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#120: Andrew Johnson Faces a Fight Over Aiding South

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Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English.

In the spring of eighteen sixty-five, the American Civil War was over. And the president who had led the Union during that war was dead. Abraham Lincoln had been murdered before the final surrender of Confederate forces.

1865年春,美国南北战争结束了,领导联邦打赢这场内战的总统林肯却在南方军投降前遇刺身亡。

Andrew Johnson, left, at President Abraham Lincoln's deathbed in April 1865
Andrew Johnson, left, at President Abraham Lincoln's deathbed in April 1865

Now, the re-united nation had a new president, Andrew Johnson. He had been Lincoln's vice president.

如今,重新统一的国家有了一位新总统,他就是林肯在任时的副总统安德鲁·约翰逊。

The chief justice of the United States swore Johnson into office a few hours after Lincoln's death. Most of Lincoln's cabinet was there, together with leading members of Congress. They looked to the new president with a mixture of shock and hope.

林肯遇刺身亡几小时后,美国联邦法院首席大法官为约翰逊主持宣誓就职仪式。林肯的大部分内阁成员和国会主要领导人都参加了就职仪式,他们在震惊之余,也对新总统充满希望。

This week in our series, Shep O'Neal and Tony Riggs begin the story of America's seventeenth president.

VOICE ONE:

Andrew Johnson was -- like Abraham Lincoln -- a man of the people. He was born in North Carolina. His family was poor. There was no money, or time, for young Andrew to go to school.

安德鲁·约翰逊跟林肯一样,也是来自普通家庭。他生在北卡罗来纳,家里穷,没钱也没有时间让小安德鲁去上学。

When he was fourteen years old, his mother sent him to work for a tailor to learn to make clothes. Andrew worked hard. He opened his own tailoring business in the eastern part of the state of Tennessee. When he was eighteen, he married. His wife, Eliza, taught him to read and write.

十四岁的时候,安德鲁的母亲让他去给一个裁缝当学徒,学做衣服。 安德鲁勤奋努力,后来在田纳西州东部开了自己的裁缝店,十八岁成家后,在妻子伊丽莎的教导下,学会读书写字。

VOICE TWO:

Andrew became active in politics.

安德鲁开始热心参与政治。

At the age of twenty-one, he was elected to the town council. Two years later, he became mayor of the town. At thirty-five, he won a seat in Congress, in Washington.

安德鲁21岁当选镇议员,两年后成为镇长,35岁当选联邦国会议员。

Next, he became governor of Tennessee. Then the state made him one of its two senators. The poor tailor boy was a success.

后来又做过田纳西州的州长,当过田纳西的联邦参议员。穷裁缝出身的安德鲁·约翰逊在政治的道路上越来越成功。

VOICE ONE:

Andrew Johnson was a member of the Democratic Party. In the presidential election of eighteen-sixty, he supported his party's candidate, not the candidate of the Republican Party: Abraham Lincoln. But, Lincoln won the election. And, as a result, southern states carried out their earlier threat. They began leaving the Union to form their own nation.

安德鲁·约翰逊是民主党人,在1860年总统大选中,支持的是民主党候选人,而不是共和党候选人林肯。林肯当选总统后,南方各州将威胁付诸行动,纷纷宣布脱离联邦,成立自己的国家。

Johnson opposed this secession. He believed the South should remain part of the United States. He decided he had no choice but to support the Republican president.

约翰逊反对分裂,他认为南方各州应该留在联邦里。在这种情况下,除了支持共和党总统,约翰逊别无选择。

Most of the other citizens in Tennessee disagreed with him. They decided to leave the Union. Andrew Johnson had to flee his home to save his life. He returned only after Union forces took control of Tennessee and made him military governor.

然而,田纳西州大多数人不同意他的看法。他们决定脱离联邦。安德鲁·约翰逊为了保住性命,被迫出逃,直到北方军控制了田纳西,任命他为军管州长,约翰逊才返回家园。

VOICE TWO:

A political banner supporting Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson
A political banner supporting Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson

President Lincoln noticed the man from Tennessee who supported the Union over the opposition of others. In eighteen sixty-four, Lincoln decided to run for re-election. He chose Johnson to be his vice presidential candidate.

林肯也注意到了这个不顾别人反对、坚决支持联邦统一的田纳西人。1864年林肯竞选连任时,就选择约翰逊作为自己的竞选伙伴。

Lincoln hoped Johnson would win the support of Union-loving Democrats. He hoped Johnson would help heal the wounds between North and South.

