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#14: How Britain's Defeat at Saratoga Marked a Turning Point 第14集 - 乔治·华盛顿领导美国打赢独立战争

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VOICE ONE:

This is Rich Kleinfeldt.

VOICE TWO:

And this is Sarah Long with THE MAKING OF A NATION, a VOA Special English program about the history of the United States. Today, we complete the story of the American Revolution against Britain in the late seventeen seventies.

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

It is December, seventeen seventy-six. British General William Howe has decided to stop fighting during the cold winter months. The general is in New York. He has already established control of a few areas near the city, including Trenton and Princeton in New Jersey.

1776年12月,英军司令威廉·豪决定,寒冬腊月,暂停战斗。当时,威廉·豪将军驻扎在纽约市,周围的一些地区都在他的控制之下,包括新泽西的特伦顿和普林斯顿。

Detail from ''Washington and Lafayette at Valley Forge'' painted by John Dunsmore
Detail from ''Washington and Lafayette at Valley Forge'' painted by John Dunsmore

General George Washington and the Continental Army are on the other side of the Delaware River. The Americans are cold and hungry. They have few weapons.

与此同时,乔治·华盛顿将军统帅的大陆军驻扎在德拉瓦河对岸。大陆军士兵饥寒交迫,缺少武器和弹药。

Washington knows that if Howe attacks, the British will be able to go all the way to Philadelphia. They will then control two of America's most important cities. He decides to attack.

华盛顿心里明白,一旦威廉·豪将军发起进攻,英军就会直捣费城。这样一来,纽约和费城这两座美国最重要的城市就会落入英军的手中。

His plan is for three groups of troops to cross the Delaware River separately. All three will join together at Trenton. Then they will attack Princeton and New Brunswick. Washington wants to surprise the enemy early in the morning the day after the Christmas holiday, December twenty-sixth.

华盛顿因此决定主动出击。他的计划是,派遣三股部队分批横渡德拉瓦河,在特伦顿会师后攻打普林斯顿和新不伦瑞克。华盛顿将军计划圣诞节的第二天--12月26号行动,给敌人一个措手不及。

VOICE TWO:

On Christmas night, two thousand four hundred soldiers of the Continental Army get into small boats. They cross the partly-frozen Delaware River. The crossing takes longer than Washington thought it would. The troops are four hours late. They will not be able to surprise the enemy at sunrise.

圣诞之夜,两千四百名大陆军将士坐着小船,横渡冰冻的德拉瓦河,不过时间比华盛顿将军预想的多出了四个小时。

Yet, after marching to Trenton, Washington's troops do surprise the Hessian mercenaries who are in position there. The enemy soldiers run into buildings to get away. The Americans use cannons to blow up the buildings. Soon, the enemy surrenders. Washington's army has captured Trenton. A few days later, he marches his captured prisoners through the streets of the city of Philadelphia.

尽管天色已经大亮,但是大陆军抵达特伦顿的时候,还是让驻守在那里的黑山雇佣军大吃一惊。他们躲进楼里藏身,美军动用大炮,迫使敌人投降。大陆军一举夺取了特伦顿。几天后,华盛顿押着战俘在费城游街。

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

Washington's victory at Trenton changed the way Americans felt about the war. Before the battle, the rebels had been defeated in New York. They were beginning to lose faith in their commander. Now that faith returned. Congress increased Washington's powers, making it possible for the fight for independence to continue.

特伦顿一战的胜利改变了美国人对独立战争的看法。这场战役前,大陆军在纽约惨遭失败,大家开始对华盛顿将军失去信心。特伦顿一战士气大振。大陆会议增加了华盛顿的权力,让独立战争继续下去。

Another result of the victory at Trenton was that more men decided to join the army. It now had ten thousand soldiers. This new Continental Army, however, lost battles during the summer to General Howe's forces near the Chesapeake Bay. And in August, seventeen seventy-seven, General Howe captured Philadelphia.

同时,更多的人愿意参战,大陆军增加到一万人。然而,第二年夏天,大陆军在切萨皮克湾附近还是败在了英军的手下。1777年8月,费城失陷。

VOICE TWO:

Following these losses, Washington led the army to the nearby area called Valley Forge. They would stay there for the winter. His army was suffering. Half the men had no shoes, clothes, or blankets. They were almost starving. They built houses out of logs, but the winter was very cold and they almost froze. Many suffered from diseases such as smallpox and typhus. Some died.

打了败仗的华盛顿将军,带领大陆军来到附近的福吉谷安营扎寨,打算在那儿过冬。当时,大陆军狼狈不堪,一半人没有鞋子、衣服和毛毯不说,食物也十分短缺。士兵们自己动手,用木头盖起房屋,但还是挡不住刺骨的严寒。很多人死于天花和伤寒。

General Washington and other officers were able to get food from the surrounding area to help most of the men survive the winter. By the spring of seventeen seventy-eight, they were ready to fight again.

