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中级美国英语 - 第十三课 现在完成式(一)

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一.本课要点及示例

在这课里, 我们要学习 have been, h-a-v-e b-e-e-n, have been 跟 has been, h-a-s b-e-e-n, has been 的用法. 我们也要学习其他现在完成式的句子. 另外我们还要 学习 yet, y-e-t, yet 跟 already, a-l-r-e-a-d-y, already 的用法.

首先我们来听一段对话, 内容是说亨利的大女儿珍妮上大学了, 她上学第一个 星期在校园里遇见她的同学鲍勃, 两个人谈起上课的情况. 请你注意听英文老 师的发音和语调.

M: Hi, Jenny! How do you like the university?

F: Hello, Bob! I like it very much.

M: Have you started your classes yet?

F: I have been to two lectures, chemistry and history.

M: Well, how were they?

F: They were very large. I'm not used to 300 students in class.

M: My lectures have been large too.

F: Have you been to your English class yet?

M: Yes. It was quite small. There were only about 20 students in it.

F: My classes are so far apart. The campus is sure big.

M: It sure is. My morning classes are in different buildings. I have to run between them.

Otherwise I'll be late.

F: I guess we'll get used to it.

现在我请英文老师再把对话念一遍. 请你注意听.

M: Hi, Jenny! How do you like the university?

F: Hello, Bob! I like it very much.

M: Have you started your classes yet?

F: I have been to two lectures, chemistry and history.

M: Well, how were they?

F: They were very large. I'm not used to 300 students in class.

M: My lectures have been large too.

F: Have you been to your English class yet?

M: Yes. It was quite small. There were only about 20 students in it.

F: My classes are so far apart. The campus is sure big.

M: It sure is. My morning classes are in different buildings. I have to run between them.

Otherwise I'll be late.

F: I guess we'll get used to it.

刚才那段对话里有些句子包含了我们今天要学的语法, 现在我们再把这些句子 听一遍.

M: Have you started your classes yet?

F: I have been to two lectures.

M: My lectures have been large too.

F: Have you been to your English class yet?

二.HAS BEEN 和 HAVE BEEN

现在我们开始作练习. 首先请你听一个英文句子: The campus is noisy today.

"今天校园里很吵", 如果我们不指明校园哪一天很吵, 只说 "校园里一直很吵", 用英文可以这样说: The campus has been noisy.

下面我们多多练习这类句子. 这些句子都是跟学校生活有关系的, 比方宿舍一 直很吵, 食堂一直很挤等等. 每个句子老师念两遍.

M: The campus has been noisy.

F: The campus has been noisy.

M: The dormitory has been noisy.

F: The dormitory has been noisy.

M: The student center has been crowded.

F: The student center has been crowded.

M: The cafeteria has been crowded.

F: The cafeteria has been crowded.

下面一些句子的主词都是多数的, 所以用 have been.

M: The students have been enthusiastic.

F: The students have been enthusiastic.

M: The courses have been difficult.

F: The courses have been difficult.

M: The lectures have been interesting.

F: The lectures have been interesting.

M: The professors have been busy.

F: The professors have been busy.

下面我们换一个方式作练习. 由老师提出一个问题, 比方: "鲍勃一直很懒吗?" Has Bob been lazy? 或是 "食堂一直很脏吗?" Has the cafeteria been dirty? 听了 老师的问题之后, 请你用 has not, 也就是 hasn't 作否定的答覆. 每作完一句, 就 请你听老师念正确答案.

M: Has Bob been lazy?

F: No, Bob hasn't been lazy.

M: Has the cafeteria been dirty?

F: No, the cafeteria hasn't been dirty.

M: Has the dormitory been quiet?

F: No, the dormitory hasn't been quiet.

M: Has the library been crowded?

F: No, the library hasn't been crowded.

请你用 have not, 也就是 haven't 回答下面几个问题.

M: Have the students been late?

F: No, the students haven't been late.

M: Have the exams been easy?

F: No, the exams haven't been easy.

M: Have the lectures been boring?

F: No, the lectures haven't been boring.

