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#9: British Defeat the French in a Struggle for North America

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VOICE ONE:

This is THE MAKING OF A NATION in VOA Special English. I'm Steve Ember

VOICE TWO:

And I'm Barbara Klein. This week, we tell about the conflicts among the nations in Europe during the eighteenth century and how they affected North America.

VOICE ONE:

During the eighteenth century, Spain, France and Britain controlled land in North America. Spain controlled Florida. France was powerful in the northern and central areas. Britain controlled the east. All three nations knew they could not exist together peacefully in North America. The situation could only be settled by war.

十八世纪,西班牙、法国和英国在北美大陆三雄鼎立。西班牙控制着佛罗里达,法国在北部和中部地区势力强大,而东部地区则是英国的地盘。这三个欧洲大国都知道,他们无法在北美大陆上和平共处,这种局面只能通过战争来解决。

The powerful European nations already were fighting each other for land and money all over the world. These small wars continued for more than one hundred years. They were called King William's War, Queen Anne's War, King George's War and the French and Indian War.

为了争夺土地和财富,它们的冲突遍及世界各地,前后延续了一百多年,包括威廉姆斯国王战争、安妮女王战争、乔治国王战争,还有就是我们今天要介绍的法印战争。

VOICE TWO:

Detail from ''The Death of General Wolfe,'' a 1770 painting by Benjamin West. James Wolfe was a British general killed during the 1759 battle in which his troops won a victory over the French at Quebec, Canada.
Detail from ''The Death of General Wolfe,'' a 1770 painting by Benjamin West. James Wolfe was a British general killed during the 1759 battle in which his troops won a victory over the French at Quebec, Canada.

The French and Indian War was fought to decide if Britain or France would be the strong power in North America. France and its colonists and Indian allies fought against Britain, its colonists and Indian allies.

法印战争是由土地控制权引起的,是一场英国和法国在北美大陆争霸的战争,交战双方是法国殖民者和英国殖民者以及跟它们结盟的印第安部落。

The war began with conflicts about land. French explorers had been the first Europeans in the areas around the Great Lakes and the Ohio and Mississippi rivers. France had sent traders and trappers to these territories and had established trading centers there.

这场战争始于土地冲突。法国探险家是率先抵达大湖区、俄亥俄、以及密西西比河的欧洲人,他们在这些地区安置商人和捕兽人,并建立了交易中心。

Britain claimed the same land. When the king gave land in North America to someone, the land was considered to extend from east coast to west coast, even though no one knew where the west coast was. The land along the east coast had become crowded, and settlers were moving west. White people were destroying the Indians' hunting areas. And Indians became worried that they would lose the use of their land.

然而,英国认为这片土地是英国的。英国国王的赐地,范围横贯北美大陆东西海岸。随着东海岸人口的增加,殖民者开始向西移动,白人的西进,损害了印第安人的猎区,印第安人担心会丧失土地的使用。

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

The Indian tribes may have been able to resist the people moving west if they had been united. But their own conflicts kept the Indian groups apart. When Britain and France started fighting each other, some Indians helped the British. Others helped the French.

如果联合起来的话,印第安部落本来是可以地抵御殖民者的西进运动的,但是印第安各部落间也存在矛盾,因此缺少凝聚力。英国和法国开战后,印第安部落也分成了亲英和亲法两派。

The French settlers lived mainly in what was called New France. Today it is part of Canada. Life there was different from life in the British colonies to the south. There was no religious freedom, for example. All settlers in French territories had to be French and belong to the Roman Catholic Church. So, many French people who belonged to Protestant churches settled in the British colonies.

法国殖民者主要居住在所谓的新法国地区,是今天加拿大的一部分。那里的生活跟南面英国殖民地的生活截然不同。没有宗教自由。法国领地里的所有定居者都必须是法国人,并属于罗马天主教会。因此很多信奉新教的法国人只好住到英国殖民地去。

France also did not like the fact that the British paid the Indians high prices for animal furs. France was more interested in the fur trade than in settling the land. The British hurt the French traders' business when they bought fur from the Indians.

此外,法国人对建立殖民地不感兴趣,他们关心的是皮毛生意。英国人高价向印第安人收购动物皮毛,损害了法国的经济利益,也引起了法国的不满。

VOICE TWO:

One of the French trading forts was built in the area where the city of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania is today. The French called it Fort Duquesne. The British claimed it was in Virginia and that the land belonged to them. In seventeen fifty-four, the governor of Virginia sent a twenty-one-year-old colonist named George Washington to tell the French to get out. This was the same George Washington who would later become the first President of the United States.

