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#118: After Lincoln's Murder

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Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln

Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English.

President Abraham Lincoln led the Union of northern states in four years of civil war against the southern Confederacy. But he did not live to see the end of the war. He did not live to see the nation re-united. He was assassinated in April of eighteen sixty-five.

美国总统亚伯拉罕·林肯领导美国走过四年内战,但最终却没能看到战争的结束,没能看到国家重新团结起来。林肯1865年4月遇刺身亡。

This week in our series, Shep O'Neal and Maurice Joyce tell what happened after Lincoln died.

VOICE ONE:

Mary Todd Lincoln
Mary Todd Lincoln

Almost immediately, officials began planning details of the president's funeral. They asked Missus Lincoln where she wanted her husband buried. At first, she said Chicago. That was where the Lincolns were going to live after they left the White House.

政府官员立即着手筹办林肯的葬礼。他们征求林肯夫人的意见,问她想把林肯葬在什么地方。林肯夫人起初选择了芝加哥,因为他们原本就曾打算等林肯卸任后,搬到芝加哥去居住。

Then she said the Capitol building in Washington. A tomb had been built there for America's first President, George Washington. But it had never been used.

林肯夫人后来改变主意,表示希望把林肯葬在华盛顿的国会大厦,那里有一个为美国第一任总统乔治·华盛顿建的墓地,但从来没用过。

Finally, she remembered a country cemetery they had visited. At the time, her husband had said: "When I am gone, lay my remains in some quiet place like this." So Missus Lincoln decided that the president's final resting place would be in the quiet, beautiful Oak Ridge Cemetery outside their home town of Springfield, Illinois.

林肯夫人最后忽然想起,林肯生前,他们俩人曾到过一个乡间墓园,林肯当时说过,"我死后,把我葬在这样一个清静的地方。"林肯夫人因此选择伊利诺伊老家斯普林菲尔德郊外一个安静、美丽的墓园,作为林肯最终安息之所。

VOICE TWO:

President Lincoln's funeral procession in Washington
President Lincoln's funeral procession in Washington

For several days after Lincoln's assassination, his body lay in the East Room of the White House. The room was open to the public all day. Next, the body was taken to the Capitol building. Again, the public could come to say goodbye. Then the body was put on a special train for the trip back to Illinois.

林肯遇刺身亡后连续数日,遗体一直被安放在白宫东厅里,全天对公众开放。随后,林肯的遗体被运往国会大厦,同样对外开放,让民众吊唁。最终,林肯的遗体被放在一列专车上,运往伊利诺伊。

Four years earlier, President-elect Lincoln had traveled by train from Illinois to Washington. He stopped to make speeches in cities along the way. Now, on this sad return trip, the train stopped at those same cities: Baltimore. Philadelphia. New York. Cleveland. Indianapolis. Chicago.

四年前,林肯刚当选总统时,就是坐火车从伊利诺伊赶往华盛顿的。他沿途在很多城市停下来发表讲话。四年过后,运送林肯灵柩的火车又在沿途同样的城市停下来,包括巴尔的摩、费城、纽约、克里夫兰、印第安纳波利斯和芝加哥。

VOICE ONE:

In every town, people lined the railroad. They stood silently, with tears in their eyes, as the train moved slowly past. Farmers working in the fields saw the train and dropped to their knees in prayer. For the wise man who had led the Union through four years of bloody civil war -- Father Abraham -- was dead.

每座城市的铁路沿线都挤满了人。他们默默地站在那里,眼里含着泪水,看着火车缓缓驶过。田里干活的人看到火车经过,纷纷跪下祷告,送别领导他们走过四年血腥内战的国父林肯。

Churches throughout the country held memorial services. Ministers told their people that God had taken Lincoln because the president had completed the job God had given him. He had brought peace to the Union, and freedom to all men.

全国各地的教堂也都举行悼念仪式,牧师告诉信徒们说,上帝把林肯带走,是因为他已经完成了上帝授予他的使命,他已经把和平带给了联邦,把自由带给了所有人。

VOICE TWO:

The final service was at the cemetery outside Springfield. It ended with the words from Lincoln's second inaugural speech.

最后一次悼念仪式在斯普林菲尔德郊外的墓园举行,并以林肯第二次宣誓就职的话结束。

"With malice toward none; with charity for all; with firmness in the right -- as God gives us to see the right -- let us strive on to finish the work we are in. Let us heal the nation's wounds. Let us do all possible to get and keep a just and lasting peace among ourselves and with all nations."

林肯当时曾说,"让我们按照上帝指引的正确方向,不带对任何人的恶意、带着对所有人的善心,秉持对正义的坚定,努力完成眼前的工作。让我们治愈国家的伤口。让我们竭尽全力,在我们中间和所有国家间实现并保持公正、持久的和平。"

VOICE ONE:

John Wilkes Booth
John Wilkes Booth

While the nation mourned Lincoln's death, federal officials investigated his assassination. The man who had shot Lincoln in Ford's Theater was an actor, John Wilkes Booth. He had fled the theater after the murder. The government offered a reward of one hundred thousand dollars to anyone who captured Booth and his helpers.

