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#3: A Difficult Life for English Settlers in the New World 第3集 - 英国与西班牙争夺新大陆,英国定居者在新大陆挣扎求生

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VOICE ONE:

This is Rich Kleinfeldt.

VOICE TWO:

And this is Sarah Long with the MAKING OF A NATION, a VOA Special English program about the history of the United States. Today, we tell about the first permanent English settlements in North America.

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

England was the first country to compete with Spain for claims in the New World, although it was too weak to do this openly at first. But Queen Elizabeth of England supported such explorations as early as the fifteen seventies.

英国是第一个跟西班牙争夺新大陆的欧洲国家。伊丽莎白女王从十六世纪七十年代就开始支持对新大陆的探险,不过,由于英国的力量比较薄弱,所以这种争夺最初并不是正面公开的。

Sir Humphrey Gilbert led the first English settlement efforts. He did not establish any lasting settlement. He died as he was returning to England.

英国的吉尔伯特爵士领导了第一次在新大陆定居的努力,但是没能建立长期定居点,他本人也在返回英国的途中去世。

Gilbert's half brother Sir Walter Raleigh continued his work. Raleigh sent a number of ships to explore the east coast of North America. He called the land Virginia to honor England's unmarried Queen Elizabeth.

吉尔伯特的兄弟雷利爵士继续努力,派遣多艘船只到北美东海岸探险,他把登陆的地方命名为Virginia维吉尼亚,纪念英国终身未婚的伊丽莎白女王。

In fifteen eighty-five, about one-hundred men settled on Roanoke Island, off the coast of the present day state of North Carolina. These settlers returned to England a year later. Another group went to Roanoke the next year. This group included a number of women and children. But the supply ships Raleigh sent to the colony failed to arrive. When help got there in fifteen-ninety, none of the settlers could be found.

1585年,大约100名男子在今天美国北卡罗来纳州沿海的罗厄诺克岛上定居下来。这些人一年后返回英国,另外一群人次年又前往罗厄诺克岛,这次来的人里多了妇女和儿童。然而,雷利爵士派来的供给船迟迟不到,1590年救援物资终于抵达的时候,一个定居者都找不到了。

History experts still are not sure what happened. Some research suggests that at least some of the settlers became part of the Indian tribe that lived in the area.

历史学家至今不能确定到底发生了什么事情。有研究显示,定居者中至少有一部分人加入了当地的印第安人部落。

VOICE TWO:

One reason for the delay in getting supplies to Roanoke was the attack of the Spanish Navy against England in fifteen eighty-eight. King Phillip of Spain had decided to invade England. But the small English ships combined with a fierce storm defeated the huge Spanish fleet. As a result, Spain was no longer able to block English exploration.

前往罗厄诺克岛的供给船延误航程,主要是因为英国1588年遭到了西班牙海军的攻击。西班牙的菲利普国王决定入侵英国,但是英国舰只的抵抗,外加强烈风暴的影响,使西班牙的进攻没有得逞。西班牙从此再也无法阻挡英国的海上探险了。

England discovered that supporting colonies so far away was extremely costly. So Queen Elizabeth took no more action to do this. It was not until after her death in sixteen-oh-three that England began serious efforts to start colonies in America.

但是英国发现,要供养如此遥远的殖民地,花销实在太大。因此,伊丽莎白女王停止了向新大陆的殖民努力。直到她1603年去世后,英国才开始认真地在美洲大陆上建立殖民地。

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

In sixteen-oh-six, the new English King, James the First, gave two business groups permission to establish colonies in Virginia, the area claimed by England. Companies were organized to carry out the move.

1606年,英国的新国王詹姆斯一世批准两家公司在维吉尼亚建立殖民地。

View of historic Jamestown
View of historic Jamestown

The London Company sent one hundred settlers to Virginia in sixteen-oh-six. The group landed there in May, sixteen-oh-seven and founded Jamestown. It was the first permanent English colony in the new world.

伦敦公司1606年向维吉尼亚送去了100名定居者,这些人1607年五月抵达,后来创建了英国在新大陆的第一个永久性殖民地詹姆斯镇。

The colony seemed about to fail from the start. The settlers did not plant their crops in time so they soon had no food. Their leaders lacked the farming and building skills needed to survive on the land. More than half the settlers died during the first winter.

然而,詹姆斯镇的定居者出师不利,因为没有及时播种,所以没过多久粮食就吃完了。他们又缺乏农耕和建筑技能,第一个冬天下来,詹姆斯镇的居民死亡过半。

VOICE TWO:

The businessmen controlling the colony from London knew nothing about living in such a wild place. They wanted the settlers to search for gold, and explore local rivers in hopes of finding a way to the East. One settler knew this was wrong. His name was Captain John Smith. He helped the colonists build houses and grow food by learning from the local Indians. Still, the Jamestown settlers continued to die each year from disease, lack of food and Indian attacks.

