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#5: A Clash of Cultures in the New World

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VOICE ONE:

This is Rich Kleinfeldt.

VOICE TWO:

And this is Ray Freeman with the MAKING OF A NATION, a VOA Special English program about the history of the United States.

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

Our story today is a sad one. It is the story of a clash of peoples, religions, ideas, and cultures. It is a story of strongly held ideas and a lack of compromise.

今天我们要讲述一段令人痛心的故事。

It is the story of the relations between Europeans and the natives who had lived for thousands of years in the area we now call North America.

欧洲定居者来到北美大陆后,跟在那里生活了几千年的土著居民发生冲突,二者的宗教、信仰和文化差异造成了剧烈的摩擦。

Teton Sioux horse races in South Dakota. Artwork by Karl Bodmer from the 1830s.
Teton Sioux horse races in South Dakota. Artwork by Karl Bodmer from the 1830s.

VOICE TWO:

Many different Native American groups lived on the East Coast of what would become United States. They spoke many different languages. Some were farmers, some were hunters. Some fought many wars, others were peaceful.

在今天的北美大陆东部沿海,也就是现在美国所在的地方,居住着很多印第安人的部落,他们讲不同的语言,有些从事农耕,有些以狩猎为生,有些四处征战,有些则热爱和平。

These groups are called tribes. Their names are known to most Americans...the Senecas, the Mohawks, the Seminole, the Cherokee to name only a few.

这些部落很多延续至今,其中包括塞讷卡人、莫霍克人、西米诺尔人和彻罗基人等等。

VOICE ONE:

These tribes had developed their own cultures many years before the first European settlers arrived. Each had a kind of religion, a strong spiritual belief. Many tribes shared a similar one.

第一批欧洲移民来到北美大陆之前的很多年,这些印第安人部落就已经建立起了各自的文化和信仰。

The Indians on the East Coast shared a highly developed system of trade. Researchers say different tribes of Native Americans traded goods all across the country.

东海岸的印第安人还拥有高度发达的贸易体系。研究人员发现,北美各地的印第安部落曾从事广泛的物物交换。

VOICE TWO:

The first recorded meetings between Europeans and the natives of the East Coast took place in the fifteen hundreds. Fishermen from France and the Basque area of Spain crossed the Atlantic Ocean. They searched for whales along the east coast of North America. They made temporary camps along the coast. They often traded with the local Indians. The Europeans often paid Indians to work for them. Both groups found this to be a successful relationship.

欧洲人和北美东海岸印第安人之间第一次有记载的会面发生在十六世纪。当时,法国和西班牙巴斯克地区的渔民横穿大西洋,在北美东部沿海地区寻找鲸鱼。他们在岸上架设临时营地,经常跟当地的印第安人交换物品,还雇他们干活,双方都觉得这种关系挺不错。

Several times different groups of fishermen tried to establish a permanent settlement on the coast, but the severe winters made it impossible. These fishing camps were only temporary.

欧洲渔民也曾多次试图在当地建立永久性定居点,但是都因为受不了冬天的寒冷而以失败告终。

VOICE ONE:

The first permanent settlers in New England began arriving in sixteen twenty. They wanted to live in peace with the Indians. They needed to trade with them for food. The settlers also knew that a battle would result in their own, quick defeat because they were so few in number.

1620年,欧洲的第一批永久性定居者来到了新英格兰地区。他们希望跟印第安人和平共处。他们需要从印第安人那里换取食物。他们同时也清楚地知道,自己势单力薄,一旦发生冲突,根本不是印第安人的对手。

Yet, problems began almost immediately. Perhaps the most serious was the different way the American Indians and the Europeans thought about land. This difference created problems that would not be solved during the next several hundred years.

然而,很快,问题就不可避免地出现了。双方对土地的不同看法引起了巨大的分歧,带来了随后几百年都无法解决的问题。

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

Land was extremely important to the European settlers. In England, and most other countries, land meant wealth. Owning large amounts of land meant a person had great wealth and political power.

对于欧洲定居者来说,土地的重要性非同小可。在英国等欧洲国家,土地意味着财富,拥有大批土地能给一个人带来巨大的财富和权力。

Many of the settlers in this new country could never have owned land in Europe. They were too poor. And they belonged to minority religious groups. When they arrived in the new country, they discovered no one seemed to own the huge amounts of land.

来到北美大陆的很多定居者都是欧洲的穷人,属于少数宗教派别,根本不可能拥有自己的土地。他们来到新大陆后,发现这里的土地好像根本就没有主人。

Companies in England needed to find people willing to settle in the new country. So they offered land to anyone who would take the chance of crossing the Atlantic Ocean. For many, it was a dream come true. It was a way to improve their lives. The land gave them a chance to become wealthy and powerful.

