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2010年1月17日 星期日 美国人物——全世界最受欢迎的人类学家玛格丽特•米德

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2010117 星期日 美国人物——全世界最受欢迎的人类学家玛格丽特·米德

PEOPLE IN AMERICA - Margaret Mead, 1901-1978: A Public Face of Anthropology

People around the world mourned the death of Margaret Mead in nineteen seventy-eight. A year later, the president of the United States, Jimmy Carter, honored the social scientist with America's highest award for civilians.

1978年,世界各地都在哀悼玛格丽特·米德的去世。一年之后,美国总统杰米卡特表彰了这位社会学家,授予她最高荣誉公民的称号。

Another honor came from a village in New Guinea. The people there planted a coconut tree in her memory. Margaret Mead would have liked that. As a young woman, she had studied the life and traditions of the village.

另一份荣誉来自(太平洋)新几内亚的一个村庄。那里的人们为了纪念她,种了一棵可可树。玛格丽特·米德一定喜欢人们那样做的。年轻时她一直在研究这个村子的生活情况和(地方)传统。

Miz Mead received such honors because she added greatly to public knowledge of cultures and traditions in developing countries. Many people consider her the most influential social science researcher of the twentieth century.

米德女士能够受到这样的称赞,是因为她在发展中国家大大传播了公共文化和传统知识。许多人认为她是20世纪最有影响的社会科学家。

Yet some experts said her research was not scientific. They said she depended too much on observation and local stories. They said she did not spend enough time on comparative studies. They believed her fame resulted as much from her colorful personality as from her research.

然而,一些专家声称,她的研究并不科学。他们说,她的研究过于依赖观察和当地传说。他们还说,她没有花足够的时间来进行比较研究。他们认为,她的声誉更多地来自她个人传奇色彩的经历,而不是来自她的研究。

Margaret Mead shared her strong opinions about social issues. She denounced the spread of nuclear weapons. She spoke against racial injustice.

玛格丽特·米德对社会问题有独特的见解。她谴责了核武器的扩散(问题),公开反对种族不公正(的现象)。

She strongly supported women's rights. Throughout her life she enjoyed taking risks. Miz Mead began her studies of cultures in an unusual way for a woman of her time. She chose to perform her research in the developing world.

她坚决支持女权运动。在她的一生中,她甘冒风险,(倡导各种女性运动)。米德女士以一种不同寻常的方式开始了那个时代女性的文化研究。她选择了发展中国家。

She went to an island village in the Pacific Ocean. She went alone. The year was nineteen twenty-five. At that time, young American women did not travel far away from home by themselves. They did not ask strangers personal questions. They did not observe births and deaths unless they were involved in medical work. Margaret Mead did all those things.

她独自一人前往太平洋的一个小村庄。那是1925年。那个时代,年轻的美国女子没有孤身一人独自离家旅行的。她们不向陌生人问问题。若非医疗事故,妇女们也不会留心自己的生死大事。而年轻的米德小姐这些事情都敢做。

Margaret Mead was born in nineteen-oh-one in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Her father was a professor of finance. Her mother was a sociologist. Few women attended college in those days. However, Margaret Mead began her studies in nineteen nineteen at De Pauw University in Greencastle, Indiana. She soon decided that living in a small town did not improve one's mind. So she moved to New York City to study English and psychology at Barnard College. She graduated in nineteen twenty-three.

玛格丽特·米德生于1901年宾夕法尼亚州的弗城。她的父亲是一名金融教授,母亲是一位社会学家。那个时代,能上大学的女子寥寥无几。然而,玛格丽特·米德于1919年开始就读于印第安那州的绿堡区的迪珀大学。她很快意识到,生活在一个小城镇不能提高自己的思想。她在1923年毕业。

Margaret next decided to study anthropology at Columbia University in New York. She wanted to examine the activities and traditions of different societies. She later earned master's and doctorate degrees.

玛格丽特接下来决定在纽约哥伦比亚大学学习人类学。她想研究不同社会的各种活动和传统,后来,她取得了硕士和博士学位。

Miz Mead studied with two famous anthropologists: Franz Boas and Ruth Benedict. Mister Boas believed that the environment people grow up in -- not family genes -- caused most cultural differences among people.

米德小姐从师于两位著名的人类学家:弗朗茨·博厄斯和卢塞·本尼迪可特。博厄斯先生认为,是人们生长的环境而不是家庭的基因引起了人们之间的多数文化差异。

This belief also influenced his young student. Margaret Mead asked to do research in Samoa in the Pacific Ocean. Mister Boas was concerned for her safety. But he let her go. He told her to learn about how young Samoan women were raised.

