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#100: Lincoln Names a General to Defend Washington 第100集 - 林肯任命保卫华盛顿的将军

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Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English.

In July of eighteen sixty-one, Union soldiers from the North and Confederate soldiers from the South fought the first major battle in the American Civil War. They clashed at Manassas, or Bull Run, Virginia, less than fifty kilometers from Washington.

1861年7月,北方联邦部队跟南方的邦联部队在距离华盛顿不到50公里处的马纳萨斯打响了美国南北战争的第一战,又称布尔溪战役。

The Union soldiers fought fiercely. But two large Confederate forces broke the Union attack.

北方部队英勇作战,但是南方邦联两股力量联手,击退了北方的进攻。

This week in our series, Harry Monroe and Kay Gallant tell about some of the other early battles of the Civil War.

VOICE ONE:

General George McClellan
General George McClellan

Northerners had expected to win the battle of Bull Run. They believed the Confederacy would fall if the Union won a big military victory early in the war. Now, however, there was great fear that southern soldiers would seize Washington. The Union needed to build and train an army quickly.

北方本以为布尔溪战役会赢,他们觉得,如果一上来就打个大胜仗的话,南方邦联就会立即土崩瓦解。布尔溪一役战败后,北方开始担心南方会夺取首都华盛顿,所以需要迅速训练士兵。

President Abraham Lincoln named General George McClellan to do this. McClellan was thirty-four years old.

林肯总统把这一重担交给了年仅34岁的麦克莱伦将军。

The young general had two important tasks. He must defend Washington from attack. And he must build an army to strike at enemy forces in Virginia. McClellan wasted no time. He put thousands of troops into position around the city. And he built forty-eight forts.

麦克莱伦的任务有两个,一是保卫华盛顿的安全,二是组建军队,对维吉尼亚的敌军发动攻击。麦克莱伦立即行动,在华盛顿周围布署了数千人的兵力,并建造了48个堡垒。

After this rush of activity, however, little more happened for a long time. McClellan told his wife: "I shall take my own time to make an army that will be sure of success. As soon as I feel my army is well-organized and well-trained and strong enough, I will force the rebels to a battle."

这些措施全部到位后,很长一段时间里没有更多的行动。麦克莱伦告诉妻子说,“我要按部就班地培养一支百战百胜的队伍,一旦我觉得这支部队组织严密、训练有素、具备强大的作战能力了,我就要迫使南方叛军跟我们一决胜负。”

McClellan kept making excuses for why he would not move against the enemy. His excuses became a continuing source of trouble for President Lincoln. The public, the press, and politicians all demanded that McClellan do something. They wanted to win the war, and win it right away.

麦克莱伦为迟迟按兵不动提出各种借口,给林肯带来了不少麻烦。公众舆论、媒体、和政客都要求麦克莱伦采取行动,他们希望打赢这场战争,而且最好马上就赢。

VOICE TWO:

McClellan commanded the biggest army in the Union, the Army of the Potomac. But it was not the only army. Others were battling Confederate forces in the West.

麦克莱伦率领的波托马克军团是北方联邦最强大的一支部队,但并非唯一的部队。北方的其它部队在美国西部跟邦联兵力作战。

The Confederates had moved up through Tennessee into the border state of Kentucky. They built forts and other defensive positions across the southern part of the state. They also blocked as many railroads and rivers as they could.

与此同时,南方邦联部队已经北上,从田纳西进入南北交界处的肯塔基,他们在肯塔基南部建立了堡垒等防御据点,并尽量切断铁路和河流的运输线。

General Ulysses Grant
General Ulysses Grant

Their job was to keep Union forces from invading the South through Kentucky. One of the Union generals in the area was Ulysses Grant.

他们的任务是防止北方联邦部队穿过肯塔基,入侵南部地区。当地的北方联邦指挥官之一是尤利塞斯·格兰特将军。

Grant had served in the army for twenty years. He had fought in America's war against Mexico and had won honors for his bravery. When that war ended, he was sent to an army base far from his wife and children. He did not like being without them. And he did not like being an officer in peace time.

格兰特曾在陆军服役20年,参加过美国跟墨西哥的战争,而且还因为勇敢善战而受到表彰。战争结束后,格兰特被调到一个远离妻子孩子的营地,格兰特很不满意远离家人的生活,也不希望做一个和平时期的军官。

Grant began to drink too much alcohol. He began to be a problem. In eighteen fifty-four, he was asked to leave the army. When the Civil War started, Grant organized a group of unpaid soldiers in Illinois. With the help of a member of Congress, he was named a general.