英国的公司需要吸引定居者到新大陆去,于是就用土地作为奖赏。对于很多人来说,这无疑是梦想成真,成了他们改变生活的机会,土地让他们有机会积累财富和权力。

Calender of 37 months, 1889-92, kept on an animal skin by a Kiowa Indian
Calender of 37 months, 1889-92, kept on an animal skin by a Kiowa Indian

VOICE ONE:

American Indians believed no person could own land. They believed, however, that anyone could use it. Anyone who wanted to live on and grow crops on a piece of land was able to do so.

然而,美洲的印第安人却认为,土地不属于任何人,是大家共同分享的财富。他们觉得,任何人都可以在一片土地上住下来,种庄稼,以此养家糊口。

The American Indians lived within nature. They lived very well without working very hard. They were able to do this because they understood the land and their environment. They did not try to change the land.

印第安人生活在大自然里,了解土地和周围的环境,并不想改变大自然。他们不用太辛苦就能生活得很好。

They might farm in an area for a few years. Then they would move on. They permitted the land on which they had farmed to become wild again. They might hunt on one area of land for some time, but again they would move on. They hunted only what they could eat, so the numbers of animals continued to increase. The Indians understood nature and made it work for them.

不论是农耕还是狩猎,他们每过几年就会换一个地方,让土地有机会休耕,让动物的数量可以继续增加。印第安人熟悉自然生态规律,让大自然为自己服务。

VOICE TWO:

The first Europeans to settle in New England in the northeastern part of America were few in number. They wanted land. The Indians did not fear them. There was enough land for everyone to use and plant crops. It was easy to live together. The Indians helped the settlers by teaching them how to plant crops and survive on the land.

在新英格兰地区定居的第一批欧洲人数量有限。他们渴望得到土地。由于土地资源丰富,所以印第安人对此并不担心,双方尚可和睦相处。印第安人还教会了欧洲移民耕种和生存的技能。

But the Indians did not understand that the settlers were going to keep the land. This idea was foreign to the Indians. It was like to trying to own the air, or the clouds.

印第安人没有想到的是,欧洲定居者要把土地据为己有,对他们来说,这是难以想象的,就好像要占有空气和云彩一样不可思议。

As the years passed, more and more settlers arrived, and took more and more land. They cut down trees. They built fences to keep people and animals out. They demanded that the Indians stay off their land.

年复一年,踏上北美大陆的欧洲定居者不断增加,他们占据的土地也越来越多。他们砍伐树木,搭起围栏,把外人和猛兽挡在外面,并要求印第安人不要侵犯他们的土地。

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

Religion was another problem between the settlers and the Indians. The settlers in New England were very serious about their Christian religion. They thought it was the one true faith and all people should believe in it. They soon learned that the Indians were not interested in learning about it or changing their beliefs.

欧洲移民和北美印第安人之间的另外一大问题出在宗教上。在新英格兰定居的欧洲人都是虔诚的基督徒。他们视基督教为唯一的信仰,认为所有人都应该信仰基督。但是他们发现,印第安人对基督教并不感兴趣,也不打算改变自己的信仰。

Many settlers came to believe that Native Americans could not be trusted because they were not Christians. The settler groups began to fear the Indians. They thought of the Indians as a people who were evil because they had no religion. The settlers told the Indians they must change and become Christians. The Indians did not understand why they should change anything.

很多欧洲定居者因此觉得,既然印第安人不是基督教徒,那他们就不值得信任。欧洲定居者认为,印第安人没有宗教信仰,所以是邪恶的人群。

VOICE TWO:

The European settlers failed to understand that the Native American Indians were extremely religious people with a strong belief in unseen powers. The Indians lived very close to nature. They believed that all things in the universe depend on each other. All native tribes had ceremonies that honored a creator of nature. American Indians recognized the work of the creator of the world in their everyday life.

欧洲定居者不知道的是,美洲土著居民其实是非常虔诚的,他们相信无形的神灵。他们生活在大自然中,相信宇宙万物互相依存,所有部落都有向大自然的创造者祈福的仪式,他们在日常生活中总会看到宇宙创造者留下的痕迹。

VOICE ONE:

Other events also led to serious problems between the Native Americans and the settlers. One serious problem was disease. The settlers brought sickness with them from Europe. For example, the disease smallpox was well known in Europe. Some people carried the bacteria that caused smallpox, although they did not suffer the sickness itself.

疾病也给欧洲移民和美洲印第安人带来了摩擦。欧洲移民把天花等当时欧洲常见的疾病带到了美洲大陆。

Smallpox was unknown to Native Americans. Their bodies' defense systems could not fight against smallpox. It killed whole tribes. And, smallpox was only one such disease. There were many others.

