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China's Rise Isn't Our Demise 中国崛起不代表我们衰落

阅读次数:

Joseph R. Biden Jr.
Joseph R. Biden Jr.

I FIRST visited China in 1979, a few months after our countries normalized relations. China was just beginning to remake its economy, and I was in the first Senate delegation to witness this evolution. Traveling through the country last month, I could see how much China had changed in 32 years — and yet the debate about its remarkable rise remains familiar.

我首次访问中国是在1979年两国关系正常化几个月后。当时,中国刚刚开始重建经济,我作为第一个参议院访华代表团的成员见证了这个演变的阶段。上个月我再次访问中国,发现中国在32年中发生了多大的变化.中国的崛起令人瞩目,然而由此引发的争论依然似曾相识。

Then, as now, there were concerns about what a growing China meant to America and the world. Some here and in the region see China’s growth as a threat, entertaining visions of a cold-war-style rivalry or great-power confrontation. Some Chinese worry that our aim in the Asia-Pacific is to contain China’s rise.

那时,如同现在一样,有人担心国力日增的中国对美国和全世界意味着什么。美国和该地区的某些人视中国的崛起为一种威胁,津津乐道地谈论冷战式的对峙或大国间的对抗。有一些中国人担心,我们在亚太地区的目标是遏制中国的崛起。

I reject these views. We are clear-eyed about concerns like China’s growing military abilities and intentions; that is why we are engaging with the Chinese military to understand and shape their thinking. It is why the president has directed the United States, with our allies, to keep a strong presence in the region. As I told China’s leaders and people, America is a Pacific power and will remain one.

对这些观点我无法苟同。我们很了解,人们对中国日益增强的军力及其意图等问题忧心忡忡。正是因为如此,我们正与中国军方接触,希望能了解和影响他们的看法。正是因为如此,总统指示美国与我们的盟国一道在该地区保持强大的存在。我对中国领导人和民众说,美国是一个太平洋大国,并将继续是太平洋大国。

But, I remain convinced that a successful China can make our country more prosperous, not less.

但我仍然坚信,中国的成功可促进我国的繁荣,不会削弱我国的繁荣。

As trade and investment bind us together, we have a stake in each other’s success. On issues from global security to global economic growth, we share common challenges and responsibilities — and we have incentives to work together. That is why our administration has worked to put our relationship on a stable footing. I am convinced, from nearly a dozen hours spent with Vice President Xi Jinping, that China’s leadership agrees.

随着贸易和投资将我们两国紧密地联系在一起,各自的成功对彼此都息息相关。从全球安全到全球经济增长等各种问题,美中两国面临共同的挑战,肩负共同的责任。因此,两国有合作的动力。这就是我国政府努力使两国关系建立在稳定基础上的原因。我曾与习近平副主席在一起度过了十几个小时,所以我相信中国领导人也认同这一点。

We often focus on Chinese exports to America, but last year American companies exported more than $100 billion worth of goods and services to China, supporting hundreds of thousands of jobs here. In fact, our exports to China have been growing much faster than our exports to the rest of the world.

我们常常十分注意中国对美国的出口,但去年美国公司向中国出口了价值1,000多亿美元的产品和服务,支持了美国数十万个就业岗位。事实上,美国对中国出口的增长速度远远超过对世界其他地区的出口。

The Chinese leaders I met with know their country must shift from an economy driven by exports, investment and heavy industry to one driven more by consumption and services. This includes continued steps to revalue their currency and to provide fair access to their markets. As Americans save more and Chinese buy more, this transition will accelerate, opening opportunities for us.

我见到的中国领导人都知道,中国必须从出口、投资和重工业推动的经济转向更多地由消费与服务推动的经济。这包括继续采取步骤重估人民币的币值,提供对他们市场的公平准入。随着美国人增加储蓄,中国人扩大消费,这一转型将加速进行,从而为我们创造机会。

Even as the United States and China cooperate, we also compete. I strongly believe that the United States can and will flourish from this competition.

美中两国在合作的同时,也在相互竞争。我坚信,美国可以而且必将通过这场竞争兴旺发达。

First, we need to keep China’s rising economic power in perspective. According to the International Monetary Fund, America’s gross domestic product, almost $15 trillion, is still more than twice as large as China’s; our per-capita G.D.P., above $47,000, is 11 times China’s.

首先,我们需要恰当地看待中国经济力量的增长。据国际货币基金组织(International Monetary Fund)提供的数据,美国的国内生产总值(gross domestic product,GDP)接近15万亿美元,仍为中国GDP的两倍多;我国的人均GDP是47,000多美元,是中国人均GDP的11倍。

And while there is a lot of talk about China’s “owning” America’s debt, the truth is that Americans own America’s debt. China holds just 8 percent of outstanding Treasury securities. By comparison, Americans hold nearly 70 percent. Our unshakable commitment to honoring our financial obligations is for the sake of Americans, as well as for those overseas. It is why the United States has never defaulted on its obligations and never will.

