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中级美国英语 - 第三十一课 虚词 it 的用法(一)

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一.本课要点及示例

在这一课里, 我们学习虚词 it, i-t, it 的用法, 比方: "买房子不容易" It isn't easy to buy a house. "买房屋保险是必需的" It's necessary to buy house insurance等 等. 另外我们要学习许多有关买卖房屋的词汇.

现在我们来听今天这一课的对话, 内容是说亨利跟凯特谈起了邻居卖房子的 事情. 请你注意听两位英文老师的发音和语调.

F: Henry, the Fishers finally sold their house.

M: Well, it's good to hear that.

F: It hasn't been easy to sell a house these days. I was worried.

M: So was I. And the Fishers were so anxious to move. Did they get their price?

F: They got five thousand dollars less than they were asking for the house.

M: It isn't bad. It's expected to get less than what is asked.

下面我请英文老师把整段对话再用慢速度念一遍, 请你注意听.

F: Henry, the Fishers finally sold their house.

M: Well, it's good to hear that.

F: It hasn't been easy to sell a house these days. I was worried.

M: So was I. And the Fishers were so anxious to move. Did they get their price?

F: They got five thousand dollars less than they were asking for the house.

M: It isn't bad. It's expected to get less than what is asked.

现在老师把包含了it 的句子用慢速度再念一遍给你听.

M: It's good to hear that.

F: It hasn't been easy to sell a house these days.

M: It's expected to get less than what is asked.

二.IT

听了上面几个句子, 我想你已经注意到 it 的用法. 比方 "拥有一幢房子很困难" It's difficult to own a house. 在这个句子里 it 指的就是 to own a house.

现在我们作一组练习, 学学这种用法. 练习里的句子都是跟买房子, 租公寓有 关系的. 练习的作法是老师念一个句子,接着老师给你一个动词词组, 比方 "买 公寓" to purchase a condominium, 老师也可能给你一个形容词, 比方 "经济实 惠" economical, 请你把听到的代换到句子里.

M: It's difficult to own a house.

M: purchase a home

F: It's difficult to purchase a home.

M: costly

F: It's costly to purchase a home.

M: purchase a condominium

F: It's costly to purchase a condominium.

M: practical

F: It's practical to purchase a condominium.

M: economical

F: It's economical to purchase a condominium.

M: rent an apartment

F: It's economical to rent an apartment.

M: common

F: It's common to rent an apartment.

我希望刚才那组练习你都作对了. 下面我们再作一组练习, 用刚才那种句子构 造学学买房子或是租房子应该注意的事情, 比方 "选择合适的地点" select the right location, "有好邻居" have good neighbors, "有个讲理的房东" have a reasonable landlord 等等. 练习的作法是老师提出一个问题, 请你作肯定的答 覆. 每作完一句还是请你听老师念正确答案.

M: Is it important to select the right location?

F: Yes, it is important to select the right location.

M: Is it important to live in a good neighborhood?

F: Yes, it is important to live in a good neighborhood.

M: Is it important to have good neighbors?

F: Yes, it is important to have good neighbors.

M: Is it important to have a reasonable landlord?

F: Yes, it is important to have a reasonable landlord.

下面一组练习谈到买房子必须作的事情, 比方 "借钱" get a loan, "贷款" get a mortgage, "查利率" check the interest rate. "按期付款" make regular payments, "买房屋保险" buy house insurance, "付清贷款" pay off the mortgage 等等. 练习 的作法是老师念一个句子, 接着老师念一个词组. 请你把你听到的代换到原来 的句子里, 每作完一句就请你听老师念正确答案.

M: It is necessary to pay for the house.

M: get a loan

F: It is necessary to get a loan.

M: get a mortgage

F: It is necessary to get a mortgage

M: check the interest rate

F: It is necessary to check the interest rate.

M: repay the bank

F: It is necessary to repay the bank.

M: make regular payments

F: It is necessary to make regular payments.

M: buy house insurance

F: It is necessary to buy house insurance.

M: pay off the mortgage

F: It is necessary to pay off the mortgage.

