官方APP下载:英语全能特训(微信小程序版,支持苹果手机、安卓手机)

创办于2003年
UNSV记不住?那就记中文谐音“忧安思危”吧!
  Slow and Steady Wins the Race!
UNSV英语学习频道 - Slow and steady wins the race!
公众微信服务号
英语全能特训(微信公众服务号)
UNSV英语学习频道淘宝网店
客服短信:18913948480
客服邮箱:web@unsv.com
初级VIP会员
全站英语学习资料下载。
¥98元/12个月

Preventing Conflict Between Lions and People

阅读次数:


VIP会员专享下载:(非VIP会员无权下载!如果想下载,但还不是VIP会员,请点此订购
下载方式:使用鼠标右键(注意是鼠标右键!)点击下面的MP3音频/MP4视频链接,然后选择“另存为…”。
MP3节目录音 MP3节目录音 
文章原文
同步字幕

Saitoti Petro is trying to change his neighbors' ideas about lions. Petro lives in northern Tanzania, where people and lions have lived together for as long as anyone can remember.

But that relationship is uneasy.

Petro is one of more than 50 lion monitors in an area known as the Maasai Steppe. It is named after the Maasai people, who live there and work as herders raising cattle.

Each day, Petro walks around the area, helping herders protect their animals from lions. He and other monitors get support and training from a non-profit group called African People and Wildlife. The group has offices in Tanzania and the United States.

Over the past 10 years, African People and Wildlife has helped more than 1,000 families build secure, modern fencing to protect their livestock. The fencing is partly made of chain-link fence and living acacia trees.

The method is experimental. However, the survival of lions and other large animals living in East Africa's grasslands may depend on it. The goal is to find a way in which people, their livestock and wild animals can continue to use the land together.

The lion is in danger

Across Africa, the lion population has decreased by 40 percent over the past 20 years. That number comes from the International Union for Conservation of Nature. The group says that scientists are considering putting lions on the list of animals thought to be threatened with extinction.

Lions can no longer be found on 94 percent of the land in Africa where they used to live. The biggest reason is the loss of grasslands to farming and cities. This loss is the biggest risk to wildlife in Africa and around the world. But for lions, illegal hunting and revenge killings are also major threats.

In this photograph taken Tuesday July 2, 2019, Saitoti Petro, right, speaks to young herdsmen near the village of Loibor Siret, Tanzania.
In this photograph taken Tuesday July 2, 2019, Saitoti Petro, right, speaks to young herdsmen near the village of Loibor Siret, Tanzania.

Lion monitor Saitoti Petro works closely with the Maasai people. Lions are respected in Maasai culture. But when the animals kill prized cattle, Maasai often seek to answer the attack by killing lions. These revenge killings have become more deadly in recent years. The reason: herdsmen have stopped using traditional spears and now leave out poisoned meat, which can kill lions and other animals.

Petro wonders if these conflicts can be prevented. "Our elders killed and almost finished off the lions," he said, "Unless we have new education, they will be extinct.'

It is rare for people to live close to large, meat-eating animals. For example, there has been heated debate in the United States over whether to let gray wolves live near Yellowstone Park.

But on the high plains in northern Tanzania, herders have been living close to wildlife for a long time. Their cows, goats and sheep live on the same grasslands as zebra, buffalo and giraffes – and the lions, leopards and hyenas that hunt them.

What happens on the Maasai Steppe may be important to the future of lions all over Africa. Tanzania is home to more than one third of remaining African lions. Oxford University researchers puts that number at 22,500.

There is some evidence that efforts to ease the conflict between human beings and lions are working. In 2005, the village of Loibor Siret reported three attacks on livestock each month. By 2017, the number had fallen to one each month. The biggest change was the addition of improved fencing.

Also, the group African People and Wildlife says lion monitors helped in 14 incidents that might have led to a lion hunt. But lion hunts still happen. In July, wildlife officials reported on a hunt which included a picture of a dead lion with its four feet and tail cut off. The body parts are considered traditional talismans.

Craig Packer is a biologist who set up the Lion Center at the University of Minnesota. Packer says efforts like the one Petro takes part in are helpful, but he worries about the future.

"These conflict-mitigation efforts clearly help lions, although there's always the question of whether they're going to last 20 or 50 years with a growing human population," he said.

Wildlife refuges do not fully protect animals, like lions, that need very large spaces in which to live. For example, in Tarangire National Park, zebra and wildebeest spend periods with little or no rainfall inside the park. But when rains come in the winter, the animals move outside of the protected area, and the lions and cheetah follow them.

Michiel Veldhuis is an ecologist at the University of Leiden in the Netherlands. He has studied parks and wildlife.

Veldhuis told The Associated Press, "The current way of just thinking about the borders of protected areas isn't working." He added, "We need to think about how to include people living next to protected areas."

Some people are unsure about living in areas with dangerous wild animals nearby.

"We don't want to hear lions roar at night," said Neema Loshiro, a 60-year-old woman who lives in Loibor Siret. She likes giraffes and impala because "they're pretty and don't attack people or crops."

But Tanzanians' opinions about wildlife are also changing.

Petro's 69-year-old father killed his first lion when he was 25. Four years ago, he moved into a new home that included improved fencing. He has not lost any livestock to lions or other animals.

"The modern fence is very helpful," he said.

Petro's father said, "Now I love to see lions," but not too close to his home. He also supports his son's effort to educate neighbors about avoiding conflicts with lions.

I'm Anne Ball. And I'm Mario Ritter Jr.

Christina Larson reported this story for the Associated Press. Mario Ritter Jr. adapted it for VOA Learning English. George Grow was the editor.

Words in This Story

monitor – n. someone who watches over so something or someone

eldern. someone who is older; an aged person; a traditional leader

spear – n. a sharp-pointed instrument; a weapon with a sharp head

livestock – n. farm animals

talismans – n. an object believed to have magical powers

mitigation – n. to make some situation less harmful

prettyadj. pleasing or nice

roar – n. the sound made by a lion

We want to hear from you. Write to us in the Comments Section, and visit our Facebook page.

网友的学习评论(0条):
版权所有©2003-2019 南京通享科技有限公司,保留所有权利。未经书面许可,严禁转载本站内容,违者追究法律责任。 互联网经营ICP证:苏B2-20120186
网站备案:苏ICP备05000269号-1中国工业和信息化部网站备案查询
广播台