林肯希望约翰逊能赢得忠于联邦的民主党人的支持,希望约翰逊能帮助愈合南北之间的战争创伤。

Now, Lincoln was dead. And Johnson was president. It was up to this little-known former tailor to make the decisions on reconstruction -- on rebuilding the Union.

如今,林肯遇刺身亡,约翰逊成了总统,这个以前鲜为人知的小裁缝,如今却要肩负起重建南方、重建美国的重任。

Johnson, not Lincoln, would decide if reconstruction would be easy or hard. Johnson would choose if the North would punish the defeated rebel states or be merciful to them.

国家重建更容易还是更艰难,取决于约翰逊,而不是林肯。约翰逊还要决定对南方叛州是严厉惩罚,还是予以宽恕。

VOICE ONE:

The radicals of Lincoln's Republican Party wanted severe reconstruction. They said the South was a defeated enemy. They demanded strong punishment for all southerners who took part in the rebellion.

林肯所在的共和党激进派认为南方是被打败的敌人,主张严厉处罚所有参加反叛的南方人。

These radicals had disliked Lincoln's plans for reconstruction. They felt he was too weak. Now, they hoped Johnson would share their ideas. They urged him to call a special session of Congress to pass strong legislation against the South.

这些激进派不赞成林肯的重建计划。他们觉得林肯过于软弱,希望约翰逊能认同他们的看法。他们敦促约翰逊召集国会特别会议,通过对南方措辞严厉的议案。"

The radicals had reason to believe the new president agreed with them. He had called the rebels traitors. He had demanded strong action against them when the war ended.

共和党激进派有理由相信,新总统跟他们想法一样,因为以前曾把南方反叛者说成是叛徒,要求战后对他们采取强硬措施。

"The time has come," Johnson had said, "when the American people should understand what crime is. And that it should be punished."

他曾经说过,"美国人民了解什么是犯罪,犯罪应该受到处罚的时候到了。

VOICE TWO:

But Andrew Johnson surprised the radicals. He did not call the special session of Congress. Instead, he announced his own program for the southern states.

然而,约翰逊的行动完全出乎激进派的意料。他没有召集国会特别会议,而是宣布了自己对南方人的政策。

Johnson declared a pardon for all former confederates who promised to support the Union and obey laws against slavery. Then, he permitted former officials of the confederacy to run for office in their states' new elections. Many of these former rebels were elected.

约翰逊宣布,凡是保证支持联邦政府、遵守取缔奴隶制度的法律的前南方邦联居民,一律可以获得特赦。他还允许前邦联官员参加自己州内的新选举,结果很多人都当选了。

The radical Republicans were angry. They saw these elections as proof that the South had not really changed. They accused Johnson of being too soft. They urged him to punish the rebels.

约翰逊的举措让激进派大为光火。在他们看来,南方各州的选举恰恰证明,南方并没有发生实质性变化。他们指责约翰逊过于软弱,敦促他严惩南方叛匪。

One radical newspaper wrote: "There is only one sure and safe policy for the immediate future. The North must remain the dictator of the republic until the spirit of the North shall become the spirit of the whole country. The South's treason is still unpunished. Southerners cannot be trusted. "

激进派的一份报纸发表文章说,"眼下唯一安全可行的政策只有一个,北方必须继续保持专制领导,直到北方精神变成全国精神为止。南方叛逆尚未受到惩罚,南方人不值得信任"。

VOICE ONE:

The radicals also worried about what would happen to the recently freed slaves. They said the new state governments of the South would not treat blacks as free and equal citizens. As proof, they pointed to new laws the southern legislatures passed.

激进派还对新近获得自由的黑人的情况感到担忧。他们指出,南方各州新选出的政府不会把黑人当作自由平等的公民来对待。他们还把南方议会通过的各种新法律拿出来作为证据。

For example, the state legislature in Mississippi said no black person could rent farmland. It said a black person needed special permission to work at any job except farming.

比如,密西西比州议会说,黑人不能承租农田;黑人需要特殊许可,才可以从事农耕以外的工作。

Mississippi also passed a law saying a black person could be forced to work for a white man -- usually his former owner -- if he had no other job.

密西西比还通过法律规定,如果黑人没有其它工作的话,就可以被强迫为白人工作,雇主往往就是他以前的主人。

Another way the state governments in the South acted against blacks was by refusing to give them the right to vote.