在下面一组练习里, 我们把两种意思相同但是句型不同的句子作个比较. 比方 我们刚才练习过的一个句子: It is necessary to pay for the house. 这句话也可 以这样说: Paying for the house is necessary. 现在我们开始作练习, 由老师用 it 作一个句子, 比方 It is necessary to get a loan.请你把句子改成Getting a loan is necessary. 每作完一句, 就请你听老师念正确答案.

M: It is necessary to pay for the house.

F: Paying for the house is necessary.

M: It is necessary to get a loan.

F: Getting a loan is necessary.

M: It is necessary to get a mortgage.

F: Getting a mortgage is necessary.

M: It is necessary to check the interest rate.

F: Checking the interest rate is necessary.

M: It is necessary to repay the bank.

F: Repaying the bank is necessary.

M: It is necessary to make regular payments.

F: Making regular payments is necessary.

M: It is necessary to buy house insurance.

F: Buying house insurance is necessary.

在刚才的几组练习里我们学到了在美国买房子必须作的事情. 现在我们还是 用 it 作句子, 学学在郊区买房子有什么好处和坏处. 练习的作法是老师提出 一个问句, 比方 "住在郊区比较安全吗?" Is it safer to live in the suburbs? 接着 老师提出一个形容词, 比方 "麻烦" troublesome, 你就用这个形容词的比较级 把问句改成 Is it more troublesome to live in the suburbs? 好, 现在我们开始作 练习, 每作完一句, 老师就把正确答案念给你听.

M: Is it safer to live in the suburbs?

M: quiet

F: Is it quieter to live in the suburbs?

M: economical

F: Is it more economical to live in the suburbs?

M: interesting

F: Is it more interesting to live in the suburbs?

M: comfortable

F: Is it more comfortable to live in the suburbs?

M: expensive

F: Is it more expensive to live in the suburbs?

M: troublesome

F: Is it more troublesome to live in the suburbs?

M: dangerous

F: Is it more dangerous to live in the suburbs?

M: convenient

F: Is it more convenient to live in the suburbs?

下面一组练习是说到住在城里的好处和坏处; 比方老师问学生 "住在城里比较 不舒服吗?" Is it less comfortable living in the city? 接着老师念出一个形容词, 学生就把形容词代换到原来的句子里, 请你在学生作练习的时候也一起作.

M: Is it less economical living in the city?

M: interesting

F: Is it less interesting living in the city?

M: comfortable

F: Is it less comfortable living in the city?

M: expensive

F: Is it less expensive living in the city?

M: troublesome

F: Is it less troublesome living in the city?

M: dangerous

F: Is it less dangerous living in the city?

M: convenient

F: Is it less convenient living in the city?

下面一组练习是由老师用疑问词 what 问你一个问题, 比方: What has become necessary? 接着老师念一个词组, 比方: "有收入" having an income. 请你用 这个词组来回答问题,所以答案就是:Having an income has become necessary.

然后你再用 it 把句子改成 It has become necessary to have an income. 每作完 一个句子就请你听老师念正确答案.

M: What has become difficult?

M: purchasing a home

F: Purchasing a home has become difficult.

F: It has become difficult to purchase a home.

M: What has become costly?

M: buying a condominium

F: Buying a condominium has become costly.

F: It has become costly to buy a condominium.

M: What has become expensive?

M: renting an apartment

F: Renting an apartment has become expensive.

F: It has become expensive to rent an apartment.

M: What has become common?

M: paying high interest rate

F: Paying high interest rate has become common.

F: It has become common to pay high interest rate.

M: What has become important?

M: getting a mortgage

F: Getting a mortgage has become important.

F: It has become important to get a mortgage.

三.听短文回答问题

今天我们要听的文章是谈到美国人的住房问题. 文章里不但说到美国人民怎 么样贷款买房子, 还谈到租房子或是租公寓有什么好处.

请你注意听, 等一会儿我们要根据文章问你几个问题.

In the U.S. today, the cost of housing is very high. It is common to pay one fourth to one third of a family's income on a place to live. The price of a house depends on its size and location. Big houses are more expensive than smaller ones. And houses closer to the center of big cities are more expensive than ones in the suburbs or in small towns.