法国在今天美国宾夕法尼亚州的匹兹堡地区建立过一个贸易点,称为迪凯纳堡。但是英国人说,这个城堡位于维吉尼亚,是英国的领地。维吉尼亚总督1754年派遣21岁的乔治·华盛顿前去跟法国人交涉,让他们离开。这位年轻的乔治·华盛顿后来成了美国的第一届总统。

The French refused to leave Fort Duquesne. So Washington and one hundred fifty men tried to force them out. They attacked a group of Frenchmen and killed ten of them. The French and Indian War had begun.

对于英国人的要求,法国人一口回绝。乔治·华盛顿决定诉诸武力,他率领150人对一群法国人发动袭击,打死了其中的十人,从而引发了法印战争。

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

The defeat of General Edward Braddock in Virginia in 1755, in a detail from a work by artist John Andrew
The defeat of General Edward Braddock in Virginia in 1755, in a detail from a work by artist John Andrew

British troops under the command of General Edward Braddock joined George Washington at Fort Duquesne. The British general expected to fight the way battles were fought in Europe. There, troops lined up on open fields and fired their weapons as they marched toward each other.

英国部队在爱德华·布雷多克将军的率领下,赶赴迪凯纳堡参战。布雷多克将军打算打一场欧洲式的战争,也就是两军将士在开阔地里正面冲突,一边向对方推进,一边开火。

The French and Indians did not fight this way. They hid in the woods. They wore clothes that made them difficult to see. They shot at the British from behind trees. The British had more troops than the other side. But the French and Indians won the battle of Fort Duquesne. General Braddock was killed.

但是法国人和印第安人却藏在树丛后面,向英国人开枪射击。虽然英国人在人数上占据优势,但还是输掉了迪凯纳堡一战,布雷多克将军也战死疆场。

VOICE TWO:

Most of the French and Indian War was fought along two lakes in an area of New York state near the border with Canada. One was Lake George. The other, Lake Champlain north of Lake George. It reaches almost all the way to the city of Montreal in Canada.

法印战争的主要战场是在今天美国纽约州靠近加拿大边境的两个湖泊一带。一个是乔治湖、另外一个是乔治湖以北的尚普兰湖,一直通到今天加拿大境内的蒙特利尔。

These lakes provided the best way to move troops and supplies during the French and Indian war. Few roads existed in North America at that time. The military force, which controlled the lakes and rivers, controlled much of North America.

这两个湖泊为法印战争提供了运输部队和给养的最佳手段。当时,北美大陆上还没有多少道路,控制这些湖泊和河流的军事力量同时也控制着北美大陆的大部分地区。

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

The French had military bases in the cities of Quebec and Montreal. The British had military bases along New York's Hudson River. The area between them became the great battleground.

法国人在魁北克和蒙特利尔有军事基地,英国人的军事基地设在纽约的哈得孙河沿岸,中间地带就成了巨大的战场。

Fighting increased after the British defeated the French near Lake George in the last months of seventeen fifty-five. The French then built a new military base to control Lake Champlain and the surrounding area.

1755年最后几个月英国军队在乔治湖附近击败法国部队后,冲突进一步升级,法国人随即兴建了一个新的军事基地,控制尚普兰湖和周围地区。

The French military base was at the southern end of Lake Champlain. They built a strong camp, the kind called a fort. They called it Fort Carillon.

这个军事基地位于尚普兰湖南端,是一个坚固的城堡,被称为卡里永堡。

The fort would control Lake Champlain and the area needed to reach the northern part of Lake George. The fort was designed to provide a strong defense against attack. The French built two big walls of logs, several meters apart. The area between the walls was filled with dirt. Later, a strong stone front was added. Troops inside the walls were well protected. The British built a similar fort at the southern end of Lake George. They called it Fort William Henry.

法国人修建卡里永堡是为了控制尚普兰湖和通往乔治湖北部的地区,在受到进攻时提供坚强防御。法国人修建了两座相隔几米的木墙,在中间填上土,后来又用石头在外面加固了一层,城堡里的士兵非常安全。与此同时,英国人也在乔治湖南端修建了一座类似的城堡,叫威廉姆·亨利堡。

VOICE TWO:

France sent one of its best military commanders to take command of its troops in America. His name was the Marquis de Montcalm. General Montcalm attacked several British forts in seventeen fifty-seven. One of these was Fort William Henry on Lake George. The British commander was forced to surrender.

