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#101: The Civil War at Sea 第101集 - 南北战争中的海战

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Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English.

The American Civil War in the eighteen sixties was fought not only on land. There was a great deal of fighting between the Union and Confederate navies.

19世纪60年代美国南北战争的战场不仅局限于陆地,双方海军也多次交战。

This part of the war -- the sea war -- is often forgotten, but it was important. The Union victory might not have been possible without the successes of its navy.

南北战争的海上战役虽然常被遗忘,但其重要性不可忽视。没有海军的贡献,北方联邦恐怕很难取得最终胜利。

Many battles took place just off the coast of the United States. Many others took place farther away, in international waters.

This week in our series, Kay Gallant and Harry Monroe talk about the naval side of the Civil War.

VOICE ONE:

Painting of the battle between the Alabama, left, and the Kearsarge
Painting of the battle between the Alabama, left, and the Kearsarge

As soon as the war started, President Abraham Lincoln wanted to block the South's major ports. He wanted to prevent the South from shipping its agricultural products to other countries in exchange for industrial goods.

战争一开始,林肯总统就下令,设法封锁南方主要港口,不让南方把农产品运出去,跟其它国家交换工业产品。

Lincoln's plan was good. But it had one major weakness. The Union navy was too small for the job.

林肯的计划虽好,但存在严重缺陷,那就是,北方联邦的海军实力不够强大,无法完成这项任务。

The Confederate seacoast was long. It extended from Chesapeake Bay to Mexico, a distance of five thousand six hundred kilometers. There were not enough ships in the Union navy to blockade all of it. Many months would pass before the Union could build up an effective naval force.

南方邦联海岸线绵长,从切萨皮克湾一直延伸到墨西哥,全长约五千六百公里。北方联邦的海军想全线封锁,却没有足够战舰。北方花了很长时间,才最终筹建起一支强有力的海军。

VOICE TWO:

The Confederacy had no navy at the start of the Civil War. The Confederate government had little money to create one. And the South had no factories to build one.

南北战争之初,南方没有海军,邦联政府也没有必要的资金和军工厂。

For a while, the Confederacy was able to get warships from Britain. Then the Union put diplomatic pressure on Britain to stop this support. For the most part, the Confederacy depended on privately owned ships to get goods in and out of the South.

英国一度曾向南方提供战舰,但后来迫于北方的外交压力,不得不停止对南方的支持。因此,南方邦联的水陆运输,主要依靠私人船只。

About twenty of these private ships flew the Confederate flag. Most were very successful in the beginning.

南方邦联旗下的私人船只大约有二十艘,战争初期捷报频传。

The Florida, for example, captured more than thirty ships before being captured itself off the coast of Brazil in eighteen sixty-four. The Alabama captured more than sixty ships. It was finally sunk in a battle with the Kearsarge off the coast of France.

比如说,佛罗里达号先后捕获了三十多条船,1864年才在巴西沿岸成为北方的手下败将。再比如,阿拉巴马号先后捕获了六十多条船只,最后在法国沿岸被凯尔萨奇号击沉。

The Shenandoah sailed in the Pacific Ocean. It captured forty ships. After the war ended, the Shenandoah tied up in Liverpool, England.

雪兰多号在太平洋横冲直撞,捕获过四十条船。南北战争结束后,停靠在英国的利物浦。

VOICE ONE:

A drawing of the Confederate submarine H.L. Hunley
A drawing of the Confederate submarine H.L. Hunley

In addition to these victories, the Confederacy claimed responsibility for several new naval technologies during the Civil War. One was the first modern submarine.

除了这些胜仗外,南军在南北战争期间还推出了若干项海战的技术创新,其中包括第一艘现代潜水艇。

This ship was ten meters long. It sank four times while being tested. It was raised each time and put back into service. One night, it fired its torpedoes at a much larger Union ship and sank it. But the explosion was so great that it tore apart the submarine. And it sank, too.

这艘潜水艇长十米,试验阶段四次沉没,每次都被打捞起来,重新使用。一天晚上,潜水艇发射水雷,击沉了北军一艘比它大得多的船只,但爆炸力度太大,潜水艇自己也在劫难逃,一起沉入海底。

The Confederacy also developed very effective underwater explosive devices for use in the harbors.

除潜水艇外,南方还发明了有效的海底爆炸装置,专用于港口。

VOICE TWO:

Even with its victories and technologies, however, the Confederacy could not stop the Union navy. The Union navy was bigger to begin with and grew much faster.