Regardless of the cost, it is usual for people to buy their houses over a period of time.

When a family buys a house, it is necessary to borrow money from a bank to pay for it.

Then they repay the bank in regular payments. This kind of bank loan is called a mortgage. Families can take 30 years to pay-off the mortgage. Without a mortgage it would be impossible for most people to own their houses.

Many Americans don't own their own homes. They pay landlords to live in their homes.

The money they pay for this is called rent. Usually, it is cheaper to rent than it is to buy and to pay a mortgage. Also, when something needs to be repaired, it is easy for the renter to ask the landlord to fix it.

Some people rent houses, but most renters live in apartments. Apartment buildings are located in cities where it is too costly to build houses. Recently it has become common for renters to buy their apartments. When this happens, the cost usually increases but the money goes to pay off the mortgage. Apartments bought this way are called condominiums.

刚才那篇文章如果你没有全部听懂, 没有关系, 等一会儿老师会再念一遍给你 听. 现在我们先来听老师把今天测验的问题念一遍.

第一个问题是:

M: How much do most Americans pay for a place to live?

第二个问题是:

M: How do most Americans pay for a house?

第三个问题是:

M: What are some of the advantages of renting an apartment?

现在我请英文老师用慢速度再把整篇文章念一遍.

In the U.S. today, the cost of housing is very high. It is common to pay one fourth to one third of a family's income on a place to live. The price of a house depends on its size and location. Big houses are more expensive than smaller ones. And houses closer to the center of big cities are more expensive than ones in the suburbs or in small towns.

Regardless of the cost, it is usual for people to buy their houses over a period of time.

When a family buys a house, it is necessary to borrow money from a bank to pay for it.

Then they repay the bank in regular payments. This kind of bank loan is called a mortgage. Families can take 30 years to pay-off the mortgage. Without a mortgage it would be impossible for most people to own their houses.

Many Americans don't own their own homes. They pay landlords to live in their homes.

The money they pay for this is called rent. Usually, it is cheaper to rent than it is to buy and to pay a mortgage. Also, when something needs to be repaired, it is easy for the renter to ask the landlord to fix it.

Some people rent houses, but most renters live in apartments. Apartment buildings are located in cities where it is too costly to build houses. Recently it has become common for renters to buy their apartments. When this happens, the cost usually increases but the money goes to pay off the mortgage. Apartments bought this way are called condominiums.

现在请你回答下面三个问题.

第一个问题是:

M: How much do most Americans pay for a place to live?

F: Most Americans pay one fourth to one third of their income for a place to live.

第二个问题是:

M: How do most Americans pay for a house?

F: They get a mortgage.

第三个问题是:

M: What are some of the advantages of renting an apartment?

F: It is cheaper and easier to get repairs.

网友的学习评论(9条):
作者:Ada.jiang
chinese apartments are bourht by government official,so some people only buy commodity house,but some of other people haven't own their house.
作者:see you
It is necessary to rent an apartment, as more and more people rent apartments,renting an apartment has become costly. It is costly to rent an apartment. so people dream of purchasing a house, dream of becomimg a house owner.
作者:Ada.jiang
studying english has became common.it has became common to study english.ahhh
作者:Maggie
第一段中的well写得这么简单,实际听起来像很长的单词。2.They got five thousand dollars less than they were asking for the house. less我听成left,当时还以为是特殊用法呢。3. condominium公寓 通常我们知道是apartment
作者:Maggie
mortgage 中的t不发音。
作者:Maggie
Regardless of the cost, it is usual for people to buy their houses over a period of time.这句中有两个单词听不出来。regardless 我听成regard,a period我听成 appearent.
作者:Ada.jiang
I didn't hear these words"anxious to, select, mortgage, repay, condominium, a period of time."
作者:nthzf
It is necessary to study English hard.
作者:Maggie
Regardless of the cost, it is usual for people to buy their houses over a period of time第二次听的错误竟然和第一次一模一样,这回a period我听成 appeared
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