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#116: Robert E. Lee's Surrender

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Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English.

Surrender finally came for General Robert E. Lee and the Confederacy he had served as a great soldier.

It was mostly his military skill and intelligence that kept the South in the field so long. But even his extraordinary skill could not save the South from the industrial power of the North and its mighty armies -- armies that were well-fed and well-equipped.

This week in our series, Stuart Spencer and Leo Scully continue the story of the American Civil War.

VOICE ONE:

General Robert E. Lee
General Robert E. Lee

The last chapter of the bitter four-year struggle came in April eighteen sixty-five. General Grant had pushed Lee's army away from Richmond and nearby Petersburg, Virginia. His Union forces had kept after the Confederates for almost a week.

1865年4月18号,美国打了四年的南北战争终于进入尾声。北方部队的格兰特将军把罗伯特·李率领的南军部队从维吉尼亚的里士满和彼得斯堡赶走,在接下来的一周里乘胜追击,围追堵截。

Lee fled westward across Virginia. His tired, hungry soldiers tried to turn south, to reach safety in the Carolinas. But always, the Union army blocked the way.

罗伯特·李率部西退。疲惫不堪、饥肠辘辘的南军士兵试图向南,到卡罗莱纳去寻找安全,可无论怎么走,就是逃不出北方军的包围圈。

Finally on Saturday, April eighth, Lee's army found it could flee no farther. A Union force at Appomattox Station blocked any further movement to the west.

终于,4月8号星期六,罗伯特·李的部队无处可逃了,西进之路被阿普马托克斯站的北军死死堵住。

Early the next morning, Lee tried to break through the ring of Union soldiers that surrounded his army. But he failed. Nothing was left. Nothing but surrender.

第二天早上,罗伯特·李将军突围失败,除了投降以外,已经别无选择。

VOICE TWO:

The McLean house in 1865
The McLean house in 1865

Lee sent a note to General Grant asking to meet with him to discuss surrender terms. A few hours later, General Grant rode into the crossroads village of Appomattox Court House.

罗伯特·李给格兰特传信,要跟他见面,交涉投降条件。几小时后,格兰特骑马来到一个叫阿普马托克斯法院的镇子。

General Lee was waiting for him at the home of a man named Wilmer McLean. Lee rose as Grant walked into the house.

罗伯特·李在一个名叫马克林的人家里恭候。看到格兰特进门,他起身迎接。

Grant did not look like a great military leader, the chief of all Union armies. He was dressed simply. His clothes were the same as those worn by the lowest soldiers in his army. His boots and pants were covered with mud. His blue coat was dirty and wrinkled. But on its shoulders were the three gold stars of the Union's highest general.

格兰特看上去根本不像是统帅北军所有人马的伟大的军事指挥官,他穿着简朴,军装跟小兵没什么两样,战靴和裤子上都是泥不说,蓝大衣也是脏乎乎、皱巴巴的,只有肩上三颗金星,能看出他是北军最高将领。

VOICE ONE:

Lee was dressed in his finest clothing. He wore a beautiful gray coat with a red sash tied around it. At his side, he carried an ivory and silver sword.

罗伯特·李则穿着整齐,漂亮的灰大衣外面系着一条红腰带,腰间还佩戴着一把镶着象牙的银剑。

The two generals greeted each other and shook hands. Grant said: "I met you once before, General Lee, while we were serving in Mexico. I have always remembered your appearance. I think I would have recognized you anywhere."

两位将军握手致意。格兰特说:"我以前见过你一次,李将军,我们一起在墨西哥打过仗。我永远忘不了你的样子,在哪儿都能认出你来。"

Lee said: "Yes, I know I met you then. And I have often tried to remember how you looked. But I have never been able to remember a single feature."

罗伯特·李回答说,"没错,我知道见过你,总想回忆起你的样子,可就是一点儿也想不起来。"

VOICE TWO:

Grant continued to talk of their service in the Mexican War. He said later that he did so because he was finding it difficult to bring up the question of surrender.

格兰特继续回忆他们在墨西哥战争中一起打仗的情形。他后来承认,这样做是因为他不知道该怎样把话题转向投降一事。

Lee took part in the light talk for several minutes. Finally, he said: "I suppose, General Grant, that the purpose of our meeting is fully understood. I asked to see you to learn upon what terms you would receive the surrender of my army."

俩人聊了一会儿天儿后,罗伯特·李终于说:"格兰特将军,我想,我们见面的目的大家都很清楚,我要求见你,是想知道,我们投降,你有哪些条件。"

Grant answered: "The terms I propose are those I offered in my earlier note to you. That is, the officers and men surrendered will not take up arms again. And all your weapons and supplies will become captured property."