这种观念也影响到了他年轻的学生。玛格丽特·米德请求到太平洋的萨摩亚地区去做研究。博厄斯先生担心她的安全,但最终还是让她去了。他告诉她说,要去了解年轻的萨摩亚女子是如何抚养长大的。

In graduate school, Margaret had married Luther Cressman, who was studying to be a clergyman. He went to Europe to continue his studies. She went alone to Samoa in nineteen twenty-five. She worked among the people of Tau Island. The people spoke a difficult language that had never been written down. Luckily, she was able to learn languages easily.

在研究生期间,玛格丽特与罗塞‧克里斯曼结婚,他学习牧师工作,后来去了欧洲继续他的学业。玛格丽特的研究对象是塔乌岛上的人们。该岛上的人们所讲的语言未见文字记载。幸运的是,她能很快学会当地不同的语言。

Miz Mead studied the lives of Samoan girls. She was not much older than the girls she questioned. She said their life was free of the anger and rebellion found among young people in other societies. She also said Samoan girls had sexual relations with anyone they wanted. She said their society did not urge them to love just one man. And she said their society did not condemn sex before marriage.

米德小姐研究的是萨摩亚地区女孩子们的生活,她比她提问的女孩子大不了几岁。她说,她们的生活没有其它社会的年轻人的那种愤怒和反叛倾向。她还说,萨摩亚的女孩子与任何自己喜欢的人都可以有性交往,萨摩亚的人们并不鼓励女孩子只爱一个男子,女子在婚前的性接触也不会受到谴责。

Margaret Mead said she reached these beliefs after nine months of observation in Samoa. They helped make her book "Coming of Age in Samoa" one of the best-selling books of the time. Miz Mead was just twenty-seven years old when her book was published in nineteen twenty-eight. Many American readers were shocked by her observations about the sexual freedom enjoyed by young Samoan women.

玛格丽特·米德说,她在萨摩亚经过九个月的观察得出以上观点。他们帮她写出了当时最畅销的一本书《萨摩亚人的成年》。米德小姐1928年出版此书时才27岁。许多美国读者对她观察到的萨摩亚女子(婚前的)性自由现象感到震惊。

Several social scientists later disputed her findings. Australian anthropologist Derek Freeman wrote a book which criticized her work. The book was published in nineteen eighty-three, five years after her death. He wrote that Miz Mead made her observations from just a few talks with two friendly young women.

几位社会科学家后来对她的发现争论不休。澳大利亚人类学家德里克·弗里曼写过一本书,对她的工作进行了评论。该书出版于1983年,那时玛格丽特已去世五年。他写道,米德小姐只是从两个年轻友的几次谈话中得出上述结论的。

He wrote that they wanted to tell interesting stories to a foreign visitor. But their stories were not necessarily true. Mister Freeman said Samoan society valued a young woman who had not had sexual relations. He said Tau Island men refused to marry women who had had sex. However, many published reports about the debate raised questions about Mister Freeman's criticism. After years of discussion, many anthropologists concluded that the truth would probably never be known.

书中写道,她们想给一个外国拜访者讲一些有趣的故事,但她们的故事不一定是真实的。弗里曼先生说,萨摩亚社会很珍视未曾发生过性关系的女子。他说塔乌岛上的男子拒绝与有过性关系的女子结婚。然而,许多出版的关于争论的报道对弗里曼先生的评论提出了问题。经过多年的争论,许多人类学家得出结论说,真相可能永远不得而知。

After nine months among the Samoans, Margaret Mead returned to the United States. She met a student from New Zealand, Reo Fortune, on the long trip home. Her marriage to Luther Cressman ended. She married Mister Fortune, also an anthropologist, in nineteen twenty-eight. They went to New Guinea to work together. It would be the first of seven trips that she would make to the area in the next forty-seven years.

在萨摩亚九个月之后,玛格丽特·米德回到了美国。在回国的漫长旅途中,她遇到了个来自新西兰的学生里奥·福琼。她与罗塞克里斯曼的婚姻结束了。1928年,她嫁给了福琼先生,他也是一位人类学家。他们夫妻二人双双去了新几内亚,一起在那里工作。此后47年间,她在该地区有七次旅行,这将是她的第一次。

The two studied the people of several areas of New Guinea. She published another influential book, "Sex and Temperament in Three Primitive Societies," in nineteen thirty-five. It was a study of the lives of three New Guinea tribes from infancy to adulthood.