除此以外,南方各州政府还拒绝让黑人享受投票的权利。

VOICE TWO:

Andrew Johnson
Andrew Johnson

The radical Republicans decided that President Johnson's reconstruction program must be stopped. They began working to get control of Congress to pass their own program. Only by gaining political power could they punish the South and guarantee full political rights to former slaves.

激进派认为,约翰逊的南方重建计划必须停止。他们开始争取国会控制权,以便让自己的计划得以通过。只有掌握了政治权力,他们才能惩罚南方,保证以前的奴隶享有全部政治权利。

The radicals tried to take control in two ways.

共和党激进派争取控制权的手段有两个。

First, they refused to let many of the recently elected southern congressmen take their seats when Congress opened.

首先,他们设法阻扰很多新当选的南方国会议员就职;

Then they formed their own joint committee on reconstruction. This committee -- not the Senate or the House of Representatives -- would make many of the decisions about reconstruction.

随后,他们又成立了重建联合委员会,由这个委员会,而不是由国会参议院或是众议院,来负责做出有关重建的很多决定。

VOICE ONE:

Radical lawmakers took other steps to seize control of reconstruction efforts in the South.

激进派国会议员还采取其它步骤,设法掌控有关南方重建的控制权。

Congress had established a government agency to take care of black refugees in the South. The agency gave food and clothing to former slaves who had no food, money, or jobs. It began to teach them to read and write.

美国国会已经成立了一个政府机构,专门负责处理南方黑人难民的事务,向那些没有吃的、没有钱、没有工作的原来的奴隶提供衣食,还教他们读书识字。

Republicans in Congress moved to extend the life of the agency and increase its powers. They passed a bill and sent it to the White House for the president's approval.

国会里的共和党人采取措施,延长这个机构的使命时段,加大这个机构的权力。他们通过一项法案,并提交白宫让总统批准。

President Johnson vetoed the bill. He said it would create false hopes among former slaves. He also said it was unconstitutional. The radicals tried to overturn Johnson's veto. However, they failed to get the necessary votes.

然而,约翰逊否决了法案。他指出,这样做只会给原来的奴隶制造不现实的希望,而且也不符合宪法的规定。国会激进派企图推翻约翰逊的否决,但是没能得到足够的选票。

VOICE TWO:

Congress passed several other bills giving the federal government power to protect the rights of blacks in the southern states. President Johnson vetoed these bills, too. He said they interfered with the rights of the states.

国会还通过了其它几项议案,让联邦政府有权保护南方各州黑人的权利。这些议案同样遭到了约翰逊总统的否决,约翰逊认为,这些议案干涉了各州的权利。

These defeats made the radicals even more angry. Their newspapers began a steady attack against the president and his policy toward the South. Some even accused him of treason.

这些挫折愈发激怒了国会激进派。激进派报纸不断对约翰逊总统和他的南方政策发动攻击,有些报纸甚至指责约翰逊叛国。

VOICE ONE:

Many Americans agreed with this criticism of President Johnson. They gave the radicals a big victory in congressional elections of eighteen sixty-six.

激进派的看法得到了很多美国民众的认可,并使激进派在1866年的国会选举中取得了重大胜利。

Radical leaders gained the power to pass any bill they wished, even over the president's veto. And they wasted no time doing just that. Time after time, they voted to overturn Andrew Johnson's vetoes.

激进派领导人在国会势力大增,让他们足以通过任何法案,而且可以推翻约翰逊的否决。他们立即采取行动,不顾总统的否决,通过了很多法案。

The atmosphere in Washington became very tense. Relations between Congress and the White House sank to their lowest level in history. The political skies darkened. Soon, the storm broke. The radicals tried something that had never been tried before. They tried to remove the president from office.

华盛顿的政治气氛变得十分紧张。国会跟白宫之间的关系陷入建国以来的最低谷。政治天空乌云密布,没过多久,就迎来了一场疾风暴雨。激进派采取了以前从来没有人尝试过的行动---他们试图把总统赶下台。

The conflict between the radicals and Andrew Johnson would provide some of the most historic and intense moments in American history. That will be our story in the next program of THE MAKING OF A NATION.

(MUSIC)

ANNOUNCER:

Our program was written by David Jarmul and Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Shep O'Neal and Tony Riggs. Transcripts, podcasts and historical images from our series are at www.unsv.com. You can also comment on our programs. And we invite you to follow us on Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

___

This is program #120 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

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