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中级美国英语 - 第十五课 现在完成式 since 与 for 的用法

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一.本课要点及示例

在这一课里我们要复习现在完成式, 并且要学习两个时常跟现在完成式句子 一起用的连词, 一个是 since, s-i-n-c-e, since, 一个是 for, f-o-r, for.

现在我们还是按照惯例, 先请英文老师念一段会话,请你听的时候特别注意两 位英文老师的发音和语调.

M: Where have you been, Kate?

F: I've been at the garage for the last two hours.

M: What happened? Did you have an accident?

F: No, nothing happened. But we haven't had the car checked since February. It's needed an oil change for a long time.

M: I know. Have you gotten the car back?

F: No. They've worked on it since four thirty, but they haven't finished it yet.

M: Well, when can we get it back?

F: I'll pick it up on Friday.

M: That's good. Then, we'll have it for the weekend.

现在我们再来听英文老师用慢速度把刚才亨利和凯特的对话念一遍.

M: Where have you been, Kate?

F: I've been at the garage for the last two hours.

M: What happened? Did you have an accident?

F: No, nothing happened. But we haven't had the car checked since February. It's needed an oil change for a long time.

M: I know. Have you gotten the car back?

F: No. They've worked on it since four thirty, but they haven't finished it yet.

M: Well, when can we get it back?

F: I'll pick it up on Friday.

M: That's good. Then, we'll have it for the weekend.

下面我请英文老师把刚才那段对话里包含了今天要学的语法的句子再念一遍 给你听

F: I've been at the garage for the last two hours.

F: We haven't had the car checked since February.

F: It's needed an oil change for a long time.

F: They've worked on it since four thirty.

二.现在完成式复习

听完对话, 现在我们该作练习了. 首先我们来复习现在完成式.

下面这组练习的内容是说亨利从早上到现在已经作了什么事, 比方他已经到 过办公室, 已经写了一份报告, 已经见到了办公室打字员南希等等. 你先跟着 老师重复一个句子, 然后老师会提出一个新的词组, 请你把词组里的动词改成 过去分词, 代换到原来的句子里. 每作完一句老师会念出正确答案, 你自己作 个比较, 看你作对了没有. 现在开始.

M: Henry has been in his office.

M: have a cup of coffee

F: Henry has had a cup of coffee.

M: read today's newspaper

F: Henry has read today's newspaper.

M: do some exercises

F: Henry has done some exercises.

M: write a report

F: Henry has written a report.

M: see Nancy

F: Henry has seen Nancy.

下面一组练习是说凯特到修车厂买汽油, 顺便请人换机油的事情. 老师用慢速 度提出一些现在完成式问句, 请学生作肯定的答覆, 请你在学生回答的时候也 跟着回答.

M: Has Kate taken her car to the garage?

F: Yes, she has taken her car to the garage.

M: Has Kate bought some gasoline there?

F: Yes, she has bought some gasoline there.

M: Has Kate paid for the gasoline?

F: Yes, she has paid for the gasoline.

M: Has the gasoline been quite expensive recently?

F: Yes, it has been quite expensive recently.

M: Has the cost of gasoline increased?

F: Yes, it has increased.

M: Has Kate's car needed an oil change for a long time?

F: Yes, it has needed an oil change for a long time.

M: Has Kate waited in the garage?

F: Yes, she has waited in the garage.

三.I've 和 She's

以前我们练习过把 have not 简缩为 haven't, 把 has not 简缩为 hasn't. 下面我 们来练习怎么样把代名词跟 have 或是 has 连起来说. 比方 I have 说成 I've, they have 说成 they've, she has 说成 she's 等等. 现在我们来作两组练习, 内 容都是亨利和凯特吃过晚饭之后话家常.

第一组练习是亨利问凯特是否已经作了某些事情, 凯特用 I've 作肯定的答覆.

请你注意听亨利问问题, 并且跟凯特一起回答问题.

M: Have you taken the car to the garage yet?

F: Yes, I've taken it to the garage.

M: Have you been to the new supermarket yet?

F: Yes, I've been there.

M: Have you given Peter his weekly allowance?

F: Yes, I've given him his weekly allowance.

M: Have you sent the package to Jenny yet?

F: Yes, I've sent it to Jenny.

M: Have you heard about Linda's new boyfriend?

F: Yes, I've heard about him.