夫妇二人在新几内亚好几个地区都进行了研究。1935年,她出版了另一本有影响的书:《三个原始部落的性与气质》。这本书是她与三个新几内亚部落的婴儿期与成年期的共同生活的研究。

Miz Mead wrote that many so-called male and female characteristics are not based on sex differences. Instead they reflect the cultural traditions of different societies. She wrote that women have the major role in one group in New Guinea without causing any special problems. This book became important for the women's rights movement in the United States.

米德小姐写道,许多所谓的男性和女性不是基于性别差异,而是这些人反映了不同社会的文化传统。她还写道,新几内亚的某个部落群体中,女子起着主要作用,但不会引起任何特别的问题。该书对美国女权运动有最要的作用。

Not long after their New Guinea trip ended, Margaret Mead's marriage to Reo Fortune also ended. In nineteen thirty-six, she married for the third time. Her new husband was Gregory Bateson, a British biologist. Mister Bateson and Miz Mead decided to work together on the island of Bali in Indonesia. The people of Bali proudly shared their rich culture and traditions. Miz Mead observed and recorded their activities. Mister Bateson took photographs. The Batesons had a daughter. But their marriage ended in nineteen fifty.

新几内亚的旅程结束后不久,玛格丽特·米德与里奥·福琼的婚姻也结束了。1936年,她第三次结婚,丈夫是格列高里‧贝特森,一位英国生物学家。贝特森先生和米德小姐决定一起去印度尼西亚的巴厘岛工作。巴厘岛的人们自豪地与他们分享自己丰富的文化和传统。米德小姐观察并记录了巴厘岛人的各种活动,贝特森先生拍摄照片。贝特森夫妇二人有一个女儿,但他们的婚姻在1950年结束了。

As time went on, Margaret Mead's fame continued to grow. Her books sold very well. She also wrote for popular magazines. She appeared on radio and television programs in the nineteen sixties and seventies. She spoke before many groups. Americans loved to hear about her work and the people she studied.

时光流逝,玛格丽特·米德声名雀起,她的著作极为畅销。为畅销杂志也写过文章,20世纪六七十年代在收音机和电视节目中也一度亮过相。她在许多社团都发表过演讲。美国人喜欢听她讲述自己的工作和她研究过的人。

After her trips, Margaret Mead always returned to the American Museum of Natural History in New York City. She worked there for more than fifty years. She also taught at several universities in New York. She studied the problems of child-rearing, personality and culture in different societies.

旅行结束后,玛格丽特·米德总是会回到纽约的美国历史博物馆。在那里工作了50多年,还在纽约的几所大学任过教。她研究了不同社会的儿童阅读、个人品格和文化等问题。

Margaret Mead was also concerned about issues like the environment. On April twenty-second, nineteen seventy, environmental activists organized the first ever Earth Day. Margaret Mead spoke about the dangers of science and technology.

玛格丽特·米德也关心环境问题。1970422日,环保主义者组织了首次地球日,玛格丽特·米德对科技(带来的)危险问题发表了演讲。

MARGARET MEAD: "No society has ever yet been able to handle the temptations of technology to mastery, to waste, to exuberance, to exploration and exploitation. We have to learn to cherish this earth and cherish it as something that's fragile, that's only one, it's all we have. We have to use our scientific knowledge to correct the dangers that have come from science and technology."

玛格丽特·米德:“没有一个社会曾经能够处理技术的诱惑,科技掌控(了我们的世界),(无限制)浪费,四处蔓延,无节制地开发并肆意掠夺(我们的资源)。我们要学会珍惜这个地球,把它当作极易破碎的东西、唯一我们所拥有的东西(来爱惜)。我们要使用科学技术来纠正这些来自科学和技术方面危险的行为。”

Other scientists paid Margaret Mead a high honor when she was seventy-four years old. They elected her president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. A few years later, she developed cancer. But she continued to travel, speak and study almost to the end of her life. One friend said: "Margaret Mead was not going to let a little thing like death stop her."

玛格丽特·米德74岁高龄时,其他科学家给了她很高的荣誉。他们选她当美国高科技协会的主席。几年以后,她得了癌症,但她仍然四处旅行,发表演讲,并坚持学习,直到生命最后的一刻。一个朋友说:“玛格丽特·米德决不让死亡这样的小事阻止她前进的步伐。”

 

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