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#117: President Lincoln is Shot at Ford's Theater

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Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION - American history in VOA Special English.

On April ninth, eighteen sixty-five, Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered his army to Union General Ulysses Grant. Within weeks, the Civil War would be over.

1865年4月9号,南军将领罗伯特·李宣布投降,几周内,南北战争就要结束了。

When people in Washington learned of Lee's surrender, they hurried to the White House. The crowd wanted to hear from President Abraham Lincoln.

南军投降的消息传到首都华盛顿后,如潮的人流涌向白宫,希望能听到美国总统林肯发表胜利感言。

The speech he gave would be one of his last, as Kay Gallant and Harry Monroe explain this week in our series.

没想到,这却成了林肯的最后一次讲话。

VOICE ONE:

One of the last portraits taken of President Lincoln
One of the last portraits taken of President Lincoln

President Lincoln spoke several days after General Lee's surrender. The people expected a victory speech. But Lincoln gave them something else.

罗伯特·李率领的南军投降几天后,林肯总统发表讲话。大家想听的是胜利致辞,但林肯谈的却是胜利后即将遇到的困难。

Already, he was moving forward from victory to the difficult times ahead. The southern rebellion was over. Now, he faced the task of re-building the Union. Lincoln did not want to punish the South. He wanted to re-join the ties that the Civil War had broken. So, when the people of the North expected a speech of victory, he gave them a speech of reconstruction, instead.

南方反叛结束了,他如今肩负着国家重建的重担。林肯不想惩罚南方,希望重建内战切断的纽带。因此,北方人期待林肯发表胜利感言,而林肯的讲话重点却是战后重建。

On the night of April eleventh, Lincoln appeared before a crowd outside the White House. He held a candle in one hand and his speech in the other.

4月11号晚上,林肯在白宫外面,一手拿着蜡烛,一手拿着讲稿说:

VOICE TWO:

"Fellow citizens," Lincoln said. "We meet this evening not in sorrow, but in gladness of heart. The surrender of the main army of the Confederacy gives hope of a righteous and speedy peace. The joy cannot be held back. By these recent successes, we have had pressed more closely upon us the question of reconstruction.

"同胞们,我们今晚聚在这里,不是满怀悲恸,而是充满喜悦。南方邦联主力部队投降,给我们带来了迅速走向正义的和平的希望。我们无法控制快乐的心情。最近一系列胜利,也让我们日益面对国家重建的问题。"

"We all agree," Lincoln continued, "that the so-called seceded states are out of their correct relation with the Union. We also agree that what the government is trying to do is get these states back into their correct relation.

林肯继续说道:"我们一致认为,所谓退出联邦的各州结束了跟联邦的正常关系。我们同样认为,政府的奋斗目标就是要让它们恢复跟联邦的正常关系。

"I believe it is not only possible, but in fact easier to do this without deciding the legal question of whether these states have ever been out of the Union. Finding themselves safely at home, it would be of no importance whether they had ever been away."

我认为,不去追究这些州是否曾经退出联邦的法律问题不仅是可行的,而且有利于达到我们的目标。只要他们能安全回家,是否曾经离开其实并不重要。"

VOICE ONE:

There was cheering and applause when President Lincoln finished, but less than when he began. The speech had been too long and too detailed to please the crowd. Lincoln, however, believed it a success. He hoped he had made the country understand one thing: the great need to forget hatred and bitterness in the difficult time of re-building that would follow the war.

讲话结束时的欢呼和掌声远没有讲话开始时热烈。对于听众来说,这篇讲话太过冗长具体。然而,林肯却觉得讲话很成功。他希望自己让人民明白了一件事情,那就是,在战后重建的艰难阶段,大家一定要抛弃仇视和怨恨。

The president continued to discuss his ideas on reconstruction over the next few days. On Friday, April fourteenth, he agreed to put this work aside for a while. In the afternoon, he took his wife Mary for a long drive away from the city. In the evening, they would go to the theater.

在接下来的几天里,林肯继续讨论战后重建。4月14号星期五,他决定暂时把工作放一放,下午携夫人玛丽出城郊游,晚上去剧院看戏。

VOICE TWO:

One of the popular plays of the time, called "Our American Cousin," was being performed at Ford's Theater, not far from the White House. The Secretary of War did not want the Lincolns to go alone. He ordered an army officer to go with them.

当天,一部深受喜爱的剧目"我们的美国亲戚"正在距离白宫不远的福特剧院上演。战争部长斯坦顿不希望林肯夫妇自己去看戏,专门派了一名军官陪他们一起去。

The President and Misses Lincoln sat in special seats at Ford's Theater. The presidential box was above and to one side of the stage. A guard always stood outside the door to the box. On this night, however, the guard did not remain. He left the box unprotected.