虽然南方打了不少胜仗,也发明了不少新技术,但还是无法阻止来势凶猛的北方海军。北方海军本来就比南方实力雄厚,而且迅速壮大。

David Farragut
David Farragut

During the first two years of the Civil War, the Union captured several southern ports: Fort Hatteras and Roanoke Island, North Carolina. Port Royal, South Carolina. Pensacola, Florida. And -- perhaps most importantly -- New Orleans, Louisiana.

南北战争头两年,北军占领了好几个南方港口,包括北卡罗来纳的哈特拉斯和罗阿诺克岛,南卡罗来纳的皇家港,佛罗里达的彭萨科拉,以及可能是最为重要的路易斯安那的新奥尔良。

New Orleans lay near the mouth of the Mississippi River. It was the largest city in the south. It was the largest seaport. It had become a busy industrial center, producing war equipment for Confederate forces. If the Union could capture New Orleans, it would control the Mississippi River.

新奥尔良位于密西西比河口附近,是南方最大的城市,也是最大的海港,逐渐发展成为一个繁忙的工业中心,为南军生产战备物资。北军占领新奥尔良,就能控制密西西比河。

President Lincoln appointed navy officer David Farragut to lead the attack on New Orleans.

林肯任命海军将领大卫·法拉格率兵攻打新奥尔良。

VOICE ONE:

To reach the city, Farragut had to sail his ships past two Confederate forts on the Mississippi River. He shelled the forts for six days and nights. But the forts were so strong that the shells caused little damage. He decided not to wait any longer.

要进军新奥尔良,必需首先突破密西西比河沿岸的另外两个南军城堡。法拉格对这两个城堡进行了六天六夜的轰炸,但是城堡异常坚固,居然没有受到重大破坏。法拉格决定采取果断行动。

Battle of New Orleans
Battle of New Orleans

One dark night, Farragut led seventeen Union warships up the river in a line. The Confederate forces heard them and began to fire. One ship was sunk. Three others were damaged so badly that they could not continue. But thirteen made it safely past the forts.

法拉格选择一个漆黑的夜晚,率领十七艘战舰一字排开,准备闯关。南军听到了动静,向他们开炮,击沉了一艘战舰,另外三艘也受到重创,无法继续前进,但是其余十三艘则安全冲破封锁。

When Farragut reached New Orleans, he found the city defenseless. Several thousand Confederate soldiers had fled. They knew they could not defend against the bigger Union force. Only civilians remained. Farragut captured New Orleans without a fight. The Confederate flag was lowered. And the United States flag was raised over the city.

抵达新奥尔良的时候,法拉格才发现,新奥尔良毫无抵御能力,原来驻扎在那里的几千名南军士兵知道自己抵挡不住北军的攻击,早已逃之夭夭,剩下的都是普通百姓。法拉格就这样不费一枪一弹占领了新奥尔良,南军旗帜也换成了联邦旗帜。

VOICE TWO:

Several weeks before Farragut captured New Orleans, a new kind of navy battle was fought off Hampton Roads, Virginia. It was the first battle between iron ships.

新奥尔良被占领的几个星期前,维吉尼亚汉普顿路沿海一带发生了一场新型海战,是第一次装甲战舰之间的战役。

On the Confederate side was the Virginia. It had been built from what remained of a captured Union warship called the Merrimack. The Virginia was like no other warship ever seen in the world.

南军的战舰是维吉尼亚号。维吉尼亚号由被俘的北军战舰莫瑞麦克号改造而成,跟以前的任何战舰都不一样。

It was eighty meters long. The part that showed above the water line was built of wood sixty centimeters thick. This part was covered with sheets of iron ten centimeters thick.

维吉尼亚号长八十米,露出水面的部分由六十厘米厚的木材制成,外面包着一层十厘米厚的铁板。

Ten windows were cut into it. Behind each window was a cannon. In a battle, the windows would open, the cannons would fire, and the windows would close again. At the front was a sharp point of iron that could smash through the sides of wooden ships.

船身两侧一共有十个窗口,每个窗口后面都设有一门火炮。打仗的时候,窗户打开开炮,然后立刻关上。维吉尼亚号的船头是铁制的尖头,可以穿透任何木船的船身。

The Virginia could not move fast. And it was difficult to control. It took almost thirty minutes to turn around. Still, there seemed to be no way to stop this iron monster. It already had destroyed two Union warships. And it was coming back for more.

维吉尼亚号行驶速度很慢,而且很难操纵,掉头几乎需要半个小时。尽管如此,这艘包着铁皮的怪物还是所向披靡,已经摧毁了两艘北军战舰,如今再次披挂上阵。

VOICE ONE:

One of the guns of the ironclad Monitor
One of the guns of the ironclad Monitor

The Union ship chosen to fight the Virginia was the Monitor. It, too, was covered with iron. But it was much smaller than the Virginia. And it carried only two cannons.