法国把最好的军事指挥官蒙卡尔姆将军派往美洲指挥战斗。蒙卡尔姆将军1757年对英国的几座城堡发动攻击,其中之一就是乔治湖畔的威廉姆·亨利堡,英国指挥官被迫投降。

General Montcalm promised that the British troops would be treated fairly if they surrendered. But the Indian allies of the French did not honor the surrender agreement. They began to kill British soldiers and settlers. No one is sure how many people died. It could have been more than one thousand.

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

During the French and Indian War and the American Revolution, soldiers often marked their powder horns with maps and other images
During the French and Indian War and the American Revolution, soldiers often marked their powder horns with maps and other images

In seventeen fifty-eight, a strong British force attacked Fort Carillon on Lake Champlain. General Montcalm was the French commander. Fort Carillon was strong enough that the smaller French force was able to defeat the bigger British force. The British withdrew, but attacked again the next year. This time the British commander was General Jeffery Amherst.

1758年,一支强大的英国军队对尚普兰湖畔的卡里永堡发动猛攻,蒙卡尔姆将军组织防守。卡里永堡坚不可摧,法国军队以少胜多,击退了英国的进攻。英国人次年卷土重来,在阿默斯特将军的率领下,终于击败了法国人。

Amherst was successful. The British defeated the French. They changed the name of Fort Carillon to Fort Ticonderoga. It became an important military center in the French and Indian War. Fort Ticonderoga would also become important later, during America's war for independence.

英国人把卡里永堡改名为泰孔德罗加堡,成为法印战争中一个重要的军事中心。泰孔德罗加堡在后来的美国独立战争中,也发挥了重要的作用。

VOICE TWO:

The Battle for Quebec was the turning point in the war. Britain and France signed a treaty to end it in Paris in seventeen sixty-three. The British had won. They took control of the lands that had been claimed by France.

魁北克战役是法印战争的转折点。英法两国1763年在法国巴黎签署了停战协议。英国人取得了战争的胜利,收回了对相关土地的控制权。

Britain now claimed all the land from the east coast of North America to the Mississippi River. Everything west of that river belonged to Spain. France gave all its western lands to Spain to keep the British out. Indians still controlled most of the western lands, except for some Spanish colonies in Texas and New Mexico.

法印战争结束后,从北美大陆东海岸一直到密西西比河的大片土地都归英国所有,密西西比河以西地区归西班牙。为了不让英国人过来,法国把西部自己控制下的所有土地都给了西班牙。除了今天德克萨斯和新墨西哥一带的西班牙殖民地外,西部的大片土地仍然在印第安人的控制之下。

VOICE ONE:

Today, you can still visit the two forts that were so important in the French and Indian War. Little of the original buildings have survived. However, both have been re-built using the original designs. The area surrounding both forts is very beautiful, including the two lakes, Lake George and Lake Champlain.

今天,在法印战争中发挥了重要作用的两座城堡都对外开放,供人们参观。虽然原始建筑几乎完全没有保存下来,但是后人根据城堡的设计图纸重新修建,再现了城堡当年的面貌。城堡周围乔治湖和尚普兰湖的景色美不胜收。

Many people spend their holidays in this area enjoying the outdoors. The area includes one of America's national historical parks, Saratoga. It also includes the Lake George Beach State Park. Few people who visit the area stop to remember the terrible fighting that took place there two-hundred fifty years ago.

很多人到这里来渡假,享受户外生活。当地还有美国国家历史公园之一萨拉托加,以及乔治湖州立沙滩公园。没有什么人会想起250年前这里曾发生过恐怖的战斗。

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

This MAKING OF A NATION program was written by Nancy Steinbach and Paul Thompson. I'm Barbara Klein.

VOICE ONE:

And I'm Steve Ember. Read and listen to our programs at www.unsv.com. Join us again at this time next week for another program about the history of the United States in Special English on the Voice of America.

网友的学习评论(5条):
作者:华晨
British troops defeated french troops in a struggle for north America. The war began with conflicts about land. The anciet war field have became the America's national historical park . These places have been became heritage sight and historical landscape. If i have a chance to vist USA ,I will go sightseeing int these places to remebmer the terrible fighting that took place there two-hundred fifity years ago.
作者:樱桃圆子
A wonderful palace!
作者:Kane
I am here today~~
作者:Melody
The war between countries will only bring forth disaster to the people . Numerous of them either died or became homeless . There is nothing fantastic left after the baffle . War meant death . And peace is what we aim for people all over the world .
作者:Melody
There is nothing fantastic left after the battle .
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