美国举国上下哀悼林肯的同时,联邦官员也在忙着调查林肯遇刺案。在福特剧院刺杀林肯的刺客名叫约翰·威尔克斯·布斯。布斯是一名演员,刺杀林肯后马上逃离现场。美国政府悬赏10万美元,缉捕布斯及其同伙。

The investigation produced the names of several people who were friends of Booth. One was John Surratt. Like Booth, he supported the southern Confederacy during the Civil War. Another was David Herold, a young man who worked in a store in Washington. Others were George Atzerodt, Lewis Paine, Sam Arnold, and Michael O'Laughlin.

Most of these men had stayed at a house owned by John Surratt's mother, Mary.

调查找到了布斯的好几个朋友,其中一个是约翰·萨拉特。萨拉特跟布斯一样,在内战中支持南方邦联。另一个是戴维斯·赫罗尔德,他在华盛顿一家店铺里当店员。另外还有几个人,他们都住在萨拉特的母亲玛丽名下的一所房子里,包括乔治·阿采罗德特·路易斯.佩因、萨姆·阿诺德,以及迈克尔·奥劳克林。

VOICE TWO:

A poster offering money for the capture of those involved in Lincoln's killing
A poster offering money for the capture of those involved in Lincoln's killing

One by one, in the days following Lincoln's death, these people were arrested. Anyone else who might have had a part in the plot was seized. Soon, hundreds of suspects were being held in jails in and around Washington.

接下来,跟刺杀案有牵连的人纷纷被收押。没过多久,华盛顿周边的监狱里就关了好几百人。

At the end of a week, only two of the plotters were still free: David Herold and John Wilkes Booth.

事发一周过后,只有刺客布斯和他的好友赫罗尔德依然在逃。

Booth broke his leg when he jumped from the presidential box to the stage at Ford's Theater. A few hours later, he and Herold stopped at the home of a Doctor Samuel Mudd. They reportedly gave the doctor false names. They asked him to fix Booth's broken leg.

布斯刺杀林肯时从总统包厢跳下来摔断了腿,几小时后,他跟赫罗尔德一起来到马德医生家,请医生给布斯接骨,用了假名字。

Doctor Mudd agreed. And he let the two men sleep at his home. Federal troops chasing the assassins arrested the doctor. They accused him of being part of the plot.

马德医生不仅帮布斯疗伤,而且还收留他们在家中睡觉,追捕布斯俩人的联邦部队指责马德医生涉嫌参与暗杀总统的阴谋,把他抓了起来。

VOICE ONE:

John Wilkes Booth and David Herold ran and hid for six days. They crossed the Potomac River from Maryland into Virginia. Finally, twelve days after the assassination of Abraham Lincoln, soldiers found the two men. They were hiding in a tobacco barn near the town of Port Royal.

布斯和赫罗尔德在接下来的六天里东躲西藏,他们穿过波托马克河,从马里兰进入维吉尼亚。刺杀案发十二天后,追兵才最终在皇家港附近的一个存放烟草的棚子里找到他们俩人。

Herold agreed to surrender. He came out of the barn with his hands in the air. He shouted again and again that he was innocent.

赫罗尔德同意投降,高举双手走出来,一边走一边高喊,自己是无辜的。

Booth refused to come out. The soldiers set fire to the barn.

The fire forced Booth to move close to the door. The soldiers could see him now. He was aiming a gun at them. The soldiers had been ordered to capture Booth alive. But one of them raised his gun and shot Booth in the neck.

但是布斯拒绝投降,最后追兵用放火烧烟草棚,把布斯逼到门边。外面的士兵可以看见布斯正在用枪对着他们。虽然他们得到命令,一定要活捉,但还是有一个士兵开枪,打中布斯的颈部。

VOICE TWO:

The actor fell. Some of the soldiers ran to the burning barn and pulled him out. They carried him to a nearby house. He died two hours later.

布斯中弹倒下,一些士兵马上跑上前去,把他从棚子里拉出来,扶到附近一所房子里,布斯两小时后停止了呼吸。

VOICE ONE:

John Wilkes Booth carried a notebook. He wrote in it every day. On the day Lincoln was killed, he wrote: "For six months we had worked to kidnap Lincoln. But with the Confederacy being almost lost, something decisive and great must be done. I struck boldly."

布斯身上带着一个日记本,林肯遇刺那天,上面写着:"六个月来,我们一直设法绑架林肯。但如今,南方邦联眼看要输了,必须采取果断行动,我决定冒险出击。"

Booth described how and why he had shot the president. "Our country," Booth wrote, "owed all her troubles to him. And God simply made me the instrument of his punishment."

布斯还谈到了他刺杀林肯的动机和行动计划。布斯写道:"我们国家的所有麻烦都是他一手造成的,我只不过是上帝选择用来惩罚他的工具而已。"

Booth's body was returned to Washington. Men who knew him confirmed that it was the body of John Wilkes Booth. The body was buried under the stone floor of the Washington prison. A few years later, his family received permission to move the body to a cemetery in the city of Baltimore.