林肯夫妇坐在福特剧院的总统包厢里,位于剧院楼上的一侧,外面有警卫站岗。然而,警卫那天晚上不知道跑到哪里去了,让包厢失去了保护。

VOICE ONE:

A picture representing the shooting of President Lincoln at Ford's Theater
A picture representing the shooting of President Lincoln at Ford's Theater

President Lincoln settled down in his seat to enjoy the play. As he did so, a man came to the door of the box. He carried a gun in one hand and a knife in the other. The man entered the presidential box quietly. He slowly raised the gun. He aimed it at the back of Lincoln's head. He fired.

林肯在包厢里坐下,开始看戏。就在此时,一个男子来到包厢门外,他一手拿枪,一手拿匕首,悄悄走进包厢,缓缓地举起枪,对准林肯的后脑勺,扣动了扳机。

Then the man jumped from the box to the stage three meters below. Many in the theater recognized him. He was an actor: John Wilkes Booth.

刺客随即从三米高的包厢跳到下面的舞台上。剧院里很多人都认出了此人,他是演员约翰·威尔克斯·布斯。

Booth broke his leg when he hit the stage floor. But he pulled himself up, shouted "Sic semper tyrannis!" -- "Thus ever to tyrants!" -- and ran out the door. He got on a horse, and was gone.

布斯跳到舞台上摔断了腿,但还是硬撑着站起身来,高喊"这就是暴君的下场",然后冲出剧院大门,骑马跑了。

VOICE TWO:

The attack was so quick that the audience did not know what had happened. Then a woman shouted, "The president has been shot!"

整个刺杀过程太快了,剧院观众都没有意识到发生了些什么,直到一个女人大喊一声,"总统中弹了"。

Lincoln had fallen forward in his seat, unconscious. Someone asked if it was possible to move him to the White House. A young army doctor said no. The president's wound was terrible. He would die long before reaching the White House.

中弹后的林肯不省人事。有人问,能不能把他送回白宫去,一个年轻军医说,不行。林肯伤势太重,根本坚持不到白宫。

So Lincoln was moved to a house across the street from Ford's Theater. A doctor tried to remove the bullet from the president's head. He could not. Nothing could be done, except wait. The end was only hours away.

因此,林肯被抬到福特剧院对面的一栋房子里,医生试图把他头部的子弹取出来,但是没有成功,除了等待,已经没有其它办法了。

VOICE ONE:

A print showing President Lincoln on his death bed
A print showing President Lincoln on his death bed

Cabinet members began to arrive, while wild reports spread through the city: the Confederates had declared war again! There was fighting in the streets!

内阁官员闻讯纷纷赶到。各种传闻甚嚣尘上,有人说,南方邦联又宣战了,街上正在打仗。

An official of the War Department described the situation. "The extent of the plot was unknown. From so horrible a beginning, what might come next. How far would the bloody work go. The safety of Washington must be looked after. The people must be told. The assassin and his helpers must be captured."

一名战争部官员是这样形容当时情况的:"这次暗杀阴谋的规模还不明朗。一开始就如此可怕,不知道接下来还会发生些什么。流血还要持续多久。我们一定要保证华盛顿的安全,一定要让人民知情,一定要将刺客及其同伙缉拿归案。"

VOICE TWO:

Early the next morning, April fifteenth, Abraham Lincoln died. A prayer was said over his body. His eyes were closed.

第二天,4月15号早上,林肯告别了人世。牧师祷告完毕,合上了林肯的双眼。

The news went out by telegraph to cities and towns across the country. People read the words, but could not believe them. To millions of Americans, Abraham Lincoln's death was a personal loss. They had come to think of him as more than the President of the United States. He was a trusted friend.

林肯去世的消息通过电报传往全国大小城镇。人们听到这个消息,简直难以置信。对于数以百万计的美国人来说,林肯的死是他们个人的损失。在人们看来,林肯不仅是总统,而且是一位值得信赖的朋友。

People hung black cloth on their doors in sorrow. Even the South mourned for Lincoln, its former enemy. Southern General Joe Johnston said: "Mr. Lincoln was the best friend we had. His death is the worst thing that could happen for the South."

人们在门上悬挂黑布,表示悲恸。就连林肯原先的敌人、南方人也纷纷悼念林肯。南方将领约翰斯顿说:"林肯先生是我们最好的朋友,他的死对南方来说,是可能发生的最糟糕的事情。"

VOICE ONE:

Messages of regret came from around the world.