格兰特回答说:"我的条件跟我先前给你信中提出的一样。那就是,投降将士不得重新拿起武器,你们的所有武器和装备都是我们的战利品。"

VOICE ONE:

Generals Grant and Lee at Appomattox
Generals Grant and Lee at Appomattox

Lee said those were the conditions he had expected. He asked Grant to put the terms in writing so he could sign them. "Very well," said Grant. "I will write them out."

罗伯特·李说,这些条件都在他的预料之中。他让格兰特把条件写在纸上,他好签字。格兰特回答说:"那好,我把它们写下来。"

It took him several minutes to write the surrender agreement. Only once did he look up.

格兰特只用几分钟就写好了投降议定书,在此期间,他只抬过一次头。

He had just written the sentence: "The arms, artillery and public property will be given over to the Union army." Grant stopped writing and looked over at the sword the old general wore.

当时,他正好写道"武器、大炮和公共财产一律由北方军接管。"格兰特停下笔,看了一眼罗伯特·李身上的佩剑。

He decided there was no need to hurt Lee's pride by taking away his sword. So he added:

他心想,绝不能缴获这把剑,伤害李将军的自尊心。于是在后面补充道:

'This will not include the side arms of the officers nor their horses or other private property. Each officer and man shall be allowed to return to his home. He will not be disturbed by United States authorities as long as he honors this agreement and obeys the laws where he lives.'

"不包括军官身上佩带的武器、马匹和其它私人财产。所有将士都可以返回家园,只要遵守投降议定书里的规定,遵守当地法律,就不会受到政府的骚扰。"

VOICE TWO:

Grant gave the paper to Lee. Lee read it slowly. When he finished, Grant asked if the Confederate general wished to propose any changes. Lee was silent for a moment. "There is one thing," he said. "The cavalrymen and artillerymen in our army own their own horses. I would like to understand if these men will be allowed to keep their horses."

罗伯特·李仔细读过后,格兰特问他有没有意见。罗伯特·李沉默片刻后说:"只有一件事。我们的骑兵和炮兵的战马都是自己的,我想知道他们是否可以保留自己的马匹。"

"You will find," Grant said, "that the terms as written do not allow it. Only the officers are permitted to take their private property."

"You are correct," said Lee. "I see the terms do not allow it. That is clear."

格兰特说:"根据议定书的规定是不行的,只有军官可以保留私人财产。"罗伯特·李回答说:"对,我也看到议定书上是不允许的,上面写得很明确。"

VOICE ONE:

Until now, Lee's face had shown no emotion. But for a moment, his self-control weakened. Grant could see how badly Lee wanted this.

在此之前,罗伯特·李的脸上一直没有表情。但是片刻间,他的情绪有些失控。格兰特可以看出,他非常想替部下争取到这点利益。

"Well," said Grant, "I did not know that any private soldiers owned their horses. But I think that this will be the last battle of the war. I sincerely hope so. I think that the surrender of this army will be followed soon by that of all the others.

格兰特说:"我原先不知道你们的马都是士兵的私人财产。不过我想,这该是战争的最后一战了,我真心希望如此。我想接下来,其它队伍也会陆续投降。

"I take it that most of your soldiers are small farmers and will need the horses to put in a crop that will carry themselves and their families through the next winter. I will not change the terms as they are written. But I will tell my officers to let all the men who claim to own a horse or mule take the animals home with them to work their little farms."

我相信,你们队伍里的大多数士兵都是农民,需要这些马来种地,养家糊口,渡过接下来的冬天。我不会更改投降议定书,但可以通知我的手下,允许所有人把自己的马或骡子带回家去种地。"

VOICE TWO:

'Surrender at Appomattox
'Surrender at Appomattox" by artist Tom Lovell

Lee was pleased with this. He told Grant: "This will have the best possible effect upon the men. It will be very gratifying and will do much to help our people."

李将军高兴地告诉格兰特说:"这样做会对他们产生最好的影响,他们会非常感激,对他们的人民也会有极大帮助。"

While waiting for the surrender papers to be copied, Grant presented Lee to the other Union officers in the room. Lee had known some of them before the war.

投降议定书被抄写的过程中,格兰特给李将军介绍房间里的其他北军军官,其中一些人李将军在南北战争前就认识。

After a few minutes, Lee turned to Grant. He told him that his army held about one thousand Union soldiers as war prisoners. He said that for the past few days, he had no food but cracked corn to give them. He said he had nothing to give his own men to eat.