伦敦的商人们对殖民地艰苦的生活一无所知,他们一心希望定居者去寻找黄金,探索当地的河道,希望找到通往东方的水路。其中一名定居者知道这是错误的。他的名字叫约翰·史密斯。他帮定居者盖房子,向印第安人学种庄稼,然而,詹姆斯镇的定居者每年还是继续死于疾病、饥饿和印第安人的袭击。

The London Company sent six thousand settlers to Virginia between sixteen-oh-six and sixteen twenty-two. More than four thousand died during that time.

在1606年到1622年间,伦敦公司一共向维吉尼亚送去了六千名定居者,其中四千多人都没能活下来。

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

A cooking fire in a re-creation of a Powhatan Indian village
A cooking fire in a re-creation of a Powhatan Indian village

History experts say that all the settlers surely would have died without the help of the local Powhatan Indians. The Indians gave the settlers food. They taught them how to live in the forest. And the Powhatan Indians showed the settlers how to plant new crops and how to clear the land for building.

历史学家说,如果不是当地波瓦坦印第安人的帮助,来自英国的定居者恐怕一个也活不下来。印第安人给他们食物,教他们如何在树林里生活,还告诉他们如何种庄稼,如何盖房子。

The settlers accepted the Indians' help. Then, however, the settlers took whatever else they wanted by force. In sixteen twenty-two, the local Indians attacked the settlers for interfering with Indian land. Three hundred forty settlers died. The colonists answered the attack by destroying the Indian tribes living along Virginia's coast.

这些定居者接受了印第安人的帮助,但后来又依靠武力抢夺印第安人的东西。1622年,当地的印第安部落为维护自己的土地向定居者发动袭击,打死了340个定居者。定居者发动反击,彻底摧毁了居住在维吉尼亚沿海的印第安部落。

The settlers recognized that they would have to grow their own food and survive on their own without help from England or anyone else. The Jamestown colony was clearly established by sixteen twenty-four. It was even beginning to earn money by growing and selling a new crop, tobacco.

这些定居者意识到,他们必须自己自足,不能依靠别人。1624年,詹姆斯镇已经初具规模,甚至开始通过种植和销售一种新的作物--烟草--来盈利了。

VOICE TWO:

The other early English settlements in North America were much to the north of Virginia, in the present state of Massachusetts. The people who settled there left England for different reasons than those who settled in Jamestown. The Virginia settlers were looking for ways to earn money for English businesses. The settlers in Massachusetts were seeking religious freedom.

维吉尼亚以北也有一些英国早期殖民地,位于今天麻萨诸塞州的位置。维吉尼亚的定居者到新大陆来的目的是给英国商人赚钱,而麻萨诸塞州的定居者却是为了找寻宗教自由。

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

King Henry the Eighth of England had separated from the Roman Catholic Church. His daughter, Queen Elizabeth, established the Protestant religion in England. It was called the Church of England, or the Anglican Church. The Anglican Church, however, was similar to that of the Roman Catholic Church.

英国国王亨利八世脱离了罗马教廷,他的女儿伊丽莎白女王在英国建立了新教,称为英国教会,也叫圣公会。但是圣公会跟罗马天主教会很相似。

Not all Protestants liked this. Some wanted to leave the Anglican Church and form religious groups of their own. In sixteen-oh-six, members of one such group in the town of Scrooby did separate from the Anglican Church. About one hundred twenty-five people left England for Holland. They found problems there too, so they decided to move again...to the New World.

有些新教徒对这种情况感到不满。有些人希望脱离圣公会,自己成立宗教团体。1606年,司克罗比村一个宗教团体的成员脱离圣公会,离开英国,前往荷兰,他们在荷兰同样遇到了问题,因此决定再次启程,到新大陆去。

These people were called pilgrims, because that is the name given to people who travel for religious purposes.

这些人为宗教的目的而远征,被称为清教徒pilgrims。

VOICE TWO:

An artist's depiction of the Mayflower
An artist's depiction of the Mayflower

About thirty-five pilgrims were among the passengers on a ship called the Mayflower in sixteen twenty. It left England to go to Virginia. But the Mayflower never reached Virginia. Instead, it landed to the north, on Cape Cod Bay. The group decided to stay there instead of trying to find Jamestown.

1620年,大约35名清教徒跟其他人一起,乘坐五月花号,离开英国,前往维吉尼亚。但是五月花号没有找到维吉尼亚,而是停在了更靠北的科德角湾。船上的乘客决定就在这里住下来。

The pilgrims and the others on the Mayflower saw a need for rules that would help them live together peacefully. They believed they were not under English control since they did not land in Virginia. So they wrote a plan of government, called the Mayflower Compact. It was the first such plan ever developed in the New World.

为了和平共处,他们觉得有必要定点儿规矩。他们觉得,既然不在维吉尼亚,就不应该受英国的管辖。于是他们制定了所谓的"五月花公约",这是新大陆上的殖民地制定的第一份规划政府的文件。

They elected a man called William Bradford as the first governor of their Plymouth Colony. We know about the first thirty years of the Plymouth Colony because William Bradford described it in his book, Of Plymouth Plantation.