这些病毒是美洲土著居民从来都没听说过的,他们的免疫系统完全没有抵御能力,很多部落被传染后,死得一个不剩。

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

The first meetings between settlers and Native Americans were the same in almost every European settlement on the East Coast of America. The two groups met as friends. They would begin by trading for food and other goods.

北美大陆东部沿海各地的欧洲移民和印第安人关系的发展大同小异。他们一开始都能和睦相处,交换各种物资。

In time, however, something would happen to cause a crisis. Perhaps a settler would demand that an Indian stay off the settler's land. Perhaps a settler, or Indian, was killed. Fear would replace friendship. One side or the other would answer what they believed was an attack. A good example of this is the violent clash called King Philip's War.

但是随着时间的推移,危机迟早会爆发,要么是某个欧洲移民要求印第安人不要踏上他的土地,要么是某个欧洲定居者或是某个印第安人被杀害,使恐惧逐渐取代了友谊,其中一方会觉得受到了对方的袭击,并奋起反击,历史上的“菲利普王战争”就是一个很好的例子。

VOICE ONE:

Matacom was a leader of the Wampanoag tribe that lived in the northern-most colonies. He was known to the English as King Philip. Without the help of his tribe, the first European settlers in that area might not have survived their first winter. The Wampanoag Indians provided them with food. They taught the settlers how to plant corn and other food crops. The two groups were very friendly for several years.

马塔卡姆是万帕诺亚格部落的首领,英国人称他为“菲利普王”。第一批欧洲定居者完全是靠了万帕诺亚格部落的帮助,才渡过了第一个严冬。万帕诺亚格部落向欧洲定居者提供食物,还教会他们种植谷物,双方和睦相处了好几年。

As the years passed, however, fear and a lack of understanding increased. Matacom's brother died of a European disease. Matacom blamed the settlers. He also saw how the increasing numbers of settlers were changing the land. He believed they were destroying it.

但是好景不长,彼此间的恐惧和缺少了解与日俱增。马塔卡姆的兄弟死于一种欧洲疾病,马塔卡姆认为这都是欧洲人的错。他还目睹了定居者给土地带来的变化,认为他们是在摧毁这片土地。

VOICE TWO:

One small crisis after another led to the killing of a Christian Indian who lived with the settlers. The settlers answered this by killing three Indians. A war quickly followed. It began in sixteen seventy-five and continued for almost two years. It was an extremely cruel war. Men, women and children on both sides were killed. Researchers believe more than six hundred settlers were killed. They also say as many as three thousand Native Americans died in the violence.

双方间危机不断发生,一名跟定居者住在一起的印第安基督徒被杀,这成了最后的导火索。欧洲定居者发起反击,打死三个印第安人。战争一触即发,从1675年开始,持续了将近两年。这场战争极其残酷,双方都有许多人被打死。研究人员认为,先后一共有六百多个欧洲定居者被打死,还有多达三千名美洲土著居民在冲突中丧生。

VOICE ONE:

History experts say the tribe of Indians called the Narraganset were the true victims of King Philip's War. The Narraganset were not involved in the war. They did not support one group or the other. However, the settlers killed almost all the Narraganset Indians because they had learned to fear all Indians.

历史学家说,纳拉干西特印第安人才是菲利普王战争真正的受害者。他们并没有卷入战争,也没有支持战争的任何一方,然而,欧洲定居者因为出于对印第安人的恐惧,几乎杀死了所有纳拉干西特人。

This fear, lack of understanding and the failure to compromise were not unusual. They strongly influenced the European settlers relations with Native Americans in all areas of the new country.

正是这种恐惧、缺乏了解和不愿妥协的对立情绪,塑造了美洲大陆上欧洲定居者跟土著印第安人的关系。

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

This MAKING OF A NATION program was written and produced by Paul Thompson. This is Ray Freeman.

VOICE ONE:

And this is Rich Kleinfeldt. Join us again next week for another VOA Special English program about the history of the United States.

网友的学习评论(7条):
作者:流樱豪
fight
作者:华晨
A clash bewteen early white settler and native Americans was a tragedy . lack of understanding , the failure to compromise, different culture and religion lead to the sad story. Today ,we should learn the lessons from the historical tragedy .
作者:Kane
I'm here again~~
作者:Freychan
fight and fight
作者:pge
For many settlers, it was a dream come true. It was a way to improve their lives.
作者:Melody
It is the sad story today . A pathetic tragedy both for the European settlers and the Native Americans . They have the unbearable conflict of the culture , reglgions etc . The fear , lack of understandingand the failure to compromise were the mainsprings to cause the clash between each side . What a catastrophe ! Today , we shall learn how to respect people with different regilion , how to live in peace with people from all over the world , how to understand your partners' culture .
作者:hliu
When one takes something too seriously, he becomes serious, mean, and limited. When one believes the only thing he believed it's the truth, he becomes tyranny.
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