M: Have the professors been strict?

F: No, the professors haven't been strict.

三.现在完成式

刚才我们学习了用 has been 和 have been 来表示从过去到现在一直不变的情 况, 下面我们学习包含了规则动词, 过去分词. 比方: "抵达" arrived, a-r-r-i-v-e-d, arrived跟 "注册" registered, r-e-g-i-s-t-e-r-e-d, registered 等等字眼的现在完成式 句子. 这种句子表示事情已经发生.

下面这组练习谈的都是珍妮在大学里已经作的事, 比方:她已经到了学校, 已经 搬进了宿舍, 已经打了电话给父母, 已经跟指导教授谈了话,上了课等等. 练习 的作法是老师先念一个句子, 接着老师提出一个词组, 学生就把这个词组代换 到原来的句子里.

M: Jenny has arrived at the university.

M: moved into the dormitory

F: Jenny has moved into the dormitory.

M: cleaned up her room

F: Jenny has cleaned up her room.

M: called her parents

F: Jenny has called her parents.

M: talked to her advisor

F: Jenny has talked to her advisor.

M: registered

F: Jenny has registered.

M: attended classes

F: Jenny has attended classes.

四.YET 和 ALREADY

下面我们来学习两个时常跟现在完成式句子一起出现的时间副词, 也就是yet, y-e-t, yet 跟 already, a-l-r-e-a-d-y, already. 这两个字都表示 "已经", 而且都用在 句尾; 不过不同的是 yet 用在问句里, 而 already 用在肯定句里.

下面一组练习谈的还是珍妮跟鲍勃在大学里已经作的事. 由老师用 yet 提出问 句, 请你用 already 作肯定的答覆. 首先举个例子.

M:Have Bob and Jenny moved into the dormitory yet?

F: Yes, they have moved into the dormitory already.

好, 现在我们开始作练习. 每作完一句, 就请你听正确答案.

M: Have Bob and Jenny moved into the dormitory yet?

F: Yes, they have moved into the dormitory already.

M: Have Bob and Jenny cleaned up their rooms yet?

F: Yes, they have cleaned up their rooms already.

M: Have Bob and Jenny called their parents yet?

F: Yes, they have called their parents already.

M: Have Bob and Jenny talked to their advisors yet?

F: Yes, they have talked to their advisors already.

M: Have Bob and Jenny registered yet?

F: Yes, they have registered already.

M: Have Bob and Jenny attended classes yet?

F: Yes, they have attended classes already.

在否定句里也可以用 yet 来表示 "还没有" 作某件事. 在下面一组练习里, 老师 提出一个问句, 请学生用 yet 作否定的答覆. 这些问题谈的还是鲍勃和珍妮在 学校的生活, 比方他们是不是已经自己作饭, 是不是已经参加了学生委员会等 等. 请你注意听, 并且在学生回答问题的时候也一起回答.

M: Have Bob and Jenny cooked for themselves yet?

F: No, they haven't cooked for themselves yet.

M: Have Bob and Jenny joined the student committee yet?

F: No, they haven't joined the student committee yet.

M: Have Bob and Jenny borrowed books from the library yet?

F: No, they haven't borrowed books from the library yet.

M: Have Bob and Jenny finished a course yet?

F: No, they haven't finished a course yet.

五.听短文回答问题

现在我们来作听力测验. 首先我们还是听一段文章. 这段文章的内容是说鲍勃 和珍妮在上州立大学, 这些大学有多少学生, 教室散布在校园不同地区, 学生 们赶着上课的情况.文章里也提到美国大学生应该念什么课, 哪些是选修, 哪些 是必修,什么时候上专业课等等.

现在请你注意听.

There are thousands of colleges and universities in the United States. Nearly half of the high school graduates in America go on to college. Most, like Bob and Jenny, go to large universities. These are state universities. Some of these universities have 40,000 or more students. There are also many small universities with only a few hundred students.

Large universities have many buildings,each building for a particular subject. The buildings are in a large area. This area is the university campus. Students often must go from one class in one building to the next class in another building across campus. They may have only a few minutes between classes to go from one building to another.