他们还选举威廉·布雷德福担任普利茅斯殖民地的第一任总督。布雷德福撰写的《关于普利茅斯庄园》让后人了解到了普利茅斯殖民地前三十年的历史。

As happened in Jamestown, about half the settlers in Plymouth died the first winter. The survivors were surprised to find an Indian who spoke English. His name was Squanto. He had been kidnapped by an English sea captain and had lived in England before returning to his people.

跟詹姆斯镇一样,普利茅斯大约一半的定居者也没能熬过第一个冬天。幸存者意外地发现了一个讲英文的印第安人,叫斯考托。他以前曾经被一个英国船长绑架,在英国生活一段时间后又返回了自己的部落。

The Pilgrims believed Squanto was sent to them from God. He made it possible for them to communicate with the native people. He showed them the best places to fish, what kind of crops to plant and how to grow them. He provided them with all kinds of information they needed to survive. The settlers invited the Indians to a feast in the month of November to celebrate their successes and to thank Squanto for his help. Americans remember that celebration every year when they observe the Thanksgiving holiday.

清教徒认为斯考托是上帝派来帮助他们的,帮他们跟印第安人沟通,告诉他们哪里能钓到大鱼,最好的作物是什么。斯考托向他们提供了生存必须的一切知识。定居者们11月邀请印第安人来会餐,庆祝他们的成功,也感谢斯考托的帮助。这一传统作为感恩节保留至今。

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

Other English settlers began arriving in the area now called New England. One large group was called the Puritans. Like the pilgrims, the Puritans did not agree with the Anglican Church. But they did not want to separate from it. The Puritans wanted to change it to make it more holy. Their desire for this change made them unwelcome in England.

还有一些英国定居者到了今天的新英格兰地区,其中一个人数众多的团体叫puritans,也是清教徒,但是跟普利茅斯殖民地的清教徒不同,他们虽然并不认同圣公会,但是也不希望脱离圣公会,而是希望对圣公会进行改革。

The first ship carrying Puritans left England for America in sixteen thirty. By the end of that summer, one thousand Puritans had landed in the northeastern part of the new country. The new English King, Charles, had given permission for them to settle the Massachusetts Bay area.

他们最早是1630年开始离开英国的,到夏天快要结束的时候,已经有一千名清教徒到达了新大陆的东北部。当时的英国国王查理允许他们在麻萨诸塞湾住下来。

VOICE TWO:

The Puritans began leaving England in large groups. Between sixteen thirty and sixteen forty, twenty thousand sailed for New England. They risked their lives on the dangerous trip. They wanted to live among people who believed as they did, people who honored the rules of the Bible. Puritans believed that the Bible was the word of God.

随后,清教徒开始大批离开英国,在1630年到1640年期间,先后有两万名清教徒乘船前往新英格兰。他们不顾旅途的危险,希望跟志同道合的人住在一起。他们相信,圣经是上帝的教诲。

The Puritans and other Europeans, however, found a very different people in the New World. They were America's native Indians. That will be our story next week.

然而,英国的清教徒和其他欧洲人在新大陆上发现了跟自己截然不同的人,他们就是美国的印第安土著居民。

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

This MAKING OF A NATION program was written by Nancy Steinbach. This is Rich Kleinfeldt

VOICE TWO:

And this is Sarah Long. Join us again next week for another Voice of America Special English program about the history of the United States.

网友的学习评论(14条):
作者:流樱豪
It is good.
作者:华晨
The development of human society should be due to the interaction of various factor and power. Religion is the major driving force for the development. Early explorers and setllers risked their lifes on the dangerous trips for reglion purpose and business goal . Many of them lost their lives. The survior led tough and hardship lives. Without firm belief , they can not build prosperous country.
作者:Andylu88888
happy Valentine's Day!
作者:樱桃圆子
thanksgiving day!
作者:雅乔
the difference between puritans and pilgrims
作者:灰太狼
I think the best way to learn English is to know the history of English countries .
作者:waldenzhao
I keep learning english for years.But I can't say I'm good at english. Now, the most important thing for me is to learn as much english and american culture as possible. So this is kind of english material which I have been looking for.
作者:Shelly
American history is a perfect material for SAT writing. I am eager to learn more about this stuff.
作者:郑烈波
make a little prograce a day.
作者:Kane
I am here today~~
作者:photon
From the first group of settlers coming from the England, to protestants, pilgrims, puritans, with a lot of settlers dying, with a war with Spain, the English people finally set up their settlement in the North America.
作者:Melody
The early English settlers failed to start their colonies due to followings factors :1) Lack the farming and building skills needed to survive on the land 2)Communication problem between the English and the Indians 3)No help from the local Powwhatan Indians 4)The Indians attacts didn't cease
作者:karen
America's native Indians
作者:hliu
Dose religion matter that much?
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