世界各地纷纷发来唁电。

British labor groups said they could never forget the things Lincoln had said about working people. Things such as: "The strongest tie of human sympathy should be one uniting all working people of all nations and tongues."

英国的工人组织说,他们永远忘不了林肯说的有关劳动者的话,比如,林肯曾说过,"人类同情心最坚韧的纽带应该是不同国家和民族的所有劳动者的联合。"

A group representing hundreds of French students sent this message:

一个代表数以百计的法国学生的组织发表电唁说,

"In President Lincoln we mourn a fellow citizen. There are no longer any countries shut up in narrow frontiers. Our country is everywhere where there are neither masters nor slaves. Wherever people live in liberty or fight for it. We look to the other side of the ocean to learn how a people which has known how to make itself free, knows how to preserve its freedom."

"我们把林肯总统作为同胞来悼念。世界上不再是被狭窄边界所划分的国家。凡是没有奴隶主和奴隶的地方,就是我们的国家。凡是享有自由、或是有人为自由而战的地方,都是我们的国家。我们遥望大洋彼岸,看一个知道如何去赢得自由的民族,也同样理解如何去捍卫自由。"

The assassination of Abraham Lincoln touched the imagination of America's writers. Many tried to put their feelings into words. Walt Whitman wrote several poems of mourning. Here is part of one of them, "O Captain! My Captain!"

林肯遇刺触发了很多美国作家的创作激情。很多人希望把情感付诸字端。著名诗人惠特曼就创作了好几首哀悼的诗歌。其中一首题为"啊,船长!我的船长!"的诗中是这样写的:

READER:

Here captain! Dear father!

这里,船长,我亲爱的父亲!

This arm beneath your head!

让你的头枕着我的手臂!

It is some dream that on the deck,

真像是梦,躺在甲板上,

You've fallen cold and dead.

你已浑身冰凉,与世长辞。

My captain does not answer, his lips are pale and still,

我的船长没有回答,他的嘴唇苍白静止,

My father does not feel my arm, he has no pulse nor will.

我的父亲感觉不到我的手臂,他已经没有脉搏,没有意志。

The ship is anchor'd safe and sound, its voyage closed and done,

船已下锚,它的航程已经终了,

From fearful trip the victor ship comes in with object won;

从可怕航程归来,胜利的船只目的已达到。

Exult o shores, and ring o bells!

啊,海岸欢呼,钟声长鸣!

But I with mournful tread,

可我却以悲痛的步履,

Walk the deck my captain lies,

漫步在船长躺着的甲板上,

Fallen cold and dead.

他已浑身冰凉,与世长辞。

VOICE TWO:

Walt Whitman
Walt Whitman

Abraham Lincoln was assassinated in the spring. That is the time of year when lilac plants burst into flower throughout much of the United States. One of Walt Whitman's most beautiful poems in honor of Lincoln is called, "When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloomed." Here is part of that poem.

林肯是春天遇刺的,正是美国各地丁香盛开的季节。惠特曼纪念林肯的最优美的诗歌之一名叫"当丁香在庭院最后绽放的时候",诗中说:

READER:

When lilacs last in the dooryard bloom'd

当丁香花在庭院中绽放的时候,

And the great star early droop'd in the western sky in the night,

硕大的星星在西方的夜空陨落,

I mourned, and yet shall mourn with ever-returning spring.

我哀悼,而且每逢春天都会哀悼。

Ever-returning spring, trinity sure to me you bring,

每年春天都会带给我三件东西,

Lilac blooming perennial and drooping star in the west,

绽放的丁香,西方陨落的星星,

And thought of him I love. . .

还有对我敬爱的人的怀念......

Coffin that passes through lanes and streets,

穿过大街小巷的棺木,

Through day and night with the great cloud darkening the land. . .

经过白天黑夜,走过乌云笼罩的大地,

With the countless torches lit,

在无数火炬的照耀下,

With the silent sea of faces and the unbared heads. . .

千万蹿动的人头如同沉默的大海,

With the tolling, tolling bells' perpetual clang,

丧钟悠扬地鸣响,

Here, coffin that slowly passes,

对缓缓经过此处的棺木,

I give you my sprig of lilac.

我给你一支丁香。

(MUSIC)

ANNOUNCER:

Our program was written by Harold Berman and Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Kay Gallant and Harry Monroe, and the poems were read by Shep O'Neal. You can find transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our programs, plus historical images, at www.unsv.com. And you can follow us on Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

___

This is program #117 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

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