人们常常对中国“持有”美国债权一事议论纷纷,但实际情况是,是美国人本身持有美国的债权。中国仅持有8%未偿还的财政部债券,而美国人持有将近70%。我们承诺毫不动摇地履行我们的金融责任,不仅为了海外持有人的利益,也是为了美国人民的利益。这就是美国从未发生债务违约且永远不会违约的原因。

Maybe more important, the nature of 21st-century competition favors the United States. In the 20th century, we measured a nation’s wealth primarily by its natural resources, its land mass, its population and its army. In the 21st century, the true wealth of a nation is found in the creative minds of its people and their ability to innovate.

也许更重要的是,21世纪的竞争本质上有利于美国。20世纪,我们主要通过自然资源、陆地面积、人口和军队衡量一个国家的财富。21世纪,一个国家真正的财富在于人民的创造性思维和创新能力。

As I told students in Chengdu, the United States is hard-wired for innovation. Competition is in the very fabric of our society. It has enabled each generation of Americans to give life to world-changing ideas — from the cotton gin to the airplane, the microchip, the Internet.

我在成都告诉学生们,美国在创新方面得天独厚。竞争是我国社会结构的有机组成部分。竞争使世世代代的美国人将改变世界的构想变为现实——从轧棉机到飞机、微型芯片、国际互联网等等。

We owe our strength to our political and economic system and to the way we educate our children — not merely to accept established orthodoxy but to challenge and improve it. We not only tolerate but celebrate free expression and vigorous debate. The rule of law protects private property, lends predictability to investments, and ensures accountability for poor and wealthy alike. Our universities remain the ultimate destination for the world’s students and scholars. And we welcome immigrants with skill, ambition and the desire to better their lives.

我们的实力来源于我们的政治和经济制度,来源于我们教育子女的方式——对已经确立的正统观念,不是简单地接受,也敢于挑战和加以改进。我们不仅接纳,而且鼓励自由表达和激烈的辩论。法治保护私人财产,提供投资的可预见性,责有攸归,无论贫富。我们的大学仍然是全世界学生和学者最向往的目的地。我们欢迎有技能、有雄心和渴望改善自己生活的移民。

America’s strengths are, for now, China’s weaknesses. In China, I argued that for it to make the transition to an innovation economy, it will have to open its system, not least to human rights. Fundamental rights are universal, and China’s people aspire to them. Liberty unlocks a people’s full potential, while its absence breeds unrest. Open and free societies are best at promoting long-term growth, stability, prosperity and innovation.

美国的优势目前来看是中国的弱点。我在中国提出的主张是,中国向创新经济过渡,需要开放其体制,特别是人权方面。人人皆应享有基本的权利,中国人民也渴望行使这些权利。自由可释放一个人的全部潜力,而缺乏自由则会酿成祸乱。开放和自由的社会最有助于促进长期增长、稳定、繁荣和创新。

We have our own work to do. We need to ensure that any American willing to work can find a good job. We need to keep attracting the world’s top talent. We must continue to invest in the fundamental sources of our strength: education, infrastructure and innovation. But our future is in our own hands. If we take bold steps, there is no reason America won’t emerge stronger than ever.

我们本身也有工作要做。我们必须保证任何愿意工作的美国人都能找到一份好工作。我们需要继续吸引全世界的顶尖人才。我们必须继续为我国实力的来源投资:教育、基础设施和创新。但我们的未来掌握在我们自己手中。如果我们采取大胆的措施,美国没有任何理由不比以往更繁荣昌盛。

As vice president, I’ve traveled half a million miles around the world. I always come home feeling the same confidence in our future. Some may warn of America’s demise, but I’m not among them. And let me reassure you: based on my time in China, neither are the Chinese.

我作为副总统前往全世界各地,已经走了50万英里的路。每次回国,我都感到对我们的未来同样充满信心。有些人可能会发出美国衰落的警告,但我不认为如此。我可以向你们保证:根据我在中国的经历,中国人也不认为如此。

Joseph R. Biden Jr. is the vice president of the United States.

约瑟夫·R.拜登是美国副总统。

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本文由美国副总统约瑟夫∙R∙ 拜登(Joseph R. Biden Jr.)撰写,发表在2011年9月8日的《纽约时报》(New York Times)上。以下是文章的中译文。原文见www.nytimes.com

网友的学习评论(2条):
作者:yisiliu2011
We must continue to invest in the fundamental sources of our strength: education, infrastructure and innovation.
作者:lltalent
Fundamental rights are universal, and China’s people aspire to them. What a good view. We really need some kind of different voice on our society, our vision of life and everything that we live upon, to make ourselves live more wisely and impersonally.
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