格兰特因此开始酗酒,还经常惹麻烦。1854年,他被要求退役。南北战争打响后,格兰特在伊利诺伊组织了一支无偿服役的志愿军,在一个国会议员的帮助下,格兰特摇身一变,成了将军。

All of the other Union Generals knew Ulysses Grant. Few had any faith in his abilities. They were sure he would always fail.

北方联邦部队的其它将领都很了解格兰特,大家对格兰特的能力缺乏信心,觉得他肯定会一败涂地。

VOICE ONE:

Grant, however, had faith in himself and his men. He believed he could force Confederate soldiers to withdraw from both Kentucky and Tennessee. Then he would be free to march directly into the Deep South -- Mississippi.

然而,格兰特对自己和手下充满了信心。他相信自己能迫使南方邦联士兵退出肯塔基和田纳西,这样他就可以长驱直入,南下密西西比了。

Battle of Fort Donelson
Battle of Fort Donelson

Two Confederate forts stood in Grant's way. They were in Tennessee, close to the Kentucky border.

不过,田纳西境内靠近肯塔基边界的两座南方邦联的堡垒,挡住了格兰特的去路。

United States Navy gunboats captured the first, Fort Henry, on the Tennessee River. That fort was easy to attack and not well-defended. The fighting was over by the time Grant and his men got there.

北方联邦海军炮舰攻占了其中之一--田纳西河沿岸的亨利军事城堡,这个城堡防守松懈,格兰特率领部下赶到的时候,战斗已经结束了。

The second, Fort Donelson, was nearby on the Cumberland River. It was stronger and defended by twenty thousand soldiers. Grant surrounded the fort and let the navy gunboats shell it. The fighting there lasted several days.

另外一个城堡是不远处的坎伯兰河沿岸的道尔逊军事城堡。这个城堡比较坚固,有两万人把守。格兰特包围城堡后,让海军炮舰轰炸,战斗足足持续了好几天。

VOICE TWO:

At one point, the Confederates tried to break out of the fort and escape. They opened a hole in the Union line and began to retreat. Suddenly, however, their commanding officer decided it would be wrong to retreat. He ordered them back to the fort.

南方邦联士兵一度试图突围,他们冲破北方联邦部队的封锁圈后开始撤退,谁知指挥官突然变卦,觉得不能这样做,下令士兵撤回城堡。

After that, there was no choice. The Confederates would have to surrender.

这样一来,南方邦联部队除了投降,别无选择。

The commanding officer sent a message to General Grant. "What were the terms of surrender?" Grant's answer was simple. "No terms except unconditional and immediate surrender."

指挥官传信给格兰特,问他投降有什么条件?格兰特回答很简单,“无条件立即投降就是唯一的条件。”

The Confederates gave up Fort Donelson. Grant took fourteen thousand prisoners.

格兰特将军不仅占领了道尔逊军事城堡,还抓住了1万4千名俘虏。

It was the greatest Union victory since the start of the war. Ulysses Grant was a hero. Newspapers called him "Unconditional Surrender" Grant.

这是南北战争开始以来,北方联邦取得的最大一次胜利。格兰特将军成了英雄,报纸称他是“无条件投降格兰特”。

VOICE ONE:

After the Union victory at Fort Donelson, Confederate forces withdrew from Tennessee. They moved farther south and began to re-group at Corinth, Mississippi.

道尔逊城堡失守后,南方邦联部队退出田纳西,向南撤退,在密西西比的科林斯重新集结。

Confederate Generals hoped to build one big army to stop Ulysses Grant. They would have to move fast. Grant was marching toward Corinth with forty thousand men. Another thirty-five thousand, under the command of Don Buell, were to meet him on the way.

南方将领希望建立一支雄厚大军,拦住格兰特的进攻。不过,他们的动作一定要快,因为格兰特已经率领4万大军直奔科林斯而来,另外,唐·布尔率领3万5千人还要在沿途跟格兰特会师。

Grant arrived in the area first. He waited for Buell thirty kilometers from Corinth, near a small country meeting hall called Shiloh Church.

格兰特率先抵达会师地点,在距离科林斯30公里处一个叫夏洛教堂的议事大厅等候布尔。

Confederate General Albert Sydney Johnston was waiting, too. He had more than forty thousand men, about the same as Grant. And he was expecting another twenty thousand. But when he learned that Grant was nearby, he decided not to wait. He would attack immediately.

与此同时,南方邦联部队指挥官艾伯特·约翰逊也在等待。约翰逊手下有4万多人,跟格兰特的兵力差不多,他还有另外2万援兵。约翰逊得知格兰特就在附近后,决定不再等待,立即进攻。

VOICE TWO:

Johnston did not know it, but his attack came as a surprise to the Union army. Union officers had refused to believe reports that Johnston was on the move. They said his army was not strong enough to attack.