下面凯特问亨利一些有关亨利的同事南希的问题, 比方南希是否已经搬到郊 区, 是否已经决定结婚, 是否谈起到纽约渡蜜月的事情. 亨利用 she's 作肯定 的答覆. 请你注意听, 并且跟亨利一起回答.

F: Has Nancy moved to the suburb yet?

M: Yes, she's moved to the suburb.

F: Has Nancy bought a car yet?

M: Yes, she's bought a car.

F: Has Nancy gotten used to driving to work?

M: Yes, she's gotten used to it.

F: Has Nancy decided to get married?

M: Yes, she's decided to get married.

F: Has she told you about going to New York for her honeymoon?

M: Yes, she's told me about it.

F: Has Nancy planned to come over for dinner next Saturday?

M: Yes, she's planned to come over.

四.SINCE 和 FOR

刚才我们复习了现在完成式,同时也学了一些新词,现在我们要学习两个连词, 也就是 since 跟 for 的用法. 这个两个字常常跟现在完成式句子一起用. since 表示 "自从一个特定的时间开始", for 表示 "时间持续了多久".

现在我们来听英文老师念一些句子, 比较这两个连词的用法.

M: Henry and Kate have been married since 1962.

F: They have been married for a long time.

M: Henry and Kate have lived in Seattle since 1965.

F: They have lived in Seattle for a long time.

M: Henry has worked as a fireman since 1970.

F: He has worked as a fireman for many years.

下面这组练习是由老师问你一个问题, 然后, 他提出一个特定的时间请你用 since 跟这个特定的时间回答问题. 这些问题都是跟亨利作救火员有关系的.

每作完一句就请你听正确答案.

M: Has Henry wanted to be a fireman?

M: He was a child.

F: Henry has wanted to be a fireman since he was a child.

M: Has Henry worked as a fireman for a long time?

M: 1970

F: Henry has worked as a fireman since 1970.

M: Has Henry ever worked for the city government?

M: He got married.

F: Henry has worked for the city government since he got married.

M: Has Henry been very busy with his job?

M: last month

F: Henry has been very busy with his job since last month.

在下面一组练习里老师问学生一些有关凯特当教员的问题, 每问一句, 老师就 提出一个指明时间长短的词组, 请学生用 for 跟这个词组来回答问题. 请你在 学生作练习的时候也一起作.

M: How long has Kate been a teacher?

M: a long time

F: She's been a teacher for a long time.

M: How long has Kate taught in elementary school?

M: many years

F: Kate's taught in elementary school for many years.

M: How long has Kate taught this year?

M: 6 months

F: Kate's taught for six months this year.

M: How long has Kate been in school today?

M: 4 hours

F: Kate's been in school for 4 hours today.

下面一个练习是由老师给你念一个现在完成式否定句, 接着老师提出一个表 明时间的词组, 请你把这个词组用进原来的句子里. 注意凡是指明特定的时间 你就必须用 since, 凡是说明时间长短的词组, 你就必须用 for. 每作完一句就 请你听老师念正确答案. 看你作对了没有.

M: Henry hasn't seen his cousin, Susan.

M: last year

F: Henry hasn't seen his cousin, Susan, since last year.

M: Henry hasn't written to his daughter, Jenny.

M: two weeks

F: Henry hasn't written to his daughter,Jenny,for two weeks.

M: Henry hasn't eaten any meat.

M: last week

F: Henry hasn't eaten any meat since last week.

M: Kate hasn't heard from her sister.

M: April

F: Kate hasn't heard from her sister since April.

M: Kate hasn't taken a trip

M: the year before last

F: Kate hasn't taken a trip since the year before last.

M: Kate hasn't bought any expensive clothes.

M: 10 months

F: Kate hasn't bought any expensive clothes for 10 months.

五.听短文回答问题

刚才那个练习你都作对了吗? 现在我们来作今天的听力测验.今天老师要念的 文章是说汽车在美国变得很普遍, 人们以汽车为主要交通工具, 上班, 上街, 去 旅行都要靠汽车.

现在请你注意听, 等一会儿老师会根据这段文章问你几个问题.

Perhaps more than any other people, Americans have come to depend on their cars.

The family car has been a common thing since the early 20th century, and it has changed American life. Many people have moved outside of the large cities to the suburbs.

Some Americans spend two hours a day or more in their cars going to work and home again. Cars have become the means of transportation for most Americans going shopping, and even going on vacations.