布斯的尸体被运回华盛顿。认识他的人证实,死者确实是他。布斯的尸体被埋在华盛顿监狱的石板下面。几年后,他的家人才获准将他的遗骸取出来,葬在巴尔的摩的一个墓园里。

VOICE TWO:

Evidence showed that only a few people were actually involved in the plot against the president. Most had agreed to work with Booth because they believed he planned to kidnap Lincoln, not kill him.

最后有证据显示,涉及刺杀林肯一案的人只有几个。大多数人同意帮助布斯,是因为他们以为布斯只是要绑架林肯,而不是刺杀林肯。

Of the hundreds of persons arrested, only eight were brought to trial. The secretary of war decided that they would be tried by a military court. He argued that Lincoln had been commander-in-chief of all military forces and had been murdered during wartime.

数百名被捕的人当中,只有八个人接受审判。美国战争部长决定,这些人应该接受军事法庭的裁决,因为林肯是军队统帅,又是在战争时期遇刺。

VOICE ONE:

The military commission that tried the case. From left, Judge Joseph Holt, General Robert Foster, Colonel H. L. Burnett, and Colonel C. R. Clendemin
The military commission that tried the case. From left, Judge Joseph Holt, General Robert Foster, Colonel H. L. Burnett, and Colonel C. R. Clendemin

The trial began almost two months after the assassination. The prisoners seemed in poor condition. All wore heavy chains on their arms and legs. And the men had been forced to wear thick cloths over their heads. Officials said the cloths were necessary to prevent them from talking to each other.

刺杀事件发生两个月后,军事法庭开庭了。囚犯们看起来情况都很糟,胳膊和腿上带着沉重的铁链,头上还被迫蒙着厚厚的布,防止他们相互交谈。

The secretary of war announced that the prisoners could not meet privately with their defense lawyers. They could meet only in the courtroom. Guards could hear everything they said.

战争部长宣布,这些囚犯不得跟自己的辩护律师私下会面,只能在法庭上见,卫兵可以听到他们谈话的所有内容。

One of the defense lawyers recognized that the job was hopeless. He said the trial was a contest between the defense lawyers and the whole United States. There was no question, he said, what the military court's decision would be.

其中一位辩护律师意识到,辩护毫无希望。他说,这场审判是辩护律师跟整个美国之间的较量,军事法庭的裁决结果早就是板上钉钉的了。

VOICE TWO:

The government tried to prove that Lincoln's assassination was a Confederate plot. Witnesses told how Confederate supporters reportedly planned to cause trouble in the North. But none could prove that Confederate President Jefferson Davis -- or any other southern leader -- played a part in Booth's plot to kill Lincoln.

美国政府试图证明刺杀林肯是南方邦联的阴谋。证人纷纷出庭作证,讲述南方支持者是如何策划在北方引起混乱的。但是没有任何人可以证明,南方邦联总统戴维斯或是其他任何一位南方领导人,参与了布斯刺杀林肯的阴谋。

Four hundred witnesses appeared. Many of the important ones had been arrested as suspects. They agreed to give evidence if the government dropped the charges against them.

这起案件的审理过程中一共有400人作证,其中很多重要证人都曾被捕,后来表示愿意出庭作证,做为交换,政府同意撤销对他们的指控。

For six weeks, the court heard evidence against the eight prisoners. The prisoners themselves could say nothing. They could only listen.

法庭整整花了六个星期的时间听取对这八名被告的证词。这些犯人自己什么也不能说,只能听着。

VOICE ONE:

Officials prepare to hang the plotters in Washington
Officials prepare to hang the plotters in Washington

In late June, eighteen sixty-five, the trial of Abraham Lincoln's assassins ended. The military officers serving as judges met secretly for two days. Then they announced their decision.

1865年6月底,案件审理终于结束了。担任法官的军事指挥官们用了两天的时间秘密讨论后,宣布了判决。

All eight prisoners were found guilty. One received a prison sentence of six years. Three were sentenced to life in prison. Four were sentenced to die.

八名被告罪名全部成立,其中一人判处六年刑期,三人被判终身监禁,还有四人被判处死刑。

Defense lawyers appealed for mercy. The appeal was rejected. On July seventh, David Herold, Lewis Paine, George Atzerodt and Mary Surratt were hanged for the murder of Abraham Lincoln.

被告律师提出上诉,请求法庭宽大处理,结果被驳回。7月7号,戴维斯·赫罗尔德、路易斯·佩因、乔治·阿采罗德特和玛丽·萨拉特四人因为谋杀总统亚伯拉罕·林肯被处以绞刑。

(MUSIC)

ANNOUNCER:

Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Shep O'Neal and Maurice Joyce. You can find transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our programs, along with historical images, at www.unsv.com. And you can follow us on Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

___

This is program #118 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

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