北军迎战维吉尼亚号的是莫尼特号。莫尼特号也是装甲舰,但船身比维吉尼亚号小得多,而且舰上只有两门火炮。

These two cannons, however, were on a part of the ship that could turn in a complete circle. They could be aimed in any direction.

不过,这两门火炮机动性好,可以迅速转动,向任何方向开火。

The Monitor and the Virginia faced each other on the morning of March ninth, eighteen sixty-two. They moved in close -- very close -- then began to fire.

1862年3月9号,维吉尼亚号和莫尼特号正面交锋,近距离开火。

A Confederate cannon ball hit the iron side of the Monitor and bounced away. Union sailors cheered. The cannons of the Virginia could do no damage! But the Union sailors soon discovered that their cannons could do no damage, either.

南军炮弹击中了莫尼特号的船身,弹了回去,北军水兵欢呼雀跃,因为维吉尼亚号的火炮对他们造不成任何伤害。但是没过多久他们又沮丧地发现,他们的火炮同样无法穿透维吉尼亚号。

VOICE TWO:

The men inside the two ships suffered from noise, heat, and smoke. The roar of their own cannons was extremely loud. Even louder was the crash of enemy cannon balls and explosive shells on the iron walls.

两艘战舰里的水兵被噪声、热气和烟雾害得不轻。他们发射的火炮声音巨大,敌军火炮爆炸声更是震耳欲聋。

Some of the men suffered burst eardrums. At least one man was struck unconscious from the force of a cannon ball against the iron. The men quickly learned to stay away from the walls.

有些人耳膜被震破,至少有一个人被击中船身爆炸的炮弹震得不省人事,大家这才知道,不能站在船舱的墙壁旁边。

Smoke from the cannons filled the ships. Then it floated out over the water. At times, the two ships could not see each other.

火炮爆炸的烟雾不仅弥漫了舰只,而且还漂浮在水面上。有时候,两艘船甚至彼此看不见对方。

VOICE ONE:

The Battle of Hampton Roads between the Monitor, front, and the Virginia
The Battle of Hampton Roads between the Monitor, front, and the Virginia

The Virginia and the Monitor fought for three hours. Neither ship scored an important hit. Neither suffered serious damage.

维吉尼亚号和莫尼特号整整打了三个小时,谁都没有击中对方要害。

Then the cannons of the Virginia fell silent. The Confederate ship had used up its gunpowder. It also had used up much of its fuel. It was lighter now and was floating higher in the water. A well-aimed cannon ball could hit below its iron covering and sink it.

就在这时候,维吉尼亚号突然没声儿了。南军用光了所有炮弹,燃料也几乎耗尽,船身开始浮出水面。此时,如果北军瞄得准的话,就能击中装甲以下的船身,击沉维吉尼亚号。

The Confederate captain decided to withdraw. The Union captain, too, was ready to break off the battle. He decided not to follow.

南军舰长决定撤退,北军舰长也不想恋战,没有紧追不舍。

Neither ship could claim victory. But the Monitor had kept the Virginia from destroying more of the Union's wooden warships.

这场战役,双方没输没赢,但是莫尼特号有效阻止了维吉尼亚号摧毁北军的更多木船。

The Virginia itself was to live just two more months. Union forces seized the Confederate navy base at Norfolk, where the Virginia was kept. And the iron monster was sunk to keep it from falling into Union hands.

两个月后,北军占领了南军的诺福克海军基地,南军为了不让停靠在那里的维吉尼亚号落入北军手中,自己炸沉了这艘装甲怪物。

VOICE TWO:

The battle at Hampton Roads between the Virginia and the Monitor was undecisive. It did not have much effect on the final result of America's Civil War. But it was still an important battle. For it marked the beginning of the end of the world's wooden navies.

汉普顿路一战虽然不是一场决定性战役,对南北战争的最后结果没有多少影响,但依然是一场重要战斗,标志着木船海战开始成为历史。

We will continue our story of the Civil War next week.

(MUSIC)

ANNOUNCER:

Our program was written by Frank Beardsley and Christine Johnson. The narrators were Kay Gallant and Harry Monroe. Transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our programs can be found along with historical images at www.unsv.com. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

___

This is program #101 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

网友的学习评论(2条):
作者:Alumni
the navy equipment got development in the civil war. the south developed two new naval technologies - one for submarine and another for underwater explosive divices. so we say the war is a double-eged sword. it brings the disaster to people as well as drive the development of science and technology.
作者:swh_2010
楼上说的极是
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