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Lesson 15: Before and After

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Anna: Penelope, even though we both love speed walking, could we slow down a bit?

Penelope: No way! I think because I’m walking with you, I’m walking faster.

Anna: Come on, Penelope. Let's take a break. We've been speed walking since 8 a.m.! You're so competitive! You even wore your medals!

Penelope: You brought your trophies! You’re out of shape. When we were little girls, we could speed walk all day! (pulls ahead)

Anna: (chases her) Hey, wait for me! Hey, you know the speed walking rules! If both feet leave the ground, it’s running! You ran!

Prof. Bot: Anna and Penelope are doing something they both love - speed walking!

They are also using adverb clauses.

Adverb clauses tell us when, why, how, where and under what conditions.

For example, 'since 8 a.m.' tells us when.

Adverb clauses are dependent clauses and need an independent clause to make a complete sentence.

Words like before, after, when, because, since, if and even though can signal an adverb clause.

Keep watching for more adverb clauses!

Penelope: Whew! That was great!

Anna: (Anna catches up) Wow, Penelope, you’re still really fast! Since I’ve been working in an office, my speed walking has been much slower.

Penelope: You are slower, Anna. Maybe you should hire a personal trainer.

Anna: That will be great. As long as the trainer understands speed walking.

Penelope: (hands her a business card) Try this company. After you fill out an online application, they will match you to the perfect trainer.

Anna: As soon as I get home tonight, I’ll do it! Thanks.

Anna: Are you my trainer?

Alaskan Albert: If you’re Anna, then I’m your trainer -- Alaskan Albert. Because I’m from Alaskan wilderness, I’m skilled in all outdoor activities of the wild.

Anna: That’s great but what about speed walking?

Alaskan Albert: Speed walking? That's funny! Since I’ve been living in the city, I’ve combined wilderness training with a city workout. I call it “Call of the Wild Parkour!” (He howls like a wolf.)

Anna: Okay … but seriously, when do we speed walk?

Alaskan Albert: Your application did not say how funny you are!

Anna: No. But it did say that I'm a speed walker! Did you read it? Forget it. We'll have to cancel.

Alaskan Albert: Why?

Anna: We can't train today because it's too cold and too windy.

Alaskan Albert: No way! No pain, no gain! When you exercise in really cold weather, you feel alive!

Anna: Really? Because right now I just feel cold.

Alaskan Albert: You're so funny. But seriously, after our training, you will be ready for any extreme physical challenge. Let's get started!

(He leads Anna through some parkour exercises.)

Alaskan Albert: Anna, even though you’re trying really hard, you’re really bad at Call of the Wild Parkour. (he howls)

Anna: I'm bad at Call of the Wild Parkour because I don’t want to do Call of the Wild Parkour! (she howls) I am a speed walker. It’s what I do. It’s part of who I am.

Alaskan Albert: Why didn’t you say something?

Anna: I did. Several times! You thought I was joking.

Alaskan Albert: Now I understand. Anna, I can help you., if you follow my advice, I'll put the speed back in your speed walk.

(He shows her how to improve her speed walking)

Alaskan Albert: Go, Anna, go!

Prof. Bot: For more about adverb clauses, visit our website!

New Words

advice - n. an opinion or suggestion about what someone should do

application - n. a formal and usually written request for something

challenge - n. a difficult task or problem or something that is hard to do

competitive - adj. having a strong desire to win or be the best at something

extreme - adj. (sports) unusual and dangerous

follow - v. to be guided by (something)

no pain, no gain - expression. If you want to improve, you must work so hard that it hurts.

parkour - n. the activity or sport of moving rapidly through an area, typically in an urban environment, negotiating obstacles by running, jumping, and climbing.

personal trainer - n. a person who teaches or coaches athletes or animals

physical - adj. relating to the body of a person instead of the mind

skilled - adj. having the training, knowledge, and experience that is needed to do something

though - adv. used when you are saying something that is different from or contrasts with a previous statement

wild - n. a wild, free, or natural place, state, or existence

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