华盛顿将军和他手下的将领们从附近地区找来粮食,帮助士兵挺过了这个冬天。到1778年春暖花开的时候,他们已经恢复了元气。

VOICE ONE:

General Howe was still in Philadelphia. History experts say it is difficult to understand this British military leader. At times, he was a good commander and a brave man. At other times, he stayed in the safety of the cities, instead of leading his men to fight. General Howe was not involved in the next series of important battles of the American Revolution, however.

威廉·豪将军一直呆在费城。历史学家说,这位英军统帅实在让人难以捉摸。有的时候,他是一名非常出色的指挥官,是英勇善战的斗士;而有的时候,他又躲在安全的城市里,不肯主动出击。不过,威廉·豪将军没有参与独立战争中接下来的几场重大战役。

The lead part now went to General John Burgoyne. His plan was to capture the Hudson River Valley in New York State and separate New England from the other colonies. This, the British believed, would make it easy to capture the other colonies.

英军的另外一位将领约翰·伯戈因打算抢占纽约州的哈得逊河谷,把新英格兰和其他殖民地分隔开来。他相信,这样一来,攻打其他殖民地就会容易得多。

The plan did not succeed. American General Benedict Arnold defeated the British troops in New York. General Burgoyne had expected help from General Howe, but did not get it. Burgoyne was forced to surrender at the town of Saratoga.

然而,这一计划没有成功。大陆军的阿诺德将军在纽约打败了英军。伯戈因将军本来希望得到威廉·豪的支援,但是没有等到,最后被迫在萨拉托加投降。

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

British general John Burgoyne surrenders at Saratoga, New York, in October 1777, as painted by Percy Moran
British general John Burgoyne surrenders at Saratoga, New York, in October 1777, as painted by Percy Moran

The American victory at Saratoga was an extremely important one. It ended the British plan to separate New England from the other colonies. It also showed European nations that the new country might really be able to win its revolutionary war. This was something that France, especially, had wanted ever since being defeated by the British earlier in the French and Indian War.

这次胜利至关重要,不仅粉碎了英军将新英格兰和其他殖民地分隔开来的企图,而且向其它欧洲国家显示,美国真有可能打赢这场独立战争。对于在法印战争中败给英军的法国来说,这正是他们希望看到的。

The French government had been supplying the Americans secretly through the work of America's minister to France, Benjamin Franklin. Franklin was popular with the French people and with French government officials. He helped gain French sympathy for the American cause.

法国政府一直通过美国驻法使节本杰明·富兰克林向美国提供物资。富兰克林很受法国人民和法国政府的喜爱,争取到了法国对独立战争的同情。

VOICE ONE:

After the American victory at Saratoga, the French decided to enter the war on the American side. The government recognized American independence. The two nations signed military and political treaties. France and Britain were at war once again.

萨拉托加战役结束后,法国决定参战。法国政府宣布承认美国的独立。两国签署了军事和政治协议。法国和英国再次成为敌对国。

The British immediately sent a message to America's Continental Congress. They offered to change everything so relations would be as they had been in seventeen sixty-three. The Americans rejected the offer. The war would be fought to the end.

英国立即向美国大陆会议提议,愿意将双方的关系恢复到1763年的样子。这一提议遭到了美国的拒绝,他们决心将独立战争进行到底。

In seventeen seventy-nine, Spain entered the war against the British. And the next year, the British were also fighting the Dutch to stop their trade with America.

1779年,西班牙也站到了美国一边。1780年,为了防止荷兰人跟美国做生意,英国和荷兰开战。

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

The French now sent gunpowder, soldiers, officers, and ships to the Americans. However, neither side made much progress in the war for the next two years.

法国不断向美国输送弹药、士兵、军官和船只,但是在接下来的两年时间里,交战双方势均力敌,难分上下。

A French blockade of the Chesapeake Bay during the Revolutionary War prevented British forces from reaching Yorktown
A French blockade of the Chesapeake Bay during the Revolutionary War prevented British forces from reaching Yorktown

By seventeen eighty, the British had moved their military forces to the American South. They quickly gained control of South Carolina and Georgia, but the Americans prevented them from taking control of North Carolina. After that, the British commander moved his troops to Yorktown, Virginia.

到1780年的时候,英军转移到了美国南方。他们迅速控制了南卡罗来纳和乔治亚,大陆军奋力抵抗,才没让北卡罗来纳陷落。

The commander's name was Lord Charles Cornwallis. Both he and George Washington had about eight thousand troops when they met near Yorktown. Cornwallis was expecting more troops to arrive on British ships.