几分钟后,罗伯特·李告诉格兰特说,南军手里有大约一千名北军俘虏。他说,过去几天里,我只有干玉米粒给他们吃,我们自己人也没有什么吃的。

Grant called in his supply officer and ordered him to feed the Confederate army. He told him to send to Lee's army enough food for twenty-five thousand men.

格兰特立即把自己的供给官叫来,命令他给南方士兵提供食物,要足够两万五千人吃。

VOICE ONE:

Detail of
Detail of "The Surrender at Appomattox" by Keith Rocco

Finally, the surrender papers were ready. Grant and Lee signed them. Lee shook hands with Grant and walked out of the house.

投降议定书终于抄好了,格兰特和罗伯特·李分别在上面签名。罗伯特·李跟格兰特握手后起身离开。

Lee got on his horse and rode slowly back to his army. As he entered Confederate lines, men began to cheer. But the cheering died when the soldiers saw the pain and sorrow in Lee's face. Tears filled the old man's eyes. He could not speak. Soldiers removed their hats and watched silently as Lee rode past. Many wept.

李将军骑上马背,缓缓地往回走。南方士兵看到李将军回来,开始欢呼,但当他们看到李将军脸上的痛苦表情后,欢呼声停了下来。李将军双眼满含泪水,说不出话来。士兵们纷纷摘下帽子,默默地看着李将军骑马从他们面前走过。很多人都禁不住泪流满面。

VOICE TWO:

A crowd of soldiers waited at Lee's headquarters. They pushed close around him trying to touch him, trying to shake his hand.

一群士兵在李将军的指挥总部等他回来。他们把李将军团团围住,都想握握老将军的手。

Lee began to speak. "Boys, I have done the best I could for you. Go home now. And if you make as good citizens as you have soldiers, you will do well. I shall always be proud of you. Goodbye. And God bless you all."

李将军说:"孩子们,我已经为你们做了我所能做到的一切,你们回家去吧。做为士兵,你们都是好样的,如果你们能像当兵一样,做个好公民的话,就一定能过上好日子。我会永远为你们感到骄傲。愿上帝保佑你们。"

From the crowd came a loud cry. "Farewell, General Lee! I wish for your sake and mine that every damned Yankee on earth was sunk ten miles in hell!"

人群中有人大喊,"再见了,李将军。为了你也是为了我,我诅咒地球上所有可恶的北方佬儿都下地狱。"

VOICE ONE:

On the other side of the lines, Union soldiers began to celebrate. Artillerymen fired their guns to salute the victory over Lee.

与此同时,阵线另一侧的北军士兵开始用炮声庆祝胜利。

Grant heard the artillery booming and sent orders that it should stop. "The rebels are our countrymen again," he said. "We can best show our joy by refusing to celebrate their downfall."

格兰特听到炮声后,下令停止。他说:"反叛者都是我们的同胞,不对他们的失败大肆庆祝,才是我们表现喜悦的最佳方式。"

VOICE TWO:

General Grant left Appomattox Court House to return to his headquarters a few kilometers away. Suddenly, he stopped his horse. He had forgotten to tell President Lincoln or War Secretary Stanton that Lee had surrendered. He sat down at the side of the road and wrote a telegram to Secretary Stanton.

格兰特离开阿普马托克斯法院,起身返回几公里外的指挥所。他突然想起,竟然忘了把罗伯特·李投降的消息告诉林肯总统和战争部长斯坦顿。他在路边坐下,给斯坦顿写电报。

News of the surrender reached Washington late on Sunday. Most citizens in the capital did not learn of it until early the next morning. Then cannons began to boom out over the city. Crowds rushed to the White House to cheer the president. They asked Lincoln to make a victory speech.

罗伯特·李投降的消息星期天晚上传到首都华盛顿。华盛顿大部分居民直到星期一早上才得知这一喜讯,隆隆的炮声响彻天空,如潮的人流奔向白宫,向总统欢呼,要林肯发表胜利感言。

Lincoln said he had not prepared a statement. He wished to wait until the next night. He asked the people to come back then and he would have something to say.

林肯说,他没有准备声明。他让大家第二天晚上再来,届时,他将发表讲话。

(MUSIC)

ANNOUNCER:

Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Stuart Spencer and Leo Scully. You can find transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our programs along with historical images at www.unsv.com. You can also follow us on Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

___

This is program #116 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

网友的学习评论(1条):
作者:hliu
Robert E. Lee, what a great general, wept in front of his men. I cann't imagine the sorrow he had.
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