Americans used to like big cars, and gasoline used to be very inexpensive. Recently, however, the cost of gasoline has increased, smaller cars have become more common.

Also foreign cars have become very common. Americans have bought large numbers of Japanese and German cars. They have bought cars from several other countries as well.

刚才那段文章要是你没有全懂, 没有关系, 等一会儿我请英文老师再给你念 一遍. 现在我们先来听今天测验的三个问题.

第一个问题是:

M: How long has the family car been a common thing in the United States?

第二个问题是:

M: How has the family car changed American life?

第三个问题是:

M: Do Americans only buy American cars?

现在我们再听英文老师把刚才那段文章用慢速度念一遍.

Perhaps more than any other people, Americans have come to depend on their cars.

The family car has been a common thing since the early 20th century, and it has changed American life. Many people have moved outside of the large cities to the suburbs.

Some Americans spend two hours a day or more in their cars going to work and home again. Cars have become the means of transportation for most Americans going shopping, and even going on vacations.

Americans used to like big cars, and gasoline used to be very inexpensive. Recently, however, the cost of gasoline has increased, smaller cars have become more common.

Also foreign cars have become very common. Americans have bought large numbers of Japanese and German cars. They have bought cars from several other countries as well.

现在请你回答下面三个问题. 每回答一句就请你自己跟老师念的正确答案比 较一下, 看你答对了没有.

第一个问题是:

M: How long has the family car been a common thing in the United States?

F: The family car has been a common thing in the United States for over 40 years.

第二个问题是:

M: How has the family car changed American life?

F: Many Americans have moved to the suburbs. Cars have become the means of transportation for most Americans going to work, going shopping and going on vacations.

第三个问题是:

M: Do Americans only buy American cars?

F: No, Americans have bought cars from Japan, Germany and several other countries.

网友的学习评论(31条):
作者:stella
怎么下载的课程录音听起来不是跟本课内容配套的呢?
作者:English-crazy
very good!
作者:xian70999
坚持!
作者:学习
怎么回事?音频不对?!!1
作者:学习
坑爹丫
作者:Alex
I've insist study English here for a long time.
作者:松魂
I am here,beacuse i insist
作者:David
Well
作者:Dilen chen
i have been very hard study english was a king road。
作者:Ada.jiang
I have becamed silent idler for a long time. I haven't discussed any about working speech for 8 months . because i meet a incapable manager.
作者:see you
After I learn lesson 15, the biggest harvest I get is that I know the usage of since and for.
作者:JerryBing
good
作者:汪绢
I haven't seen my parents for a long time.
作者:Jenny
I haven't seen my parents for a long time.
作者:gil_wang
I have been studied english for two weeks ,thoughout studying ,studying english has broughlot of changers for me ,for example I have made some good frients in Rolya and l have met some very kind of teachers.
作者:Ada.jiang
i have depended my electric bicycle since 2010. i have decided to save money for own car.
作者:Maggie
I study every day, I can see my imiprovement
作者:stella
my Brother-in-law has a big car ,it's has been china,The space inside the car is large and so Practica......
作者:宁宁
in text, "They've worked on it since four thirty, but they haven't finished it yet."four thirty, what's mean ?Who can help me? thanks!
I have loved my girl friend for three years,today ,is her birthday, i have many words want to say,however ,no wods can discribe my sense of feeling.
作者:Ada.jiang
i didn't herad these words'checked,garage,accident,gasoline,allowwance,suburb,elementary,perhaps,outside of,transportation.'
I have been a learner of UNSV for a month!
作者:Maggie
有‘ve连读的句子都是根据语法等猜出来的,基本听不出;特别是they ’ve worked on it since 4:30;‘s的句子稍微好听出来一点,it's needed an oil change for a long time。 另外checked used也不好听出。
作者:Maggie
继续读,天冷
作者:Maggie
I‘ve昨天读的时候才读对,之前其实一直读I’ver,开始还奇怪听力老师怎么能读那么快。读闭口音I‘v后就发现读起来顺很多。
作者:Maggie
继续读
作者:Maggie
继续读
作者:Maggie
很努力地读了几天,虽然顺利了,但之前口齿噙香的感觉,或者舌头动地比脑筋快的现象没有出现。有点像完成任务了
作者:Maggie
最后的听力部分了,听力部分感觉好些。愿意读。
作者:Maggie
继续读最后一段。
作者:Maggie
最后一段读得很顺,也很喜欢读,可能这次的内容我喜欢。
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