约翰逊的行动打了北方联邦部队一个措手不及。北方部队指挥官觉得约翰逊的兵力不够强大,不相信约翰逊已经出动。

Union troops did not prepare defensive positions. They had no protection when the battle began.

北方部队没有建立任何防守工事,结果战斗打响时,他们完全没有防备和保护。

Battle of Shiloh
Battle of Shiloh

The fighting at Shiloh was the bitterest of the war. It was not one battle, but many. Groups of men fought each other all across the wide battlefield. From a distance, they shot at each other. Close up, they cut each other with knives. The earth became red with blood. The dead and wounded soon lay everywhere.

夏洛一战是南北战争最血腥的一场战役,战斗不只一场,而是很多场。战线拉得很长,交战双方要么远距离对射,要么近距离肉搏,很快就死伤遍地,鲜血染红了整个战场。

At first, the Confederates pushed Grant's army back. They had only to break through one more line and victory would be theirs. But in the thick of the struggle, General Johnston was shot in the leg. The bullet cut through an artery. Johnston bled to death before help arrived. Any hope for a southern victory at Shiloh died with him.

起初,南方邦联士兵迫使格兰特的部队后撤,只要再冲破一道防线,胜利就属于他们了。但是战斗过程中,约翰逊将军腿部受伤,子弹穿透动脉,医护人员赶到前,就因流血过多不幸身亡了。南方邦联部队夏洛一战胜利的希望因此烟消云散。

By the time the fighting began again the next day, General Buell had arrived to help Grant. The Confederate army retreated. The Union army let it go.

第二天战斗重新打响前,布尔将军援兵已到,南方邦联部队后撤,北方联邦部队没有再乘胜追击。

VOICE ONE:

Shiloh. The word itself came to mean death and destruction. The battle of Shiloh had brought home to the American people -- both of the North and South -- the horror of war. It was the first time so many men -- one hundred thousand -- had fought against each other in the western world. It was the American people's first real taste of the bloodiness of modern warfare.

夏洛战役让美国南北方的人都意识到了战争的恐怖。夏洛一词就等同于死亡和毁灭。这是西方世界第一次有多达10万人参加的战斗,也让美国人第一次真正尝到了现代战争的血腥。

As one soldier who fought there said: "It was too shocking, too horrible. I hope to God that I may never see such things again."

参加过夏洛战役的一个士兵说,“太惊人、太可怕了。我希望上帝不要再让我看到这样的事情。”

The North won the battle of Shiloh. But it paid a very high price for victory. More than thirteen thousand union soldiers were killed, wounded, or missing. On the Confederate side, more than ten thousand soldiers were killed or wounded.

北方联邦部队赢得了夏洛战役,但是也为胜利付出了惨重的代价,多达1万3千名联邦士兵伤亡或是下落不明,南方邦联部队也有1万多人伤亡。

The North celebrated the news of its victory. But joy quickly turned to anger when the public learned of the heavy losses. People blamed General Grant. They demanded that President Lincoln dismiss him.

胜利的消息传来,北方一片欢腾,但是当民众得知伤亡如此惨重后,喜悦立即变为了愤怒。大家觉得这都是格兰特的错,要林肯解除他的职务。

Lincoln thought of the two men who were now his top military commanders: McClellan and Grant. They were so different. McClellan organized an army, and then did nothing. Grant organized an army, and moved.

林肯对自己的两员大将麦克莱伦和格兰特左右权衡。这两个人截然不同。麦克莱伦组织了军队,但是按兵不动。格兰特也组织了军队,并立即投入战斗。

Lincoln said of Grant: "I cannot do without this man. He fights."

林肯提到格兰特时说,“我不能没有这个人。他是斗士。”

We will continue our story of the Civil War next week.

(MUSIC)

ANNOUNCER:

Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Harry Monroe and Kay Galllant. Our series can be found online with transcripts, podcasts and historical images at www.unsv.com. You can also follow our programs at twitter.com/voalearnenglish. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

___

This is program #100 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

网友的学习评论(3条):
作者:Alumni
General Ulysess Grant, volunteered at first, led forty thousand men fought against the southern force at Tennesee. won. War is not in practice to capture the all area of the enemy but size the main fort which menas the whole warfare. then it encourages the spirits of the fighters and to all the people of the nation from whom they agian get the great encourages and aids till winning the complete victory.
作者:朱宏文
General Ulysess Grant, volunteered at first, led forty thousand men fought against the southern force at Tennesee. won. War is not in practice to capture the all area of the enemy but size the main fort which menas the whole warfare. then it encourages the spirits of the fighters and to all the people of the nation from whom they agian get the great encourages and aids till winning the complete victory.
作者:swh_2010
最喜欢看这个历史了,学英文学历史,觉得当时的林肯的确不容易哈
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