英军将领康华里随即率领英军向维吉尼亚的约克镇前进。两军对阵时,康华里和华盛顿手里都有大约八千人的部队。

What he did not know was that French ships were on their way to Yorktown, too. Their commander was Admiral Francois Comte de Grasse. De Grasse met some of the British ships that Cornwallis was expecting, and he defeated them. The French ships then moved into the Chesapeake Bay, near Yorktown.

康华里以为会有英国援军从水路赶来接应,但是他没有想到,英国的运兵船早就在半路上被法国船只击败,法国船只已经开进了约克镇附近的切萨皮克湾。

VOICE ONE:

On this page in his diary, George Washington recorded the British surrender at Yorktown
On this page in his diary, George Washington recorded the British surrender at Yorktown

The Americans and the French began attacking with cannons. Then they fought the British soldiers hand-to-hand. Cornwallis knew he had no chance to win without more troops. He surrendered to George Washington on October seventeenth, seventeen eighty-one.

美国和法国军队联合对英军发起炮击,随后又跟英军展开肉搏战。康华里知道,如果没有援军,他就没有丝毫希望。1781年10月17号,康华里投降,北美独立战争宣告结束。

The war was over. American and French forces had captured or killed one-half of the British troops in America. The surviving British troops left Yorktown playing a popular British song called, "The World Turned Upside Down."

一半英军被美国和法国部队打死或俘虏,活下来的人唱着著名的歌曲《这世界完全颠倒了过来》(The World is Turned Upside Down)离开约克镇。

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

How were the Americans able to defeat the most powerful nation in the world? Historians give several reasons:

美国是如何战胜英国这个当时世界上最强大的国家的呢?历史学家认为,原因有以下几个:

The Americans were fighting at home, while the British had to bring troops and supplies from across a wide ocean.

第一,美国人是在自己家里打仗,而英军却是远渡重洋。

British officers made mistakes, especially General William Howe. His slowness to take action at the start of the war made it possible for the Americans to survive during two difficult winters.

第二,英军将领犯了很多错误,特别是威廉·豪将军在战争初期行动迟缓,让大陆军渡过了两个严冬。

Another reason was the help the Americans received from the French. Also, the British public had stopped supporting the long and costly war. Finally, history experts say America might not have won without the leadership of George Washington. He was honest, brave, and sure that the Americans could win. He never gave up hope that he would reach that goal.

第三,美国得到了法国的帮助,而英国民众却对这场耗费巨大的持久战怨声载道。最后,历史学家认为,如果没有乔治·华盛顿的英明领导,美国可能不会打赢这场战争。华盛顿将军诚实、勇敢,对美国的胜利坚信不移,他从始至终从来没有对胜利失去过信心。

VOICE ONE:

The peace treaty ending the American Revolution was signed in Paris in seventeen eighty-three. The independence of the United States was recognized. Western and northern borders were set.

英国和美国1783年在法国巴黎正式签署了停战协议,承认美国独立,并确定了美国西部和北部的边境线。

Thirteen colonies were free. Now, they had to become one nation.

由此,北美的十三个殖民地正式独立,它们接下来的任务是如何融合为一个国家。

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

Today's MAKING OF A NATION program was written by Nancy Steinbach. This is Sarah Long.

VOICE ONE:

And this is Rich Kleinfeldt. Join us again next week for another VOA Special English program about the history of the United States.

网友的学习评论(5条):
作者:华晨
"The World Turned Up Side Down". American might not have won without the leadership of George Washington . He never gave up hope that he would reach that goal. He was honet and brave.
作者:xuding45
The American people got a difficult win against Birtish‘ army,they hold a firm faith for the war and the god also showed appreciate for American people。At finally they suceed in。
作者:郑烈波
he was honest,brave,and sure that the americans could win.
作者:Melody
How were the Americans able to defeat the most powerful nation in the world? Historians give several reasons: The Americans were fighting at home, while the British had to bring troops and supplies from across a wide ocean. British officers made mistakes, especially General William Howe. His slowness to take action at the start of the war made it possible for the Americans to survive during two difficult winters.
作者:Melody
Another reason was the help the Americans received from the French. Also, the British public had stopped supporting the long and costly war. Finally, history experts say America might not have won without the leadership of George Washington. He was honest, brave, and sure that the Americans could win. He never gave up hope that he would reach that goal.
作者:xiaofenfen
this passage mainly talk about Washington leads the american people beat the english with the support of French and their own efforts. The reasons why the british lost the control of the america are a lot. One is the brave and clever Washington leading the war .Another is the mistake they have made,the supply they need is transport from the other side of the sea. After that war the United States declared the independence .The brave and cleverness of the Washington impressed me a lot
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