top general, could not take men into the army. He could only wait for the states to send them. History experts say George Washington showed that he was a good politician by the way he kept Congress and the thirteen states supporting him throughout the war.

大陆军统帅乔治·华盛顿不能要求各州补充兵源,只能等各州自愿派兵。历史学家说,独立战争期间,乔治·华盛顿能始终让大陆会议和13个州支持自己,说明他是一位十分出色的政治家。

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

As the people of America did not agree about the war, the people of Britain did not agree about it, either. Many supported the government's decision to fight. They believed that the war was necessary to rescue loyalists from the patriots. Others did not think Britain should fight the Americans, because the Americans had not invaded or threatened their country. They believed that Britain should leave the colonies alone to do as they wished.

不仅是北美殖民地的居民对独立战争存在不同看法,英国人对这场战争也出现了分歧。很多人支持政府发动战争,认为这是拯救效忠英国的臣民的唯一出路。另外一些人则认为,北美殖民地并没有入侵英国,英国没有理由跟北美殖民地交战,应该让他们自己处理自己的事务。

King George was not able to do this, however. He supported the war as a way to continue his power in the world, and to rescue British honor in the eyes of other national leaders.

乔治国王拒绝放弃对北美殖民地的统治。他要通过战争延续自己的权力,同时捍卫英国的荣誉。

Whichever side British citizens were on, there was no question that the war was causing severe problems in Britain. British businessmen could no longer trade with the American colonies. Prices increased. Taxes did, too. And young men were forced to serve in the royal navy.

不管英国人对这场战争的看法如何,没有疑问的是,战争给英国带来了严重的问题:英国商人不能再跟北美殖民地做生意,造成了物价和税务的上涨,年轻人也被迫去皇家海军服兵役。

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

At the start of the war, the British believed that the rebellion was led by a few extremists in New England. They thought the other colonies would surrender if that area could be surrounded and controlled. So, they planned to separate New England from the other colonies by taking command of the Hudson River Valley.

战争初始,英国人以为北美殖民地的反叛只是由新英格兰一小撮极端分子挑起的,只要制伏了他们,其它殖民地就会自动投降。因此,他们决定抢占哈得逊河,把新英格兰和其他殖民地分隔开来。

British general Burgoyne's surrenders at Saratoga painted by Percy Moran
British general Burgoyne's surrenders at Saratoga painted by Percy Moran

They changed this plan after they were defeated in the Battle of Saratoga in New York state. Later, they planned to capture major cities and control the coast from Maine in the north to Georgia in the south. They failed to do this, although they did occupy New York City for the whole war, and at times had control over Philadelphia and Charleston.

纽约州萨拉托加战役英军被击败后,改变了战略,决定占领所有大城市,并控制从北部缅因到南部乔治亚的沿海地带。他们没有成功,但是在整个战争期间,英军一直控制着纽约市,费城和查尔斯敦也曾经在英军的控制之下。

VOICE ONE:

The British experienced many problems fighting the war. Their troops were far from home, across a wide ocean. It was difficult to bring in more forces and supplies, and it took a long time. As the war continued, American ships became more skilled at attacking British ships at sea.

英军在战争中遇到了很多困难,其中包括:英军士兵远渡重洋,在兵源和供给方面都十分困难。随着战争的推进,北美殖民地大陆军在水路攻打英军船只方面也越发厉害了,等等。

The colonial army had problems, too. Congress never had enough money. Sometimes, it could not send General Washington the things he needed. Often, the states did not send what they were supposed to. Americans were not always willing to take part in the war. They were poorly trained as soldiers and would promise to serve for only a year or so.

不过,北美殖民地的大陆军也并非一帆风顺。首先,大陆会议手里从来没有充足的战争经费,有时无法满足大陆军统帅乔治·华盛顿的军需要求。各州经常不履行义务,殖民地很多人不愿意参军,没有战斗经验,最多只愿意参战一年等等。

VOICE TWO:

The political and economic developments of the American Revolution concerned not just the Americans and the British. European nations were watching the events in America very closely. Those events, and the reactions in Europe, will be our story next time.

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

Today's MAKING OF A NATION program was written by Nancy Steinbach. This is Rich Kleinfeldt.

VOICE TWO:

And this is Ray Freeman. Join us again next week for another VOA Special English program about the history of the United States.

网友的学习评论(4条):
作者:华晨
America's Revolution with Great Britain diveded families and friends. such as the family of Benjamin Franklin, the political disagreement about war tore apart this farther and son for the rest of life. It's a tragedy . The war also causing severe questions in Britain . British business man could no longer trade with American colonise. Prices increased . Taxes did . And young man were force to serve in the royal navy. Let us pray for peace.
作者:Melody
War between two countries was causing various kinds of catastrophe . Nobody is able to avert it .Let me list some aspects as following :1)It divided families and friends . 2)People who took part in the war will have danger in life , most of them died from the battle . Numerous casualty is unbelievalbe . People became homeless and suffered in pain of the lost of families . 3)The victory of war also count of money . Without economical support ,it is hard to make wonders .
作者:Melody
4) It took a long time for people can rebuild their home , building , communal facilities etc after war . 5) The life condition for people won't be improved in the short time .
作者:hliu
Politicians are great in the way that they handle and negosiate diferent, complex and changing and unpredicted problems and contradictions. The obtrusives and extremes are not capable of those things. They help less and sometimes make things worse. The dangerous are those neutrals. They are and not always are loyal to either side. They are gooding at smelling.
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