When students begin the university, they must take classes in many subjects. These are the required courses. English and math are usually required courses and often a history and a science course are required too. Bob and Jenny will study mostly required courses during their first year. Later, they will specialize, and take courses in one subject.

今天这段文章比较长, 等一会儿我会请英文老师再用慢速度念一遍. 现在我们 先来听今天测验的三个问题.

第一个问题是:

M: Are all American universities the same size?

第二个问题是:

M: Do American university students study different subjects in the same building?

第三个问题是:

M: What are some of the required courses in American universities?

现在我们请英文老师用慢速度再把整段文章念一遍.

There are thousands of colleges and universities in the United States. Nearly half of the high school graduates in America go on to college. Most, like Bob and Jenny, go to large universities. These are state universities. Some of these universities have 40,000 or more students. There are also many small universities with only a few hundred students.

Large universities have many buildings,each building for a particular subject. The buildings are in a large area. This area is the university campus. Students often must go from one class in one building to the next class in another building across campus. They may have only a few minutes between classes to go from one building to another.

When students begin the university, they must take classes in many subjects. These are the required courses. English and math are usually required courses and often a history and a science course are required too. Bob and Jenny will study mostly required courses during their first year. Later, they will specialize, and take courses in one subject.

现在请你回答今天测验的三个问题. 回答之后, 请你听老师念正确答案.

第一个问题是:

M: Are all American universities the same size?

F: No, they are not the same size. Some are large, and some are small.

第二个问题是:

M: Do American university students study different subjects in the same building?

F: No, they study different subjects in different buildings on the campus.

第三个问题是:

M: What are some of the required courses in American universities?

F: English and math are usually required. A history and a science course are often required too.

网友的学习评论(26条):
作者:Kristin_Zhou
They are very useful!I must remember them very much!
作者:zhengchen
excellent work!
作者:xian70999
贵在坚持
作者:Perfect
student dormitory ;student cafetreria; enthusiastic; yet用于疑问句和否定句;already用于肯定句;
作者:Alex
坚持,坚持········
作者:hyaang3
dormitory;cafeteria;enthusiastic
作者:Vical
坚持
作者:zhu
persistence
作者:Felcx
Have you went to GuiLing
作者:Ada.jiang
my campus is very large. we study different subjects in different buildings. sometimes we one class from next class must anothers bulding across .
作者:hcong0826
I think it becomes more difficult slowly to me
作者:ALLEN
I am here now .
作者:Vincentguo
here i am
作者:gil_wang
I have been to study english for two weeks ,I have some learn from experience to share with you.during study english ,i think not depend on anyone .you must be do eveything by yourself. you could write daily life adout study evert day .this is some tentative suggestions of mine.
作者:Maggie
enthusiastic 没听出来。Bob and Jannie will study mostly required course 中的will听成were,然后觉得语法不对,就听成all.
作者:Ada.jiang
I have been busy, because i have learned english and hard work.
作者:stella
i don't know how to university ,because i haven't been to university,it's my regret in my life.i think different people have different lives,so if u struggle it,u can ,u success...................
作者:Ada.jiang
I didn't heard these word'lectures,quite,far apart,enthusiastic,advisor,registered,nearly,particular,mostly,apecialize.'
I have been sad,because i have been lazy!but i have changed a few days ago.
作者:Maggie
之前听写过的,但再次听写cafeteria还是听成cap……,在字典上找了好久。而enthusiastic音没有听清,所以是今天原版才知道。
作者:Maggie
今天学第一段,have been to two lecture读得不顺,另外最后I guess we‘ll get used to it。也没有听得清楚。
作者:Maggie
昨天晚上看东野圭吾的幻夜,就放弃读了,今天早上才读。还是第一段。
作者:Maggie
读第四段。手机坏了。最近读的时候没有之前出现的欣喜的感觉。
作者:Maggie
读第五段,这次改了方法,复读机调到快II,然后跟读。比较好。
作者:Maggie
最后一段会背了,反而读的时候还不顺。
作者:roger
I was learned this lesson today, mark it!
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